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The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1758], tr. by John Whitehead [1892] at

The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine


The Lord from His Human subjugated the hells when He was in the world. The Lord, when He was in the world, subjugated all the hells, and He then reduced all things to order both in the heavens and in the hells (n. 4075, 4287, 9937). The Lord then delivered the spiritual world from the antediluvians (n. 1266). What quality they were of (n. 310, 311, 560, 562, 563, 570, 581, 607, 660, 805, 808, 1034, 1120, 1265-1272). By the subjugation of the hells, and the glorification of His Human at the same time, the Lord saved mankind (n. 4180, 10019, 10152, 10655, 10659, 10828).


The glorification of the Lord's Human, and the subjugation of the hells, were effected by temptations. The Lord more than all endured the most grievous temptations (n. 1663, 1668, 1787, 2776, 2786, 2795, 2816, 4295, 9528). The Lord fought from His Divine love toward the human race (n. 1690, 1691, 1812, 1813, 1820). The Lord's love was the salvation of the human race (n. 1820). The hells fought against the Lord's love (n. 1820). The Lord alone, from His own proper power, fought against the hells, and overcame them (n. 1692, 1813, 2816, 4295, 8273, 9937). Thence the Lord alone became justice and merit (n. 1813, 2025-2027, 9715, 9809, 10019). The last temptation of the Lord was in Gethsemane and on the cross, at which time He gained a full victory, by which He subjugated the hells, and at the same time glorified His Human (n. 2776, 2803, 2813, 2814, 10655, 10659, 10828). The Lord could not be tempted as to the Divine itself (n. 2795, 2803, 2813, 2814). Therefore He assumed an infirm human from the mother, into which He admitted temptations (n. 1414, 1444, 1573, 5041, 5157, 7193, 9315). By means of temptations and victories He expelled all that was hereditary from the mother, and put off the human which He had from her, till at length He was no longer her son (n. 2159, 2574, 2649, 3036, 10830). Jehovah, who was in Him, appeared in temptations as if absent, and this so far as He was in the human from the mother (n. 1815). This state was the Lord's state of humiliation (n. 1785, 1999, 2159, 6866). The Lord by temptations and victories arranged all things in the heavens into order (n. 4287, 4295, 9528, 9937). By the same means He also united His Human with His Divine, that is, He glorified His Human (n. 1725, 1729, 1733, 1737, 3318, 3381, 3382, 4286, 4287, 4295, 9528, 9937).


The Lord's Human, when He was in the world, was Divine truth. The Lord, when He was in the world, made His Human Divine truth from the Divine good which was in Him (n. 2803, 3194, 3195, 3210, 6716, 6864, 7014, 7499, 8127, 8724, 9199). The Lord then arranged all things in Himself into a heavenly form, which is according to the Divine truth (n. 1928, 3633). Consequently, that heaven was then in the Lord, and the Lord was as heaven (n. 911, 1900, 1928, 3624-3631, 3634, 3884, 4041, 4279, 4523-4525, 6013, 6057, 6690, 9279, 9632, 9931, 10303). The Lord spoke from the Divine truth itself (n. 8127). Therefore the Lord spoke in the Word by correspondences (n. 3131, 3472-3485, 8615, 10687). Hence the Lord is the Word, and is called the Word, which is the Divine truth (n. 2533, 2813, 2859, 2894, 3393, 3712). In the Word "the Son of man" signifies the Divine truth, and "the Father" the Divine good (n. 2803, 3704, 7499, 8724, 9194). Because the Lord was the Divine truth, He was the Divine wisdom (n. 2500, 2572). The Lord alone had perception and thought from Himself, above all angelic perception and thought (n. 1904, 1914, 1919). The Divine truth could be tempted, but not the Divine good (n. 2814).


The Lord united the Divine truth to the Divine good, thus His Human to the Divine itself The Lord was instructed as another man (n. 1457, 1461, 2523, 3030). The Lord successively advanced to union with the Father (n. 1864, 2033, 2632, 3141, 4585, 7014, 10076). So far as the Lord was united with the Father, so far He spoke as with himself; but at other times as with another (n. 1745, 1999, 7058). The Lord united His Human with the Divine from His own power (n. 1616, 1749, 1752, 1813, 1921, 2025, 2026, 2523, 3141, 5005, 5045, 6716). The Lord united the Divine truth, which was Himself, with the Divine good which was in Himself (n. 10047, 10052, 10076). The unition was reciprocal (n. 2004, 10067). The Lord, when He went out of the world, made His Human the Divine good (n. 3194, 3210, 6864, 7499, 8724, 9199, 10076). Thus He came forth from the Father, and returned to the Father (n. 3194, 3210). Thus He became one with the Father (n. 2751, 3704, 4766). The Lord, in His unition with the Divine itself which was in Him, regarded the conjunction of Himself with the human race (n. 2034). After the unition, the Divine truth proceeds from the Lord (n. 3704, 3712, 3969, 4577, 5704, 7499, 8127, 8241, 9199, 9398). How the Divine truth proceeds, illustrated (n. 7270, 9407). Unless the Divine had been in the Lord's Human from conception, the Human could not have been united with the Divine itself, on account of the ardor of the infinite love in which the Divine itself is (n. 6849). Therefore no angel can ever be united with the Divine itself except at a distance, and by means of a veiling; for otherwise he would be consumed (n. 6849). The Divine love is of such a quality (n. 8644). Hence it may appear that the Human of the Lord was not like the human of another man (n. 10125, 10826). His union with the Father, from whom was His soul, was not like a union between two, but like that between soul and body (n. 3737, 10824). Union is said of the Lord's Human and the Divine, but conjunction between man and the Divine (n. 2021).


Thus the Lord made His Human Divine. The Human of the Lord is Divine, because it was from the esse of the Father, which was His soul, illustrated by the likeness of a father and children (n. 10269, 10372, 10823). And because it was from the Divine love which was in Him (n. 6872). Every man is such as his love is, and he is his own love (n. 6872, 10177, 10284). The Lord was the Divine love (n. 2077, 2253). The Lord made all His Human, both the internal and the external, Divine (n. 1603, 1815, 1902, 1926, 2093, 2803). Therefore He rose again as to the whole body, differently from any man (n. 1729, 2083, 5078, 10825). That the Lord's Human is Divine, is acknowledged from the omnipresence of His Human in the Holy Supper (n. 2343, 2359). And it is evident from His transfiguration before the three disciples (n. 3212). And likewise from the Word (n. 10154). And He was there called Jehovah (n. 1603, 1736, 1815, 1902, 2921, 3035, 5110, 6281, 6303, 8864, 9194, 9315). In the sense of the letter there is a distinction made between the Father and the Son, or Jehovah and the Lord, but not in the internal sense, in which the angels are (n. 3035). The Christian world does not acknowledge the Human of the Lord to be Divine, in consequence of a decree passed by a council in favor of the Pope, that he might be acknowledged as the Lord's vicar; from conversation with them in another life (n. 4738). The Divine Human from eternity was the Divine truth in heaven, thus the Divine existere, which was afterwards made in the Lord the Divine esse, from which is the Divine existere in heaven (n. 3061, 6280, 6880, 10579). The previous state of heaven described (n. 6371-6373). The Divine was not perceptible, and therefore not capable of being received, until it passed through heaven (n. 6982, 6996, 7004). The Lord from eternity was the Divine truth in heaven (n. 2803, 3195, 3704). This is the Son of God born from eternity (n. 2628, 2798). In heaven no other Divine is perceived but the Divine Human (n. 6475, 9303, 9356, 9571, 10067). The most ancient people could not adore the infinite esse, but the infinite existere, which is the Divine Human (n. 4687, 5321). The ancients acknowledged the Divine, because it appeared in a human form, and this was the Divine Human (n. 5110, 5663, 6846, 10737). The inhabitants of all the earths adore the Divine under a human form, and they rejoice when they hear that God actually became Man (n. 6700, 8541-8547, 9361, 10736-10738). See also Earths in Our Solar System, and in the Starry Heaven. God cannot be thought of, but in a human form, and that which is incomprehensible cannot fall into any idea (n. 9359, 9972). Man can worship what he has some idea of, but not what he has no idea of (n. 4733, 5110, 5663, 7211, 9356, 10067). Therefore the Divine is worshiped under a human form by most in the whole globe, and this is through an influx from heaven (n. 10159). All who are in good as to life, when they think of the Lord, think of a Divine Human, but not of the Human separated from the Divine (n. 2326, 4724, 4731, 4766, 8878, 9193, 9198). They in the church at this day who are in evil as to life, and they who are in faith separate from charity, think of the Human of the Lord without the Divine, and do not comprehend what the Divine Human is, the causes thereof (n. 3212, 3241, 4689, 4692, 4724, 4731, 5321, 6371, 8878, 9193, 9198).


The trinity is in the Lord. Christians were examined in the other life concerning the idea they had of one God, and it was found that they had an idea of three Gods (n. 2329, 5256, 10736-10738, 10821). The Divine Trinity may be conceived of in one Person, and thus as one God, but not in three Persons (n. 10738, 10821, 10822). The Trinity in one Person, thus in the Lord, is the Divine itself, which is called the Father; the Divine Human, which is called the Son; and the Divine proceeding, which is called the Holy Spirit; thus the Trinity is one (n. 2149, 2156, 2288, 2321, 2329, 2447, 3704, 6993, 7182, 10738, 10822, 10823). The Divine Trinity in the Lord is acknowledged in heaven (n. 14, 15, 1729, 2005, 5256, 9303). The Lord is one with the Father, thus He is the Divine itself, and the Divine Human (n. 1729, 2004, 2005, 2018, 2025, 2751, 3704, 3736, 4766). His Divine proceeding is also His Divine in heaven, which is called the Holy Spirit (n. 3969, 4673, 6788, 6993, 7499, 8127, 8302, 9199, 9228, 9229, 9278, 9407, 9818, 9820, 10330). Thus the Lord is the one and only God (n. 1607, 2149, 2156, 2329, 2447, 2751, 3194, 3704, 3712, 3938, 4577, 4687, 5321, 6280, 6371, 6849, 6993, 7014, 7091, 7182, 7209, 8241, 8724, 8760, 8864, 8865, 9194, 9303).


Of the Lord in heaven. The Lord appears in heaven both as a sun and a moon; as a sun to those who are in the celestial kingdom, and as a moon to those who are in the spiritual kingdom (n. 1053, 1521, 1529-1531, 3636, 3641, 4321, 5097, 7078, 7083, 7173, 7270, 8812, 10809). The light which proceeds from the Lord as a sun is the Divine truth, from which the angels derive all their wisdom and intelligence (n. 1053, 1521-1533, 2776, 3138, 3195, 3222, 3223, 3225, 3339, 3341, 3636, 3643, 3993, 4180, 4302, 4415, 5400, 9399, 9407, 9548, 9571, 9684). And the heat which proceeds from the Lord as a sun is the Divine good, from which the angels derive their love (n. 3338, 3636, 3643, 5215). The Lord's Divine itself is far above His Divine in heaven (n. 7270, 8760). The Divine truth is not in the Lord, but proceeds from the Lord, as light is not in the sun, but proceeds from the sun (n. 3969). Esse is in the Lord, and existere from the Lord (n. 3938). The Lord is the common center to which all the angels in heaven turn (n. 3633, 9828, 10130, 10189). Nevertheless the angels do not turn themselves to the Lord, but the Lord turns them to Himself (n. 10189); because the angels are not present with the Lord, but the Lord is present with the angels (n. 9415). The Lord's presence with the angels is according to their reception of the good of love and charity from Him (n. 904, 4198, 4206, 4211, 4320, 6280, 6832, 7042, 8819, 9680, 9682, 9683, 10106, 10810). The Lord is present with all in heaven, and also in hell (n. 2776, 3642, 3644). The Lord from His Divine love wishes to draw all men to Himself into heaven (n. 6645). The Lord is in a continual endeavor of conjunction with man, but the influx and conjunction are impeded by the loves of man's proprium (n. 2041, 2053, 2411, 5696). The Divine Human of the Lord flows into heaven, and makes heaven, and there is no conjunction with the Divine itself in heaven, but with the Divine Human (n. 3038, 4211, 4724, 5663). And the Divine Human flows in with men out of heaven and through heaven (n. 1925). The Lord is the all of heaven, and the life of heaven (n. 7211, 9128). The Lord dwells with the angels in what is His own (n. 9338, 10125, 10151, 10157). Hence they who are in heaven are in the Lord (n. 3637, 3638). Heaven corresponds to the Divine Human of the Lord, and man as to each and all things, corresponds to heaven, whence heaven in general is as one man, and is therefore called the Greatest Man (n. 2988, 2996, 3624-3629, 3636-3643, 3741-3745, 4625). The Lord is the only Man, and they only are men who receive the Divine from Him (n. 1894). So far as they receive, so far they become images of the Lord (n. 8547). The angels are forms of love and charity in a human form, and this is from the Lord (n. 3804, 3735, 4797, 4985, 5199, 5530, 9879, 10177).


All good and truth are from the Lord. The Lord is good itself and truth itself (n. 2011, 5110, 10336, 10619). All good and truth, consequently all peace, innocence, love, charity, and faith, are from the Lord (n. 1614, 2016, 2751, 2882, 2883, 2891, 2892, 2904). And all wisdom and intelligence are from Him (n. 109, 112, 121, 124). Nothing but good comes from the Lord, but the evil turn the good which is from the Lord into evil (n. 7643, 7679, 7710, 8632). The angels know that all good and truth are from the Lord, but the evil are not willing to know this (n. 6193, 9128). The angels at the presence of the Lord are more in good, but the infernals at the presence of the Lord are more in evils (n. 7989). The evil cast themselves into hell at the mere presence of the Lord (n. 8137, 8265). The Lord judges all from good (n. 2335). The Lord regards all from mercy (n. 223). The Lord is never angry with anyone, nor does evil to anyone, and does not send anyone to hell (n. 245, 1683, 2335, 8632). In what sense those parts of the Word are to be understood, where it is said that Jehovah or the Lord is angry, that He kills, that He casts into hell, and other things of the like nature (n. 592, 696, 1093, 1874, 1875, 2395, 2447, 3605, 3607, 3614, 6071, 6997).


The Lord has all power in the heavens and on earth. The entire heaven is the Lord's (n. 2751, 7086). And He has all power in the heavens and on earth (n. 1607, 10089, 10827). As the Lord rules the whole heaven, He also rules all things which depend thereon, thus all things in the world (n. 2026, 2027, 4523, 4524). He also rules the hells (n. 3642). The Lord rules all things from the Divine, by the Divine Human (n. 8864, 8865). The Lord rules all things according to Divine order, and the Divine order has relation to those things which are of His will, to those things which are done from leave, and to those things which are done from permission (n. 1755, 2447, 6574, 9940); concerning order, see above (n. 279). The Lord rules ultimates from firsts, and firsts from ultimates, and this is the reason why He is called "the First and the Last" (n. 3702, 6040, 6056). The Lord alone has the power of removing the hells, of withholding from evils, and of keeping in good, thus of saving (n. 10019). Judgment belongs to the Lord (n. 2319-2321, 10810, 10811). What the Lord's priesthood is, and what His royalty is (n. 1728, 2015).


In what manner some expressions in the Word, which relate to the Lord, are to be understood. What is meant by "the seed of the woman," in the prophecy concerning the Lord (n. 256). What "the Son of man" and "the Son of God" signify in the Word (n. 2159, 2813). What the two names "Jesus Christ" signify (n. 3004-3011). What is signified by the Lord's being said to be "sent by the Father" (n. 2397, 6831, 10561). How it is to be understood that the Lord bore the iniquities of all (n. 9937). How it is to be understood that the Lord redeemed man by His blood (n. 10152). How it is to be understood that the Lord fulfilled all things of the law (n. 10239). How it is to be understood that the Lord intercedes for man (n. 2250, 8573, 8705). How it is to be understood, that without the Lord there is no salvation (n. 10828). Salvation is not effected by looking to the Father, or by praying to Him to have mercy for the sake of His Son; for the Lord says, "I am the way, the truth, and life; no one cometh to the Father but by me" (John 14:6; n. 2854). The contradictions which are involved in the received faith, that the Lord reconciled the human race to the Father, by the passion of the cross (n. 10659). The coming of the Lord is His presence in the Word (n. 3900, 4060). The Lord does not desire glory from man for the sake of Himself, but of man's salvation (n. 5957, 10646). Wherever the name "Lord" occurs in the Word, it signifies the Divine good (n. 4973, 9167, 9194). Where the name "Christ" occurs, it signifies the Divine truth (n. 3004-3009). The true acknowledgment and true worship of the Lord is to do His commandments, shown from the Word (n. 10143, 10153, 10578, 10645, 10829).


XXII. ECCLESIASTICAL and CIVIL GOVERNMENT There are two things which ought to be in order with men, namely, the things which are of heaven, and the things which are of the world. The things which are of heaven are called ecclesiastical, and those which are of the world are called civil.


Order cannot be maintained in the world without governors, who are to observe all things which are done according to order, and which are done contrary to order; and who are to reward those who live according to order, and punish those who live contrary to order. If this be not done, the human race will perish; for the will to command others, and to possess the goods of others, from heredity is connate with everyone, whence proceed enmities, envyings, hatreds, revenges, deceits, cruelties, and many other evils. Wherefore, unless they were kept under restraint by the laws, and by rewards suited to their loves, which are honors and gains for those who do goods; and by punishments contrary to those loves, which are the loss of honors, of possessions, and of life, for those who do evils; the human race would perish.


There must therefore be governors to keep the assemblages of men in order, who should be skilled in the law, wise, and who fear God. There must also be order among the governors, lest anyone, from caprice or ignorance, should permit evils which are contrary to order, and thereby destroy it. This is guarded against when there are superior and inferior governors, among whom there is subordination.


Governors over those things with men which relate to heaven, or over ecclesiastical affairs, are called priests, and their office is called the priesthood. But governors over those things with men which relate to the world, or over civil affairs, are called magistrates, and their chief, where such a form of government prevails, is called king.


With respect to the priests, they ought to teach men the way to heaven, and also to lead them; they ought to teach them according to the doctrine of their church from the Word, and to lead them to live according to it. Priests who teach truths, and thereby lead to the good of life, and so to the Lord, are good shepherds of the sheep; but they who teach and do not lead to the good of life, and so to the Lord, are evil shepherds.


Priests ought not to claim to themselves any power over the souls of men, because they do not know in what state the interiors of a man are; still less ought they to claim the power of opening and shutting heaven, since that power belongs to the Lord alone.


Dignity and honor ought to be paid to priests on account of the holy things which they administer; but they who are wise give the honor to the Lord, from whom the holy things are, and not to themselves; but they who are not wise attribute the honor to themselves; these take it away from the Lord. They who attribute honor to themselves, on account of the holy things which they administer, prefer honor and gain to the salvation of souls, which they ought to provide for; but they who give the honor to the Lord, and not to themselves, prefer the salvation of souls to honor and gain. The honor of any employment is not in the person, but is adjoined to him according to the dignity of the thing which he administers; and what is adjoined does not belong to the person himself, and is also separated from him with the employment. All personal honor is the honor of wisdom and the fear of the Lord.


Priests ought to teach the people, and to lead them by truths to the good of life, but still they ought to compel no one, since no one can be compelled to believe contrary to what he thinks from his heart to be true. He who believes otherwise than the priest, and makes no disturbance, ought to be left in peace; but he who makes disturbance, ought to be separated; for this also is of order, for the sake of which the priesthood is established.


As priests are appointed to administer those things which relate to the Divine law and worship, so kings and magistrates are appointed to administer those things which relate to civil law and judgment.


Because the king alone cannot administer all things, therefore there are governors under him, to each of whom a province is given to administer, which the king cannot and is not able to administer alone. These governors, taken together, constitute the royalty, but the king himself is the chief.


Royalty itself is not in the person, but is adjoined to the person. The king who believes that royalty is in his own person, and the governor who believes that the dignity of the government is in his own person, is not wise.


Royalty consists in administering according to the laws of the realm and in judging according to them from justice. The king who regards the laws as above himself is wise, but he who regards himself as above the laws is not wise. The king who regards the laws as above himself places the royalty in the law, and the law has dominion over him, for he knows that the law is justice, and that all justice which is justice is Divine. But he who regards himself as above the laws places the royalty in himself, and either believes himself to be the law, or the law, which is justice, to be from himself; hence he arrogates to himself that which is Divine, under which nevertheless he ought to be.


The law which is justice ought to be enacted in the realm by persons skilled in the law, wise, and who fear God; then both the king and his subjects ought to live according to it. The king who lives according to the enacted law, and in this precedes his subjects by his example, is truly a king.


A king who has absolute power, who believes that his subjects are such slaves that he has a right to their possessions and lives, and if he exercises it, is not a king, but a tyrant.


There ought to be obedience to the king according to the laws of the realm, nor should he be injured by any means either by deeds or words; for on this the public security depends.