The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine, by Emanuel Swedenborg, , tr. by John Whitehead  at sacred-texts.com
Of sciences and knowledges, by which the internal spiritual man is opened. Those things are called scientifics, which are in the external or natural man, and its memory, but not those which are in the internal or spiritual man (n. 3019, 3020, 3293, 3309, 4967, 9918, 9922). Scientifics, as belonging to the external or natural man, are respectively instruments of service, inasmuch as the external or natural man is made to serve the internal or spiritual man, just as the world is made to serve heaven (n. 5077, 5125, 5128, 5786, 5947, 10272, 10471). The external man is respectively the world, because the laws of Divine order existing in the world are inscribed therein; and the internal man is respectively heaven, because the laws of Divine order existing in heaven are inscribed therein (n. 4523, 4524, 5368, 6013, 6057, 9278, 9279, 9283, 9709, 10156, 10472); and in the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 51-58). There are scientifics which concern natural things, scientifics which relate to the civil state and life, scientifics which relate to the moral state and life, and scientifics which relate to the spiritual state and life (n. 5774, 5934). But for distinction's sake, those which relate to the spiritual state and life are called knowledges, consisting principally of doctrinals (n. 9945). Man ought to be imbued with sciences and knowledges, since by these he learns to think, then to understand what is true and good, and finally to be wise, that is to live according to them 51-1 (n. 129, 1450, 1451, 1453, 1548, 1802). Scientifics and knowledges are the first things, on which is built and founded the civil, moral, and spiritual life of man; but they are to be learned for the sake of the use of life as their end (n. 1489, 3310). Knowledges open the way to the internal man, and then conjoin it with the external according to uses (n. 1563, 1616). The rational is born by sciences and knowledges (n. 1895, 1900, 3086). Yet not by sciences and knowledges themselves, but by the affection of uses from them, and according to such affection (n. 1895). The internal man is opened and successively perfected by sciences and knowledges, provided man has some good use for an end, particularly a use that regards eternal life (n. 3086). Then the scientifics and knowledges which are in the natural man meet the spiritual things from the celestial and spiritual man and adopt those which agree (n. 1495). Uses of heavenly life are then extracted, refined, and elevated by the Lord, through the internal man, from the scientifics and knowledges which are in the natural man (n. 1895, 1896, 1900-1902, 5871, 5874, 5901). And the scientifics which are incongruous and adverse are rejected to the sides and exterminated (n. 5871, 5886, 5889). The sight of the internal man calls nothing forth from the scientifics and knowledges of the external man, but such as are of its love (n. 9394). Scientifics and knowledges are disposed in bundles, and conjoined according to the loves which introduced them (n. 5881). Then in the sight of the internal man, those which are of the love are in the middle and in clearness, but those which are not of the love are at the sides and in obscurity (n. 6068, 6084). Scientifics and knowledges with man are successively implanted in his loves, and dwell in them (n. 6325). Man would be born into every science, and thereby into intelligence, if he were born into love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor; but because he is born into the love of self and the world, he is born in total ignorance (n. 6323, 6325). Science, intelligence, and wisdom are the sons of love to the Lord and of love towards the neighbor (n. 1226, 2049, 2116). Scientifics and knowledges, because they are of the external or natural man, are in the light of the world; but truths, which are become truths of love and faith, and have thus obtained life, are in the light of heaven (n. 5212). Nevertheless the truths, which have thus obtained life, are comprehended by man through natural ideas (n. 5510). Spiritual influx is through the internal man into the scientifics and knowledges which are in the external (n. 1940, 8005). Scientifics and knowledges are the receptacles and as it were the vessels of the truth and good of the internal man (n. 1469, 1496, 3068, 5489, 6004, 6023, 6052, 6071, 6077, 7770, 9922). Therefore by "vessels" in the Word, in the spiritual sense, are signified scientifics and knowledges (n. 3068, 3069, 3079, 9394, 9544, 9723, 9724). Scientifics are as it were mirrors, in which the truths and goods of the internal man appear, and are perceived as in an image (n. 5201). And there they are together as in their ultimate (n. 5373, 5874, 5886, 5901, 6004, 6023, 6052, 6071, 6077). Scientifics, because they are in the light of the world, are involved and obscure respectively to those things which are in the light of heaven; thus the things which are in the external man respectively to those in the internal (n. 2831). For which reason also by "involved" in the Word is signified what is scientific (n. 2831). So also by "the obscurity of a cloud" (n. 8443, 10551). Every principle is to be drawn from the truths of doctrine from the Word, which are first to be acknowledged, and then it is allowable to consult scientifics in order to confirm those truths, and thus they are corroborated (n. 6047). Thus it is allowable for those who are in the affirmative concerning the truths of faith, intellectually to confirm them by scientifics; but not for those who are in the negative, because a preceding affirmative draws all to favor its side, and a preceding negative draws all to its side (n. 2568, 2588, 3913, 4760, 6047). There is a doubting affirmative, and a doubting negative, the former with some who are good, and the latter with the evil (n. 2568). To enter from the truths of faith into scientifics is according to order; but on the other hand, to enter from scientifics into the truths of faith is contrary to order (n.10236). In as much as influx is spiritual, and not physical or natural, thus from the truths of faith, because these are spiritual, into scientifics, because these are natural (n. 3219, 5119, 5259, 5427, 5428, 5478, 6322, 9109, 9110). Whoever is in a doubting negative state, which in itself is a negative, and says that he will not believe until he is persuaded by scientifics, will never believe (n. 2094, 2832). They who do so, become insane as to those things which are of the church and heaven (n. 128-130). They fall into the falsities of evil (n. 232, 233, 6047). And in the other life, when they think about spiritual things, they are as it were drunken (n. 1072). A further description of them (n. 196). Examples to illustrate that spiritual things cannot be comprehended, if the order of entering into them be inverted (n. 233, 2094, 2196, 2203, 2209). Many of the learned are more insane in spiritual things, than the simple, because they are in the negative, and have abundance of scientifics, by which they confirm the negative (n. 4760). An example of a learned man, who could understand nothing concerning spiritual life (n. 8629). They who reason from scientifics against the truths of faith, reason sharply, inasmuch as they do it from the fallacies of the senses, which captivate and persuade, for it is with difficulty these can be shaken off (n. 5700). They who understand nothing of truth, and they also who are in evil, can reason concerning the truths and goods of faith, and yet be in no enlightenment (n. 4214). Only to confirm a dogma, is not the part of an intelligent man, because falsity can be as easily confirmed as the truth (n. 1017, 2482, 2490, 4741, 5033, 6865, 7012, 7680, 7950, 8521, 8780). They who reason concerning the truths of the church, whether a thing be so or not, are evidently in obscurity respecting truths, and not yet in spiritual light (n. 215, 1385, 3033, 3428). There are scientifics which admit Divine truths, and others which do not (n. 5213). Vain scientifics ought to be destroyed (n. 1489, 1492, 1499, 1500). Those are vain scientifics which regard for their end and confirm the loves of self and the world, and which withdraw from love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor because such scientifics shut up the internal man, so that he is not then capable of receiving anything from heaven (n. 1563, 1600). Scientifics are the means of becoming wise, and the means of becoming insane; and by them the internal man is either opened or shut; and thus the rational is either cultivated or destroyed (n. 4156, 8628, 9922). Sciences after death are of no account, but only those things which man has imbibed in his understanding and life by means of sciences (n. 2480). Nevertheless all scientifics remain after death, but they are quiescent (n. 2476-2479, 2481-2486). The same scientifics which with the evil are falsities because applied to evils, with the good are truths, because applied to goods (n. 6917). Scientific truths with the evil are not truths, however they may appear as truths when spoken, because within them there is evil, and consequently they are falsified; and the science of those men by no means deserves to be called science, inasmuch as it is destitute of life (n. 10331). It is one thing to be wise, another to understand, another to know, and another to do; but still, with those who are in spiritual life, they follow in order, and correspond, and are together in doing or in deeds (n. 10331). It is also one thing to know, another to acknowledge, and another to have faith (n. 896). What is the quality of the desire of knowing, which spirits have is shown by an example (n. 1973). Angels have an immense desire of knowing and of becoming wise, inasmuch is science, intelligence and wisdom, are spiritual food (n. 3114, 4459, 4792, 4976, 5147, 5293, 5340, 5342, 5410, 5426, 5576, 5582, 5588, 5655, 6277, 8562, 9003). The chief science with the ancients was the science of correspondences, but at this day it is lost (n. 3021, 3419, 4280, 4844, 4964, 4966, 6004, 7729, 10252). The science of correspondences flourished with the orientals, and in Egypt (n. 5702, 6692, 7097, 7779, 9391, 10407). Thence came their hieroglyphics (n. 6692, 7097). The ancients by the science of correspondences introduced themselves into the knowledges of spiritual things (n. 4749, 4844, 4966). The Word is written by mere correspondences, whence its internal or spiritual sense, the existence of which cannot be known without the science of correspondences, nor can the quality of the Word (n. 3131, 3472-3485, 8615, 10687). How much the science of correspondences excels other sciences (n. 4280).52.
Of the natural memory, which is of the external man, and of the spiritual memory, which is of the internal man. Man has two memories, an exterior and an interior memory, or a natural and a spiritual memory (n. 2469-2494). Man does not know that he has an interior memory (n. 2470, 2471). How much the interior memory excels the exterior memory (n. 2473). The things in the exterior memory are in natural light, but the things in the interior memory, in spiritual light (n. 5212). It is from the interior memory that man is able to think and speak intellectually and rationally (n. 9394). All and every particular which man has thought, spoken, and done, and all that he has heard and seen, are inscribed on his interior memory (n. 2474, 7398). That memory is man's book of life (n. 2474, 9386, 9841, 10505). In the interior memory are the truths which are become of faith, and the goods which are become of love (n. 5212, 8067). The things which are rendered habitual, and have become of the life, are in the interior memory (n. 9394, 9723, 9841). Scientifics and knowledges are of the exterior memory (n. 5212, 9922). They are very obscure and involved, respectively to those things which are of the interior memory (n. 2831). The languages which man speaks in the world are from the exterior memory (n. 2472, 2476). Spirits and angels speak from the interior memory, and consequently their language is universal, being such that all can converse together, of whatever land they may be (n. 2472, 2476, 2490, 2493); concerning which language, see the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 234-245); and concerning the wonders of the interior memory; which remains with man after death (see n. 463 of the same work).53.
Of the fallacies of the senses, in which merely natural and sensual men are, mentioned above in this doctrine (n. 45). Merely natural and sensual men think and reason from the fallacies of the senses (n. 5084, 5700, 6948, 6949, 7693). Of what quality the fallacies of the senses are (n. 5084, 5094, 6400, 6948). To which the following particulars shall be added. There are fallacies of the senses in things natural, civil, moral, and spiritual, and many in each of them; but here I design to recite some of the fallacies in spiritual things. He who thinks from the fallacies of the senses, cannot understand: (1.) That man after death can appear as a man; nor that he can enjoy his senses as before; nor consequently that angels have such a capacity. (2.) They think that the soul is only a vital something, purely etherial, of which no idea can be formed. (3.) That it is the body alone which feels, sees, and hears. (4.) That man is like a beast, with this difference only, that he can speak from thought. (5.) That nature is all, and the first source from which all things proceed. (6.) That man imbues and learns to think by an influx of interior nature and its order. (7.) That there is no spiritual, and if it is, that it is a purer natural. (8.) That man cannot enjoy any blessedness, if deprived of the delights of the love of glory, honor, or gain. (9.) That conscience is only a disease of the mind, proceeding from the infirmity of the body and from not having success. (10.) That the Divine love of the Lord is the love of glory. (11.) That there is no providence, but that all things come to pass from one's own prudence and intelligence. (12.) That honors and riches are real blessings which are given by God. Not to mention many other things of a similar nature. Such are the fallacies of the senses in spiritual things. Hence it may appear, that heavenly things cannot be comprehended by those who are merely natural and sensual. Those are merely natural and sensual whose internal spiritual man is shut, and whose natural only is open.54.
IV. LOVE IN GENERAL. The very life of man is his love, and such as the love is, such is the life, yea, such is the whole man. But it is the governing or ruling love which constitutes the man. That love has many loves subordinate to it, which are derivations. These appear under another form, but still they are all in the ruling love, and constitute, with it, one kingdom. The ruling love is as their king and head; it directs them, and, through them, as mediate ends, it regards and intends its own end, which is the primary and ultimate end of them all; and this it does both directly and indirectly. That which is of the ruling love is what is loved above all things.55.
That which man loves above all things is continually present in his thought, and also in his will, and constitutes his most essential life. As for example, he who loves riches above all things, whether money or possessions, continually revolves in his mind how he may obtain them. He inmostly rejoices when he acquires them, he grieves inmostly when he loses them; his heart is in them. He who loves himself above all things regards himself in each thing: he thinks of himself, he speaks of himself, he acts for the sake of himself, for his life is the life of self.56.
Man has for an end that which he loves above all things; he regards it in each and all things. It is in his will like the latent current of a river, which draws and bears him away, even when he is doing something else; for it is this which animates him. It is such that one man explores and also sees it in another, and either leads him according to it, or acts with him.57.
Man is altogether of such a quality as the ruling principle of his life is; by this he is distinguished from others; according to this is his heaven if he be good, and his hell if he be evil. It is his will itself, his proprium, and his nature, for it is the very esse of his life: this cannot be changed after death, because it is the man himself.58.
All the delight, pleasure, and happiness which anyone has, are derived from his ruling love, and are according to it; for that which man loves, he calls delightful, because he feels it to be so: he may, indeed, also call that delightful which he thinks but does not love; but this is not the delight of his life. The delight of love is what he esteems good; and that which is undelightful is to him evil.59.
There are two loves, from which, as from their very fountains, all goods and truths exist; and there are two loves, from which all evils and falsities exist. The two loves, from which are all goods and truths, are love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor; and the two loves from which are all evils and falsities, are the love of self and the love of the world. The two latter loves are in direct opposition to the two former loves.60.
The two loves from which are all goods and truths, and which, as has just been stated, are love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor, constitute heaven with man, and therefore they reign in heaven; and since they constitute heaven with man, they also constitute the church with him. The two loves, whence are all evils and falsities, and which, as has just been said, are the love of self and the love of the world, constitute hell with man; wherefore also they reign in hell.61.
The two loves whence are all goods and truths, and which, as already observed, are the loves of heaven, open and form the internal spiritual man, because they reside there. But the two loves whence are all evils and falsities, when they rule, shut and destroy the internal spiritual man, and render man natural and sensual, in proportion to the extent and quality of their dominion.62.
FROM THE ARCANA COELESTIA Love is the esse of man's life (n. 5002). Man, spirit, and angel, are altogether as their love is (n. 6872, 10177, 10284). Man has for an end what he loves (n. 3796). What man loves and has for an end reigns universally with him, that is, in each and all things (n. 3796, 5130, 5949). Love is spiritual heat, and the very vital principle of man (n. 1589, 2146, 3338, 4906, 7081-7086, 9954, 10740). All the interiors with man, which are of his understanding and will, are disposed in a form according to his ruling love (n. 2023, 3189, 6690). Love is spiritual conjunction (n. 1594, 2057, 3939, 4018, 5807, 6195, 6196, 7081-7086, 7501, 10130). Hence all in the spiritual world are consociated according to their loves (ibid.). Affection is continuation of love (n. 3938). All delight, pleasure, happiness, and joy of heart, are of love; and their quality is according to the quality of the love (n. 994, 995, 2204). There are as many genera and species of delights and pleasures as there are of the affections which are of the love (n. 994, 995, 2204). The delight of the love is more vile in proportion as it is more external (n. 996). Man after death has such a life as is the quality of his love (n. 2363).63.
Further particulars respecting love and its essence and quality, may be known from what has been said and shown above, concerning good and truth; also from what has been said and quoted concerning the will and the understanding; and also from what has been said and quoted concerning the internal and the external man; because all things which are of the love refer themselves either to goods or to evils; and so also all things which are of the will: and since the two loves of heaven open and form the internal spiritual man; but the two loves of hell close and destroy it. Hence applications may be made and conclusions drawn respecting the quality of love in general and particular.64.
Love is also treated of in the work on Heaven and Hell; namely, that the Divine of the Lord in the heavens is love to Him and love towards the neighbor (n. 13-19). All who are in the hells are in evils, and thence in falsities from the loves of self and of the world (n. 551-565). The delights of every love in the other life are turned into corresponding things (n. 485-490). Spiritual heat in its essence is love (n. 133-140).65.
V. THE LOVES OF SELF AND OF THE WORLD. The love of self consists in willing well to ourselves alone, and not to others except for the sake of ourselves, not even to the church, to our country, to any human society, or to a fellow-citizen; and also in doing good to them only for the sake of our own fame, honor, and glory; for unless it sees these in the goods which it does to others, it says in its heart, What matters it? why should I do this? and what advantage will it be to me? and so omits them. Whence it is plain that he who is in the love of self does not love the church, nor his country, nor society, nor his fellow-citizens, nor anything good, but himself alone.66.
Man is in the love of self, when, in those things which he thinks and does, he has no regard for the neighbor, nor for the public, much less for the Lord, but only for himself and his own; consequently when everything which he does is for the sake of himself and his own, and when, if he does anything for the public and his neighbor it is only for the sake of appearance.67.
It is said for the sake of himself and his own, because he who loves himself also loves his own, who are, in particular, his children and relations, and in general, all who make one with him, and whom he calls his own. To love these is also to love himself, for he regards them as it were in himself, and himself in them. Among those whom he calls his own, are also all they who praise, honor, and pay their court to him.68.
That man is in the love of self, who despises the neighbor in comparison with himself, who esteems him his enemy if he does not favor him, and if he does not respect and pay his court to him: he is still more in the love of self who for such reasons hates the neighbor and persecutes him; and he is still more so who for such reasons burns with revenge against him, and desires his destruction: such persons at length delight in cruelty.69.
What the nature of the love of self is, may be evident from a comparison with heavenly love. Heavenly love is to love uses for the sake of uses, or goods for the sake of goods, which the man performs to the church, to his country, to human society, and to a fellow-citizen. But he who loves them for the sake of himself, does not love them otherwise than as his servants, because they are of service to him. It follows from this that he who is in the love of self wills that the church, his country, human societies, and his fellow-citizens serve him, and not he them. He puts himself above them, and them below him.70.
Moreover, as far as anyone is in heavenly love, which is to love uses and goods, and to be affected with delight of heart when he performs them, so far he is led by the Lord, because that love is what He is in, and what is from Him. But as far as anyone is in the love of self, so far he is led by himself; and as far as he is led by himself, he is so far led by his proprium; and man's proprium is nothing but evil; for evil is his heredity, which is to love himself above God, and the world above heaven.71.
The love of self is also such, that as far as the reins are relaxed, that is, as far as external bonds are removed, which are the fear of the law and its penalties, and the fear of the loss of reputation, honor, gain, office, and life, so far he rushes on, until he not only wishes to bear sway over the whole world, but even over heaven, and over the Divine itself. To him there is no bound or end. This lies hidden in everyone who is in the love of self, though it is not manifest before the world, where such reins and bonds hold him back; and every such man where met by impossibility, waits there until it becomes possible. From these things, the man who is in such love does not know that such insane and unbounded desire lies hidden within him. That it is nevertheless so, everyone can see in potentates and kings, for whom there are not such checks, bonds, and impossibilities, and who rush on and subjugate provinces and kingdoms as far as success attends them, and aspire to power and glory without limit; and still more in those who extend their dominion into heaven, and transfer all the Divine power of the Lord to themselves, and continually desire more.72.
There are two kinds of dominion, one that of love toward the neighbor, the other that of the love of self. These two kinds of dominion are in their essence altogether opposite to each other. He who rules from love toward the neighbor, wills good to all, and loves nothing more than to perform uses, thus to be of service to others. To serve others is to do good to them from good will, and to perform uses. This is his love, and this is the delight of his heart. He too, as far as he is elevated to dignities, is likewise glad; not, however, for the sake of the dignities, but for the sake of the uses which he is then able to perform in more abundance and in a greater degree. Such is the dominion in the heavens. But he who rules from the love of self wishes good to no one, but only to himself and his own. The uses which he performs are for the sake of his own honor and glory, which to him are the only uses. Serving others is to him for the end that he may be served, honored, and that he may rule. He seeks dignities, not for the sake of the goods he may perform, but to be in eminence and glory, and thence in the delight of his heart.73.
The love of dominion also remains with everyone after his life in the world, but to those who have ruled from love toward the neighbor, rule is also entrusted in the heavens. But then they do not rule, but the uses and the goods which they love; and when uses and goods rule, the Lord rules. They, on the other hand, who in the world have ruled from the love of self, after their life in the world are in hell, and are in vile slavery there.74.
From these things it is now known who are in the love of self. But it matters not how they appear in outward form, whether elated or humble; for such things are in the interior man; and by most the interior man is concealed, and the exterior is instructed to feign the things which belong to love for the public and the neighbor, thus the opposite. And this is also done for the sake of self: for they know that the love of the public and the neighbor interiorly affect all, and that so far they will be loved and esteemed. The reason why that love affects all, is because heaven flows into it.75.
The evils which belong to those who are in the love of self, are, in general, contempt of others, envy, enmity against those who do not favor them, hostility on that account, hatreds of various kinds, revenge, cunning, deceit, unmercifulness, and cruelty; and where such evils exist, there is also contempt of the Divine, and of Divine things, which are the truths and goods of the church. If they honor these, it is only with the mouth, and not with the heart. And because such evils are thence, so there are similar falsities, for falsities are from evils.76.
But the love of the world consists in wishing to draw the wealth of others to ourselves by any artifice, in placing the heart in riches, and in suffering the world to draw us back, and lead us away from spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbor, consequently, from heaven. They are in the love of the world who desire to draw the goods of others to themselves by various artifices, especially they who do so by means of cunning and deceit, making no account of the good of the neighbor. They who are in that love covet the goods of others, and so far as they do not fear the laws and the loss of reputation for the sake of gain, they deprive others of their goods, yea commit depredations.77.
But the love of the world is not opposite to heavenly love in the same degree that the love of self is, inasmuch as such great evils are not concealed in it. This love is manifold: there is the love of riches as the means of obtaining honors; there is the love of honors and dignities as the means of obtaining riches; there is the love of riches for the sake of various uses with which they are delighted in the world; there is the love of riches for the sake of riches alone, which is avarice, and so on. The end for the sake of which riches are desired, is called their use, and it is the end or use from which the love derives its quality; for the quality of the love is the same as that at the end which it has in view, to which other things serve as means.78.
In a word, the love of self and the love of the world are altogether opposite to love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor; wherefore the love of self and the love of the world are infernal loves, for they also reign in hell, and also constitute hell with man; but love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor are heavenly loves. They also reign in heaven, and also constitute heaven with man.79.
From what has now been said, it may be seen that all evils are in and from those two loves; for the evils which were enumerated (n. 75) are common; the others, which were not enumerated, because they are specific, are derived and flow from them. Hence it may appear, that man, because he is born into these two loves, is born into evils of every kind.80.
In order that man may know evils, he ought to know their origins, and unless he knows evils, he cannot know goods, thus he cannot know of what quality he himself is: this is the reason that these two origins of evils are treated of here.81.
FROM THE ARCANA COELESTIA. The loves of self and of the world. As love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor, or charity, constitute heaven, so the love of self and the love of the world, where they reign constitute hell; and therefore these loves are opposites (n. 2041, 3610, 4225, 4776, 6210, 7366, 7369, 7489, 7490, 8232, 8678, 10455, 10741-10743, 10745). All evils proceed from the loves of self and of the world (n. 1307, 1308, 1321, 1594, 1691, 3413, 7255, 7376, 7488, 7489, 8318, 9335, 9348, 10038, 10742). From the loves of self and of the world proceed contempt of others, enmity, hatred, revenge, cruelty, and deceit, consequently all evil and all wickedness (n. 6667, 7372-7374, 9348, 10038, 10742). These loves rush on in proportion as the reins are given them, and the love of self aspires to the throne of God (n. 7375, 8678). The love of self and the love of the world are destructive of human society and of heavenly order (n. 2045, 2057). The human race on account of those loves has formed governments, and has subjected itself to their rule for the sake of protection (n. 7364, 10160, 10814). Where those loves reign, the good of love and the good of faith are either rejected, suffocated, or perverted (n. 2041, 7491, 7492, 7643, 8487, 10455, 10743). In these loves there is not life, but spiritual death (n. 7494, 10731, 10741). The quality of these loves described (n. 1505, 2219, 2363, 2364, 2444, 4221, 4227, 4948, 4949, 5721, 7366-7377, 8678). All cupidity and lust proceed from the loves of self and of the world (n. 1668, 8910). The loves of self and of the world may serve as means, but not at all for an end (n. 7377, 7819, 7820). When man is reformed, those loves are inverted, and serve as means, and not as ends, thus that they are as the soles of the feet, and not as the head (n. 8995, 9210). With those who are in the loves of self and of the world, there is no internal, but an external without an internal; because the internal is shut towards heaven, but the external is open towards the world (n. 10396, 10400, 10409, 10411, 10422, 10429). They who are in the loves of self and of the world do not know what charity, conscience, and the life of heaven are (n. 7490). So far as a man is in the loves of self and of the world, so far he does not receive the good and truth of faith which continually flows in with man from the Lord (n. 7491). They who are in the loves of self and the world are not bound by internal, but by external restraints; and on the removal thereof they rush into every wickedness (n. 10744-10746). All in the spiritual world turn themselves according to their loves; they who are in love to the Lord and in love towards the neighbor, to the Lord; but those who are in the love of self and in the love of the world, turn their backs on the Lord (n. 10130, 10189, 10420, 10742). The quality of the worship in which the love of self prevails (n. 1304, 1306-1308, 1321, 1322). The Lord rules the world by means of the evil, in leading them by their own loves, which have relation to the loves of self and the world (n. 6481, 6495). The evil as well as the good can discharge the duties of offices, and perform uses and goods, because they regard honors and gain as their rewards, for the sake of which they act in an external form like the good (n. 6481, 6495). All who are in the hells are in evils and thence in falsities, and are in the loves of self and the world, see the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 551-565).82.
Of the proprium of man, spoken of above (n. 70), that it is the love of self and of the world. The proprium of man is nothing but dense evil (n. 210, 215, 731, 874-876, 987, 1047, 2307, 2308, 3518, 3701, 3812, 8480, 8550, 10283, 10284, 10286, 10731). The proprium of man is his will (n. 4328). The proprium of man consists in loving himself more than God, and the world more than heaven, and in making his neighbor of no account respectively to himself, thus it is the love of self and of the world (n. 694, 731, 4317, 5660). Not only every evil, but also every falsity, springs from the proprium of man, and this falsity is the falsity of evil (n. 1047, 10283, 10284, 10286). The proprium of man is hell with him (n. 694, 8480). Therefore he who is led by his proprium cannot be saved (n. 10731). The good which man does from the proprium is not good, but in itself is evil, because done for the sake of self and the world (n. 8478). The proprium of man must be separated, in order that the Lord may be present with him (n. 1023, 1044). And it is actually separated when man is reformed (n. 9334-9336, 9452-9454, 9938). This is done by the Lord alone (n. 9445). Man by regeneration receives a heavenly proprium (n. 1937, 1947, 2881, 2883, 2891). This appears to man as his own proprium, but it is not his, but the Lord's with him (n. 8497). They who are in this proprium are in liberty itself, because liberty consists in being led by the Lord, and by His proprium (n. 892, 905, 2872, 2886, 2890-2892, 4096, 9586, 9587, 9589-9591). All liberty is from the proprium, and its quality according thereto (n. 2880). What is the quality of the heavenly proprium (n. 164, 5660, 8480). How the heavenly proprium is implanted (n. 1712, 1937, 1947).83.
Of the heredity of man, spoken of above (n. 70-79), it is the love of self and of the world. All men are born into evils of every kind, insomuch that their proprium is nothing but evil (n. 210, 215, 731, 874-876, 987, 1047, 2307, 2308, 3701, 3812, 8480, 8550, 10283, 10284, 10286, 10731). Therefore man is to be born again, that is, regenerated, in order that he may receive a new life from the Lord (n. 3701). Hereditary evils are derived, increased, and accumulated from parents and ancestors in a long backward series, and not as is believed, from the first man's eating of the tree of knowledge (n. 313, 494, 2910, 3469, 3701, 4317, 8550). Therefore hereditary evils are at this day more malignant than formerly (n. 2122). Infants who die such, and are educated in heaven, are from heredity nothing but evils (n. 2307, 2308, 4563). Hence they are of various dispositions and inclinations (n. 2300). Every man's interior evils are from the father, and the exterior from the mother (n. 1815, 3701). Man superadds of himself new evils to such as are hereditary, which are called actual evils (n. 8551). No one suffers punishment in the other life for hereditary evils, but for actual evils, which return (n. 966, 2308). The more malignant hells are kept separate lest they should operate on the hereditary evils with men and spirits (n. 1667, 8806). Hereditary evils are those of the loves of self and the world, which consist in man's loving himself more than God, and the world more than heaven, and in making his neighbor of no account (n. 694, 4317, 5660). And because these evils are contrary to the goods of heaven and to Divine order, man cannot but be born in mere ignorance (n. 1050, 1902, 1992, 3175). Natural good is connate with some, but nevertheless it is not good, because prone to all evils and falsities; and that good is not accepted in heaven unless it be made spiritual good (n. 2463, 2464, 2468, 3304, 3408, 3469, 3470, 3508, 3519, 7761).84.
VI. LOVE TOWARDS THE NEIGHBOR, OR CHARITY It shall first be shown what the neighbor is, for it is the neighbor who is to be loved, and towards whom charity is to be exercised. For unless it be known what the neighbor is, charity may be exercised in a similar manner, without distinction, towards the evil as well as towards the good, whence charity ceases to be charity: for the evil, from benefactions, do evil to the neighbor, but the good do good.85.
It is a common opinion at this day, that every man is equally the neighbor, and that benefits are to be conferred on everyone who needs assistance; but it is in the interest of Christian prudence to examine well the quality of a man's life, and to exercise charity to him accordingly. The man of the internal church exercises his charity with discrimination, consequently with intelligence; but the man of the external church, because he is not able thus to discern things, does it indiscriminately.86.
The distinctions of neighbor, which the man of the church ought altogether to know, are according to the good which is with everyone; and because all good proceeds from the Lord, therefore the Lord is the neighbor in the highest sense and in a supereminent degree, and the origin is from Him. Hence it follows that so far as anyone has the Lord with himself, so far he is the neighbor; and because no one receives the Lord, that is, good from Him, in the same manner as another, therefore no one is the neighbor in the same manner as another. For all who are in the heavens, and all the good who are on the earths, differ in good; no two ever received a good that is altogether one and the same; it must be various, that each may subsist by itself. But all these varieties, thus all the distinctions of the neighbor, which are according to the reception of the Lord, that is, according to the reception of good from Him, can never be known by any man, nor indeed by any angel, except in general, thus their genera and species: neither does the Lord require any more of the man of the church, than to live according to what he knows.87.
Because good varies with everyone, it therefore follows, that the quality of good determines in what degree and in what proportion anyone is the neighbor. That this is the case is plain from the Lord's parable concerning him that fell among robbers, whom, when half dead, the priest passed by, and also the Levite; but the Samaritan, after he had bound up his wounds, and poured in oil and wine, took him up on his own beast, and led him to an inn, and ordered that care should be taken of him: because he exercised the good of charity, he is called the neighbor (Luke 10:29-37). Hence it may be known that they are the neighbor who are in good: "the oil and wine," which the Samaritan poured into the wounds, also signify good and its truth.88.
It is plain from what has now been said, that in the universal sense, good is the neighbor, because man is the neighbor according to the quality of the good that is with him from the Lord. And because good is the neighbor, so is love, for all good is of love; thus every man is the neighbor according to the quality of the love which he receives from the Lord.89.
That love is what causes anyone to be the neighbor, and that everyone is the neighbor according to the quality of his love, appears manifestly from those who are in the love of self. These acknowledge for their neighbor those who love them most, that is, so far as they belong to themselves; these they embrace, they kiss them, they confer benefits on them and call them brothers; yea, because they are evil, they say, that these are the neighbor more than others: they esteem others as the neighbor in proportion as they love them, thus according to the quality and quantity of their love. Such persons derive the origin of neighbor from self, by reason that love constitutes and determines it. But they who do not love themselves more than others, as is the case with all who belong to the kingdom of the Lord, will derive the origin of neighbor from Him whom they ought to love above all things, consequently, from the Lord; and they will esteem everyone as the neighbor according to the quality of his love to Him and from Him. From these things it appears from whence the origin of neighbor is to be drawn by the man of the church; and that everyone is the neighbor according to the good which he possesses from the Lord, thus good itself is the neighbor.90.
That this is the case, the Lord also teaches in Matthew: For He said to those who were in good that they had given Him to eat, that they had given Him to drink, that they had gathered Him, had clothed Him, had visited Him, and had come to Him in prison; and afterwards that, so far as they had done it to one of the least of their brethren, they had done it unto Him (25:34-40). In these six kinds of good, understood in the spiritual sense, are comprehended all the genera of the neighbor. Hence, likewise, it is evident, that when good is loved the Lord is loved, for it is the Lord from whom good is, who is in good, and who is good itself.91.
But the neighbor is not only man singly, but also man collectively, as a less or greater society, our country, the church, the Lord's kingdom, and, above all, the Lord Himself; these are the neighbor to whom good is to be done from love. These are also the ascending degrees of neighbor, for a society of many is neighbor in a higher degree than a single man is; in a still higher degree is our country; in a still higher degree is the church; and in a still higher degree is the Lord's kingdom; but in the highest degree is the Lord. These ascending degrees are like the steps of a ladder, at the top of which is the Lord.92.
A society is the neighbor more than a single man, because it consists of many. Charity is to be exercised towards it in a like manner as towards a man singly, namely, according to the quality of the good that is with it; thus in a manner totally different towards a society of the upright, than towards a society of those not upright. The society is loved when its good is regarded from the love of good.93.
Our country is the neighbor more than a society, because it is like a parent; for a man is born therein, and it nourishes and protects him from injuries. Good is to be done to our country from love according to its necessities, which principally regard its sustenance, and the civil and spiritual life of those therein. He who loves his country, and does good to it from good will, in the other life loves the Lord's kingdom, for there the Lord's kingdom is his country, and he who loves the Lord's kingdom loves the Lord, because the Lord is the all in all things of His kingdom.94.
The church is the neighbor more than our country, for he who has regard for the church, has regard for the souls and eternal life of the men who are in his country; wherefore he who provides for the church from love, loves the neighbor in a higher degree, for he wishes and wills heaven and happiness of life to eternity to others.95.
The Lord's kingdom is the neighbor in a still higher degree, for the Lord's kingdom consists of all who are in good, both those on the earths, and those in the heavens; thus the Lord's kingdom is good with all its quality in the complex: when this is loved, the individuals are loved who are in good.96.
These are the degrees of neighbor, and love ascends, with those who are in love towards their neighbor, according to these degrees. But these degrees are degrees in successive order, in which what is prior or superior is to be preferred to what is posterior or inferior; and because the Lord is in the highest degree, and He is to be regarded in each degree as the end to which it tends, consequently He is to be loved above all persons and things. From these things it may now appear, how love to the Lord conjoins itself with love towards the neighbor.97.
It is a common saying, that everyone is his own neighbor; that is, that everyone should first consider himself; but the doctrine of charity teaches how this is to be understood. Everyone should provide for himself the necessaries of life, such as food, raiment, habitation, and many other things which the state of civil life, in which he is, necessarily requires, and this not only for himself, but also for his own, and not only for the present time, but also for the future; for unless a man procures for himself the necessaries of life, he cannot be in a state to exercise charity, for he is in want of all things.98.
But how every one ought to be his own neighbor may appear from this comparison. Everyone ought to provide food and raiment for his body; this must be the first object, but it should be done to the end that he may have a sound mind in a sound body. And everyone ought to provide food for his mind, namely, such things as are of intelligence and wisdom; to the end that it may thence be in a state to serve his fellow-citizens, human society, his country, and the church, thus the Lord. He who does this provides for his own good to eternity. Hence it is evident that the first is where the end is on account of which we should act, for all other things look to this. The case is like that of a man who builds a house: he first lays the foundation; but the foundation is for the house, and the house is for habitation. He who believes that he is his own neighbor in the first place, is like him who regards the foundation as the end, not the house and habitation; when yet the habitation is the very first and ultimate end, and the house with the foundation is only a means to the end.99.
The end declares how everyone should be his own neighbor, and provide for himself first. If the end be to grow richer than others only for the sake of riches, or for the sake of pleasure, or for the sake of eminence, and the like, it is an evil end, and that man does not love the neighbor, but himself; but if the end be to procure himself riches, that he may be in a state of providing for his fellow-citizens, human society, his country, and the church, in like manner if he procures for himself offices for the same end, he loves the neighbor. The end itself, for the sake of which he acts, constitutes the man; for the end is his love, for everyone has for a first and ultimate end, that which he loves above all things. What has hitherto been said is concerning the neighbor. Love towards him, or Charity, shall now be treated of.100.
It is believed by many, that love towards the neighbor consists in giving to the poor, in assisting the indigent, and in doing good to everyone; but charity consists in acting prudently, and to the end that good may result. He who assists a poor or indigent evil doer does evil to the neighbor through him, for through the assistance which he renders, he confirms him in evil, and supplies him with the means of doing evil to others. It is otherwise with him who gives support to the good.
51-1 The translator omitted the clause which reads: ", and finally to be wise, that is to live according to them". We have inserted it.