Apocalypse Revealed, by Emanuel Swedenborg, , tr. by John Whitehead , at sacred-texts.com
That seduceth the whole world, signifies that they pervert all things of the church. By "to seduce" is signified to pervert, and by "the world" is signified the church; the same as by "earth" (n. 285). By "the world" is not signified the world of the earth, but the church therein, in the following passages: The earth shall mourn and be confounded, the world shall languish and be confounded (Isa. 24:4). The earth shall learn Thy judgments, and the inhabitants of the world Thy justice (Isa. 26:9). The Maker of the earth by Thy power, preparing the world by Thy 551-1 wisdom (Jer. 10:12; 51:15). The foundations of the world were revealed at the blast of Thy breath (Ps. 17:15). The earth is Jehovah's and the fullness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein; He hath founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the rivers (Ps. 24:1-2). The heavens are Thine, the earth, the world and the fullness thereof Thou hast founded (Ps. 89:11). He will make us inherit the throne of glory, for the bases of the earth are Jehovah's, and He hath set the world upon them (1 Sam. 2:8). Thou, O Babylon, hast made the world a wilderness, thou hast destroyed thy land, and slain thy people (Isa. 14:17, 20). Besides other passages; as in Isa. 18:3; 26:18; 27:6; 34:1; Nahum 1:5; Ps. 9:8; 77:18; 98:9; Lam. 4:12; Job 18:18; Matt. 24:14; Luke 21:26; Rev. 16:14. But it is to be known, that when "the world" and "the earth" are mentioned together, "the world" signifies the church as to good, and "the earth" signifies the church as to truth.552.
He was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him, signifies that he was cast down into the world of spirits, which is intermediate between heaven and hell, from whence there is immediate conjunction with the men of the earth [tellus]. The reason why by "the earth," upon which the dragon is said to have been cast out, is meant the world of spirits, is, because that world is immediately beneath the heavens, and when anyone is cast down from heaven, he does not fall immediately into hell, but upon the earth of the world immediately beneath it, for that world is intermediate between heaven and hell, or below the heavens and above the hells. Many things concerning that world may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, published at London in the year 1758 (n. 421-535) All who are in that world communicate immediately with men upon earth; consequently, the dragon and his angels communicate with those who are in falsities, and thence in evils, through the received heresy of faith alone; on which account, it is said below, "Therefore rejoice, ye heavens; woe to the inhabitants of the earth and the sea, for the Devil is come down unto you, having great anger, knowing that he hath but a short time (verse 12 of this chapter). Also that "he pursued the woman into the wilderness, and went to make war with the rest of her seed" (verses 13-17). It is to be known that every man, as to his affections and thoughts thence, is in society with those who are in the world of spirits, and mediately through them, with those who are either in heaven or in hell. The life of every man depends on that conjunction.553.
Verse 10. And I heard a great voice in heaven, saying, Now is come the salvation, and the power, and the kingdom of our God and the authority of His Christ, signifies the joy of the angels of heaven, because the Lord alone now reigns in heaven and in the church, and because they are saved who believe in him. By "a great voice in heaven" is signified the joy of the angels of heaven; for which reason it follows, "Therefore rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them," verse 12; the voice also is great because it is exalted from joy of heart. "Now is come the salvation and the power" signifies that now they are saved from the Lord's Divine power; "and the kingdom of our God and the authority of His Christ" signifies because the Lord alone reigns in heaven and in the church. That by "God" is meant the Divine Itself from whom are all things, and which is called Jehovah the Father; and by "Christ" is meant His Divine Human which is called the Son of God, may be seen above (n. 520); and because the Divine from whom are all things, and the Lord's Divine Human are one, like the soul and the body, it follows that the Lord alone reigns. This is meant by "the gospel of the kingdom," and by "the kingdom of God." (Matt. 3:2; 4:17, 23; 7:21; 9:35; 11:11; 12:28; Mark 1:14-15; 9:1; 15:43; Luke 4:43; 8:1; 9:60; 10:8-11; 11:17-18, 20; 16:16; 21:31; 22:18; 23:50-51.)  That the Lord has all power in heaven and on earth, appears manifestly in Matt. 28:18; John 3:35; 17:2, 10. That they are saved who are in the Lord and the Lord in them, and that it is the Divine Human in which they are, John 14; 15; 17; and that no others are saved, but they that believe in Him, appears from these passages: As many as received Him, to them He gave power to become the sons of God, to them that believe in His name (John. 1:12). That everyone that believeth in the Son should not perish, but have eternal life (John 3:15). God so loved the world, that He gave His Only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him may have eternal life (John 3:15). He that believeth in the Son is not judged; but he that believeth not is judged already, because he hath not believed in the name of the Only-begotten Son of God (John 3:36). He that believeth in the Son hath eternal life, but he that believeth not the Son, shall not see life, but the anger of God abideth on him (John 3:36). He that cometh to me shall never hunger, and he that believeth in Me shall never thirst. Verily I say unto you, he that believeth in Me hath eternal life (John 6:33, 35, 47). Unless ye believe that I am, ye shall die in your sins (John 8:24). Jesus said, I am the resurrection and the life, he that believeth in Me, though he were dead, shall live; whosoever liveth and believeth in Me, shall not die to eternity (John 11:25-26; besides other places as in John 6:38-40; 7:37-38; 8:12; 12:36-46.) To believe in the Lord is to approach Him immediately, and to have confidence that He saves; and since no one can have this confidence except he who lives well, therefore this also is meant by "believing in Him" (see above, n. 67).554.
For the accuser of our brethren is cast down, that accused them before our God day and night, signifies that by the Last Judgment they are removed who opposed the doctrine of the New Jerusalem. By the dragon "being cast down" is signified that they were removed who are meant by "the dragon"; that they were removed by being cast down from heaven into the world of spirits, and then into hell, which is their Last Judgment, was said before. By "brethren" are meant they who are the doctrine of the New Jerusalem, and in a life according to it; by "accusing" is signified to oppose the doctrine, to maintain that it is false, and to cry out against it; and because they do this continually, as it were before God, the dragon is called "the accuser of our brethren, accusing them before God day and night." This also the devil does when he tempts, for he brings forth various things out of man, which he calls falsities, and condemns.555.
Verse 11. And they overcame him through the blood of the Lamb, and through the word of their testimony, signifies victory by the Divine truth of the Word, and thence by the acknowledgment that the Lord is the God of heaven and earth, and that the precepts of the Decalogue are precepts of life according to which one must live. That "the blood of the Lamb" is the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, which is the Divine truth of the Word, may be seen above (n. 379); that "the testimony" is the Divine truth, above (n. 6, 16), and that it specifically consists in these two things, that the Lord is the God of heaven and earth, and that the commandments of the Decalogue are precepts of life (n. 490, 506); for which reason, the Decalogue is also called "the testimony" (Exod. 25:22; 31:7, 18; 32:15; Lev. 16:13; Num. 17:4; Ps. 78:5; 132:12). Those at the present day, that are in faith alone, believe that, by "the blood of the Lamb," is here meant the Lord's passion of the cross, and this because they make the Lord's passion of the cross the principal one of their dogmas, saying, that thereby He transferred to Himself the condemnation of the law, made satisfaction to the Father, and reconciled the human race to Him; besides many other things. That this, however, is not the case, but that the Lord came into the world to subdue the hells and glorify His Human, and that the passion of the cross was the last combat, by which He fully conquered the hells and fully glorified His Human, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 12-14). Hence it may be seen, that by "the blood of the Lamb" is not here meant the passion of the cross according to the modern dogma. That by "the blood of the Lamb" is meant the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, which is the Divine truth of the Word, may appear from this consideration, that the Lord is the Word; and because He is the Word, the Divine truth therein is His blood, and the Divine good therein, His body. This may be made manifest in this manner: Is not every man his own good and his own truth? And, since good is of the will, and truth of the understanding, every man is his own will and his own understanding. What else constitutes a man? Is not man, as to his essence, these two? But the Lord is good itself and truth itself, that is Divine good and Divine truth, which two are also the Word.556.
And they loved not their soul unto death, signifies who loved not themselves more than the Lord. By "loving their soul" is signified to love themselves and the world, for by the soul is signified man's own life, which everyone has by birth, which is to love himself and the world above all things; therefore by "not loving his soul" is signified not to love himself and the world more than the Lord and the things which are of the Lord; "unto death," signifies to be willing to die rather; consequently it is to love the Lord above all things, and the neighbor as one's self (Matt. 22:35-39); and to be willing to die rather than recede from those two loves. The same is signified by these words of the Lord: Whosoever will find his soul, shall lose it, and whosoever shall lose his soul for the sake of Jesus, shall find it (Matt. 10:39; Luke 17:33). He that loveth his soul shall lose it; but he that hateth his soul in this world, shall keep it unto life eternal (John 12:25). Jesus said, If anyone will come after Me, let him deny himself; for whosoever will save his soul, shall lose it; but whosoever will lose his soul, for My sake, shall find it. What is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, but cause the loss of his soul? or what shall a man give as a sufficient price of redemption for his soul? (Matt. 16:24, 26; Mark 8:35-37; Luke 9:24-25). By "loving the Lord" is meant to love to do His commandments (John 14:20-24). The reason is, because He Himself is His own commandments, for they are from Him, consequently He is in them, thus in the man in whose life they are inscribed; and they are inscribed in man by willing and doing them.557.
Verse 12. For this rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them, signifies a new state of heaven, in that they are in the Lord, and the Lord in them. By "heavens" is meant the heaven of Christians, in which the Lord alone is acknowledged as the God of heaven and earth; by "rejoice" is signified its new state full of joy; by "they that dwell" are signified they who are in good (n. 380); and because all good is from the Lord, it signifies that they are in the Lord, and the Lord in them.558.
Woe to those that inhabit the earth and the sea, for the Devil is come down unto you, having great anger, signifies lamentation over those who are in the internals and the externals of the doctrine of faith alone, and thence in evils of life, because their like are cast down from heaven into the world of spirits, and are thence in conjunction with men on the earth, whom, out of hatred against the New Church, they excite to persevere in their falsities and evils thence. By "woe to those that inhabit the earth and the sea" is signified lamentation over those in the church who are in the doctrine of faith alone; by "woe" is signified lamentation (n. 416); by "those that inhabit" are signified they who are in the church whose doctrine is faith alone; by "earth" are meant they who are in its internals, and by "sea" they who are in its externals (n. 470); by "great anger" is signified hatred against the New Church, because it is against "the woman" (n. 525); "to come down unto them" signifies to those who are in the world of spirits, and as these are in conjunction with men upon the earth, it also signifies to such on the earth. That the dragon was cast out of heaven into the world of spirits, and that they who are there are in conjunction with men on the earth, see above (n. 552).  The dragon is here called the Devil, because they are meant who from that heresy are in evils of life; and they are in evils of life from that heresy who live according to this tenet of their faith, that they have no sins who pray in confidence to God the Father, and that if they have they are remitted. All such, because they do not examine themselves, do not know any sin in themselves, and at length do not even know what sin is, as may be seen above (n. 531). That by the dragon, as "the Devil," are meant they who are in the evils of their lusts (n. 550). The reason why every man is in conjunction with those who are in the world of spirits, is because man, as to the affections of his mind and the thoughts thence proceeding, is a spirit; therefore as to such affections and thoughts, he is continually in conjunction with spirits who are in a similar affection, and thence in similar thoughts. There is such a conjunction, that if this bond was broken for a single moment, man would fall down dead. The church has hitherto known nothing of this; nor that man, after death, is his own affection and thought thence, therefore his own charity and faith thence, and that no one can be faith separated from charity.559.
Knowing that he hath but a short time, signifies, because he knows that the New Heaven has been formed, and that thus the New Church upon earth is about to be, and that then he, with his like, will be cast into hell. This is signified, because the dragon knows that the New Heaven has been formed, for he was cast down from it (verses 8, 9); he knows also that the New Church upon earth is about to be from what is foretold in Revelation (chapter 21); and he also knows that he and his like are then to be cast into hell, from what is also foretold (Rev. 20:1-2, 10).560.
Verse 13. And when the dragon saw that he was cast unto the earth, he persecuted the woman that brought forth the son, signifies that the dragonists in the world of spirits, immediately after their being cast down, began to infest the New Church on account of its doctrine. "When the dragon saw that he was cast upon the earth," signifies that when the dragonists saw that they were separated from heaven, and in conjunction with men on the earth (n. 552, 558); "he persecuted the woman," signifies that they immediately began to infest the Lord's church; that "the woman" whom he persecuted is that church, may be seen (n. 533); "who brought forth the son," signifies on account of the doctrine; that "the offspring," or "the male, a son" which the woman brought forth, is the doctrine of the New Church (see n. 535, 542, 543, 545).561.
Verse 14. And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, signifies the Divine circumspection over that church, and its protection, while as yet among a few. By "the woman" is signified the New Church (n. 533); by "wings" is signified power and protection (n. 245); by "an eagle" is signified intellectual sight, and thought thence (n. 245); by "flying" is signified seeing and circumspection (n. 245); by "a wilderness" is signified the church desolated, and thus among a few (n. 546); by "place" is signified its state there. From these things it follows, that "there were given to the woman two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place," is signified the Divine circumspection over the New Church, and its protection, while yet it is among a few.562.
Where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time from the face of the serpent, signifies that by reason of the craftiness of seducers, provision is made with circumspection that it may come among many even until it increases to its appointed state. By "being nourished" when said of the New Church, is signified to provide that it may come among many, as above (n. 547); by "a time, and times, and half a time," is signified to the end and the beginning, thus while from a few to many, until it reaches its appointed state, as above (n. 547). By "the face of the serpent" is signified the subtle arts of seducers; by "the face," subtle artfulness; and by "the serpent," seducers. That by "the serpent" are signified seducers, is plain from the following passage in this chapter: The great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, which seduceth the whole globe of earth (Rev. 12:9). And again: He laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, and cast him into the abyss, that he should seduce the nations no more (Rev. 20:2-3). The like is here meant as by the serpent which seduced Eve and Adam, of whom it is said: And the serpent was more subtle than any wild beast of the field; and the woman said to Jehovah, The serpent seduced me (Gen. 3:1, 13).  By "face," in the Word, is signified that which is interior in man, because the face is the type of his mind formed to correspondence; therefore, by "the face of the serpent" is signified anger, hatred, and subtlety. By "a time, and times, and half a time," is signified the same here, as by "a thousand two hundred and sixty days," verse 6, where it is said: And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared of God, that they should nourish her a thousand two hundred and sixty days (Rev. 12:6); which may be seen explained above (n. 547). The same is also signified by "three days and a half" (Rev. 11:9, 10); also by "the three years and six months" of famine (Luke 4:25); and in Daniel, by A stated time of stated times and a half when he shall have finished to scatter the hand of the people of holiness (Dan. 12:7).563.
Verse 15. And the serpent cast out of his mouth water as a river after the woman, that he might cause her to be swallowed up by the river, signifies reasonings from falsities in abundance, to destroy the church. By "the serpent" is here signified, as above, the dragon which seduces; by "the woman," the New Church (n. 533); by "water" are signified truths, and, in the opposite sense, falsities (n. 50, 409); by "a river" truths in abundance are signified, and in the opposite sense, falsities in abundance (n. 409); "out of the mouth of the serpent," signifies reasonings; therefore by "casting out water as a river" are signified reasonings from falsities in abundance. The reasonings of those who are meant by "the dragon," are all from fallacies and appearances, which, if confirmed, appear outwardly like truths, but within they conceal falsities in abundance. This I can declare, that those in the church, who hereafter confirm themselves in faith alone, cannot recede from it, except by serious repentance, because they conjoin themselves with the dragonists, who now are in the world of spirits, and are tumultuous, and there out of hatred against the New Church, they infest all whom they meet; and as they are conjoined with men on the earth, as observed above, they will not suffer those who have once been caught by their reasonings to recede from them; for they hold them bound in chains, as it were, and then shut their eyes so that they can no longer see any truth in light.564.
Verse 16. And the earth helped the woman; and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed up the river which the dragon cast out of her mouth, signifies that reasonings from falsities in abundance, which the dragonists produce, fall to nothing before the spiritual truths rationally understood, which the Michaels, of whom the New Church consists, bring forward. By "the earth," which helped the woman, is signified the church as to doctrine (n. 285); and because the reasonings from falsities, which the dragonists produce, are treated of, they are truths from the Word, by which "the earth," that is, the church, "helps the woman;" by "opening her mouth," is signified to adduce those truths; by "the river which the dragon cast out of his mouth," are signified reasonings from falsities in abundance (n. 563); by "swallowing up" is signified to make them fall to nothing; by the Michaels are meant the men of the New Church; by "Michael," the wise therein; and by "his angels," the rest.  Since in the New Church this dogma is rejected, that the understanding is to be held captive under obedience to faith, and in the place of it, this is received, that the truth of the church should be seen, in order that it may be believed (n. 224); and since truth cannot be seen otherwise than rationally, therefore, it is said, from truths rationally understood. How can any man be led by the Lord, and conjoined with heaven, who shuts up his understanding in such things as relate to salvation and eternal life? Is it not the understanding which will be enlightened and taught? And what is the understanding closed by religion, but thick darkness, and such thick darkness as rejects from itself the illuminating light? Again, who can acknowledge any truth and retain it, unless he sees it? What is truth not seen but a voice not understood, which, with sensual corporeal men, is usually retained in the memory, but cannot be with the wise? The wise, indeed, cast out empty or unmeaning words from the memory, that is, such as have not entered from the understanding; as that one God consists of three Persons, also that the Lord, born from eternity, is not one and the same with the Lord born in time, that is, that one Lord is God and not the other; and again, that the life of charity, which consists in good works, and likewise in repentance from evil works, effects nothing to salvation; a wise man does not understand such things; therefore from his rationality he says, religion does not effect anything. Is not religion to shun evil and do good? Must not the doctrine of the church teach this, as also what a man should believe, that he may do the good works of religion from God?565.
Verse 17. And the dragon was angry against the woman, and went away to make war with the rest of her seed, that keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ, signifies the burning hatred with those who believe themselves wise from confirmations in favor of the mystic union of the Divine and the Human in the Lord, and in favor of justification by faith alone, against those who acknowledge the Lord alone as the God of heaven and earth, and that the Decalogue is the law of life, approaching novitiates with intent to seduce them. All this is contained in those few words, because it follows in a series from what went before, where it is said, that "the earth helped the woman, and opened her mouth, and swallowed up the river which the dragon cast out of his mouth," by which is signified that their reasonings from falsities fell to nothing (n. 564); consequently that their endeavors to destroy the New Church were vain. Therefore by "the dragon being angry with the woman," is signified that he burned with hatred and breathed revenge against the church; by "the dragon's anger" is signified hatred (n. 558); by "making war" is signified to assault and impugn by reasonings from falsities (n. 500); by "the rest of her seed which keep the commandments of God and have the testimony of Jesus Christ," are meant novitiates who receive the doctrine concerning the Lord and concerning the Decalogue; what "the testimony of Jesus Christ" is, may be seen above (n. 6, 490).  The reason why by "the dragon" are here meant those who believe themselves wise from confirmations in favor of the mystic union of the Lord's Divine and Human, is because these are in the pride of their own wisdom, and know how to reason; and from pride proceeds hatred, and from hatred proceed anger and revenge against those who do not believe likewise. By the mystic union, which is also called the hypostatic union, are meant their fictions concerning the influx and operation of the Divine in the Lord's Human as upon another; not knowing that God and Man, or the Divine and the Human in the Lord, are not two but one Person, united like soul and body, according to the doctrine received throughout the whole Christian world, which has its name from Athanasius; but to adduce their fictitious things respecting this mystic union would be an idle thing, because they are absurd.  That by "the seed of the woman" are here meant those who are of the New Church, and are in the truths of its doctrine, may appear from the signification of "seed," in the following passages: Their seed shall be known among the Gentiles, and their offspring in the midst of the people, all that see shall acknowledge them, that they are the seed which Jehovah hath blessed (Isa. 61:9). They are the seed of the blessed Jehovah (Isa. 65:23). As the new heavens and the new earth which I will make, shall remain before Me, so shall your seed (Isa. 66:22). The seed which shall serve Him, it shall be accounted to the Lord for a generation (Ps. 22:30). I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and the woman's seed (Gen. 3:15). Does one seek a seed of God? (Mal. 2:15.) Behold the days come, when I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man (Jer. 31:27). If thou shalt make his soul a guilt offering, he shall see seed (Isa. 53:10). Fear not, for I am with thee, I will bring thy seed from the east (Isa. 43:5-6). Thou shalt break forth on the right and on the left, and thy seed shall inherit the Gentiles (Isa. 54:3). I had planted thee a noble vine, a seed of truth; how then art thou turned into the branches of a vine strange unto Me? (Jer. 2:21.) Their fruit shalt thou destroy from the earth, and their seed from the sons of man (Ps. 21:10). The seed are the sons of the kingdom (Matt. 13:38). The same is signified by "the seed of Israel," because "Israel" is the church (Isa. 41:8, 9; 44:3; Jer. 23:8; 31:35, 36); and also by "the seed of David," because "David" is the Lord (Jer. 30:10; 33:22, 25, 26; Ps. 89:3, 4, 29); and by "the seed of the field," because "a field" signifies the church in many places. But the opposite is signified by "the seed of the evil" (Isa. 1:4; 14:20; 57:3, 4), and by "the seed of the serpent" (Gen. 3:15). 565b. Verse 18. 565-1 And I stood upon the sand of the sea, signifies his state spiritual-natural, now such as it is with those who are in the first or lowest heaven. By "the sand of the sea" that state is signified, because "by the sea" is signified the external of the church; the state called spiritual-natural, such as it is with those who are in the first or lowest heaven. He had been above in heaven previously, where he saw the dragon, his combat with Michael, his being cast out, and his persecution of the woman; but now, when the dragon was cast down, and continues to be treated of in what follows, John is let down in spirit, to the end that he may see more of the dragon beneath the heavens, and describe the same; in which state he saw two "beasts" come up, one out of the sea, and the other out of the earth, which he could not see from heaven, because it is not granted to any angel to look down from heaven into the parts below, but if he chooses he may go down. It is to be known, that in the spiritual world place corresponds to state, for no one can be anywhere else than where the state of his life is; and as John now stood upon "the sand of the sea," it follows that his state now was spiritual-natural.566.
To these things I will add this Relation. There arose a strife among some spirits, whether anyone can see any doctrinal theological truth in the Word, except from the Lord. They all agreed in this, that no one can, except from God, because: No man can receive anything except it be given him from heaven (John 3:27). For which reason the dispute was, whether it is possible to anyone unless he goes immediately to the Lord. They said on the one hand, that the Lord is to be approached directly, because He is the Word; and on the other, that doctrinal truth may also be seen when God the Father is immediately approached. On which account the dispute centered upon this point, Whether it is lawful for any Christian to go immediately to God the Father, and so to climb above the Lord; and whether this is not insolence and audacity both indecent and rash; because the Lord says that: No one cometh to the Father but through Him (John 14:6). But they left this, and said that a man can see a doctrinal truth in the Word from his own natural light [lumen]; but this was rejected. Wherefore they insisted that it might be seen by those who pray to God the Father. Therefore something was read to them from the Word; and then they prayed upon their knees, that God the Father would enlighten them; and as to the words which were read before them from the Word, they said that this and that was the truth therein; but it was false; and this repeatedly even to tediousness. At length they confessed that it was not possible. But on the other side, they who went immediately to the Lord, saw truths, and informed the others.  After this dispute was thus finished, there came up some out of the abyss, who appeared at first like locusts, but afterwards as men. They were those who in the world prayed to the Father, and confirmed themselves in justification by faith alone; and they said that they saw the tenet that man is justified by faith alone without the works of the law, in clear light, and also from the Word. They were asked, "By what faith?" They answered, "In God the Father." But after they were examined, it was said to them from heaven, that they did not know even one doctrinal truth from the Word. But they replied that still they saw this in the light. It was then said to them that they saw it in fatuous light. They asked, "What is fatuous light?" They were informed that fatuous light is the light of the confirmation of falsity; and that this light corresponds to the light in which owls and bats are, to which darkness is light, and light is darkness. This was confirmed by the fact, that when they looked upwards to heaven, where light itself is, they saw darkness; but when they looked downwards to the abyss whence they were, they saw light.  Being indignant at this confirmation, they said that "thus light and darkness are not anything, but only a state of the eye, from which light is called light, and darkness, darkness." But it was shown that their light was fatuous light, which is the light of the confirmation of falsity; and that it was only the activity of their minds arising from the fire of lusts, not unlike the light of cats, whose eyes, owing to their burning appetite for mice in cellars in the nighttime, appear like candles. On hearing these things, being angry, they said that they were not cats, nor like cats; because they could see, if they would. But because they feared being asked why they would not, they retired, and let themselves down into their abyss and into their light. They who are there, and those who are like them, are also called owls and bats.  When they came to their companions in the abyss, and related that "the angels said that we do not know any doctrinal truths, not even one;" and that "they therefore called us bats and owls," there was a great tumult. And they said, "Let us pray to the Lord for permission to ascend, and we will show clearly that we have many doctrinal truths, which the archangels themselves will acknowledge." And because they prayed to the Lord, leave was given, and they ascended to the number of three hundred. And when they appeared above the earth, they said, "We were celebrated and famed in the world, because we knew and taught the arcana of justification by faith alone; and from confirmations we not only saw the light, but also as it were a flashing radiance; as we still do in our cells. And yet we have heard from our companions who were with you, that this light is not light, but darkness; for the reason that we have not, as you said, any doctrinal truth from the Word. We know that every truth of the Word shines; and we believe that our radiance is thence, when we profoundly meditate upon our arcana. We will, therefore, demonstrate that we have truths from the Word in great abundance." And they said, "Have we not this truth, that there is a Trinity, God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit; and that the Trinity must be believed in? Have we not this truth, that Christ is our Redeemer and Savior? Have we not this truth, that Christ alone is justice, and that He alone has merit? and that he is unjust and impious, who wishes to ascribe to himself anything of His justice and merit? Have we not this truth, that no mortal can do any spiritual good of himself, but that all good which is good in itself is from God? Have we not this truth, that there is given meritorious and also hypocritical good, and that these goods are evil? Have we not this truth, that man of his own powers can contribute nothing to his salvation? Have we not this truth, that the works of charity are still to be done? Have we not this truth, that there is faith, and that one must believe, and that everyone has life according to his belief? Besides many other things from the Word? Who of you can deny anyone of these? And yet you said that we have not any truth in our schools, not even one. Have you not asserted such things against us through prejudice?"  But they then received the answer, "All the things which you have advanced are in themselves truths; but you have falsified them, by applying them to confirm a false principle; and hence with you and in you they are falsified truths, which are false by being derived from a false principle. That it is so, we will demonstrate even to the sight. Not far from here is a place into which light flows immediately from heaven. In the midst of it there is a table. When any paper on which a truth from the Word is written is placed upon it, that paper, from the truth written on it, shines like a star. Write your truths, therefore, on a paper, and let it be put upon that table; and you will see." They did so, and gave it to the keeper, who put it upon the table; who then said to them, "Withdraw a little and look at the table." And they withdrew and looked; and behold, the paper shone like a star. And then the keeper said, "You see that the things which you have written upon the paper are truths. But come nearer, and look intently at the paper!" And they did so; and then the light suddenly disappeared, and the paper became black, as if covered with the soot of a furnace. And the keeper said further, "Touch the paper with your hands, but be careful not to touch the writing." And when they did so, a flame burst forth, and consumed it. Seeing this, they fled away; and it was said to them, "If you had touched the writing, you would have heard an explosion, and would have burned your fingers." And it was then said by them that stood behind, "You have now seen that the truths which you have abused to confirm the arcana of your justification, are truths in themselves; but that in you they are truths falsified." They then looked up, and heaven appeared to them as blood, and afterwards as thick darkness; and they seemed before the eyes of angelic spirits, some like bats, some like owls, some like moles, and some like horned owls; and they fled away into their darkness, which to their eyes shone fatuously.  The angelic spirits who were present wondered that they had not before known anything of that place, and of the table there. And a voice then came to them from the southern quarter, saying, "Come hither, and you will see something still more wonderful." And they came, and entered into a chamber, the walls of which shone as if from gold; and they saw there also a table, upon which lay the Word, set around with precious stones in heavenly forms. And the angel keeper said, "When the Word is opened, a light beams forth thence of ineffable brightness; and at the same time there appears from the precious stones a rainbow above and around the Word. When any angel from the third heaven comes thither, and looks at the open Word, there appears above and around the Word a rainbow of various colors on a red ground. When an angel comes thither from the second heaven, and looks, there appears a rainbow on a blue ground. When an angel from the lowest heaven comes and looks, there appears a rainbow on a white ground. When any good spirit comes and looks, there appears a variegation of light, as of marble." That it was so, was also shown them visibly. The angel keeper further said, "If anyone approaches, who has falsified the Word, the splendor is then first dissipated; and if he approaches, and fixes his eyes on the Word, there is an appearance of blood around; and he is then admonished to depart, because there is danger."  But a certain one, who in the world had been a prominent author on the doctrine of faith alone, boldly approached, and said, "When I was in the world, I did not falsify the Word; I also exalted charity together with faith; and I taught that man in the state of faith, in which he does charity and its works, is renewed, regenerated, and sanctified; and also that faith is then not solitary, that is, without good works; as a tree is not without fruit, the sun without light, and fire without heat; and I also blamed those who said that good works were not necessary, and moreover I magnified the precepts of the Decalogue, and also repentance; and I thus applied all things of the Word in a wonderful manner to the article of faith, which I set forth and demonstrated to be still alone saving." In the confidence of his assertion that he had not falsified the Word, he came up to the table, and, contrary to the warning of the angel, touched the Word. But then suddenly fire with smoke issued from the Word, and an explosion took place with a great crash, by which he was thrown to a corner of the chamber, and lay there as dead for half an hour. This the angelic spirits wondered at; but it was said to them, that that prelate had exalted the goods of charity as proceeding from faith more than others; but that still he meant no other than political works, which are also called moral and civil, and which are to be done for the sake of the world and of prosperity therein; but not any works which are to be done for the sake of God and salvation: and also that he included the unseen works of the Holy Spirit, of which the man knows nothing; which are implanted in the act of faith during its state.  The angelic spirits then conversed among themselves concerning the falsification of the Word: and they agreed upon this, that to falsify the Word is to take truths from it, and apply them to confirm falsities; which is to drag them forth from the Word outside of it, and slay them. As for example: he who takes therefrom this truth, that the neighbor is to be loved, and that good is to be done to him from love for the sake of God and eternal life; if anyone then confirms this, that it is to be done, but not for the sake of salvation, because all good from man is not good, he drags that truth from the Word outside of the Word, and destroys it; since the Lord in His Word enjoins it upon every man who wishes to be saved, to do good to his neighbor as of himself, and yet to believe that it is of the Lord.567.
Revelation 13 1. And I saw a beast coming up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten diadems, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy. 2. And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet like a bear's, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion; and the dragon gave him his power, and his throne, and great authority. 3. And I saw one of his heads as if wounded to death; and the stroke of his death was healed; and the whole earth wondered after the beast. 4. And they adored the dragon, which gave authority to the beast; and they adored the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? Who is able to fight with him? 5. And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and there was given unto him authority to work forty-two months. 6. And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme His name, and His tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven. 7. And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them; and there was given him authority over every tribe and tongue and nation. 8. And all that dwell on the earth shall adore Him whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. 9. If anyone hath an ear let him hear. 10. If anyone shall lead into captivity he shall go into captivity, if anyone shall kill with the sword, he must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints. 11. And I saw another beast coming up out of the earth, and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spoke as a dragon. 12. And he exerciseth all the authority of the first beast before him, and he causeth the earth and them that dwell therein to adore the first beast, whose stroke of his death was healed. 13. And he doeth great signs, so that he also maketh fire to come down from heaven unto the earth before men. 14. And he seduceth them that dwell upon the earth, on account of the signs which were given for him to do before the beast; saying to them that dwell upon the earth, that they should make an image to the beast which hath the stroke of the sword and did live. 15. And it was given unto him to give breath to the image of the beast, that the image of the beast may both speak, and cause that as many as do not adore the image of the beast should be killed. 16. And he causeth all, the small and the great, and the rich and the poor, and the free and the bond, that he should give them a mark upon their right hand, and upon their foreheads. 17. And that no one could buy or sell, if he hath not the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name. 18. Here is wisdom. He that hath intelligence let him count the number of the beast; for it is the number of a man; and his number is six hundred sixty-six. THE SPIRITUAL SENSE The contents of the whole chapter In this chapter the dragon continues to be treated of, and the doctrine and faith which is meant by it is described; what its quality is with the laity, and afterwards what its quality is with the clergy: by "the beast coming up out of the sea," that doctrine and faith with the laity is described (verses 1-10); and by "the beast out of the earth," the same with the clergy (verses 11-17): lastly, concerning the falsification of the truth of the Word by the latter (verse 18). The contents of each verse Verse 1. "And I saw a beast coming up out of the sea" signifies the laity in the churches of the Reformed, who are principled in the doctrine and faith of the dragon concerning God and salvation: "Having seven heads" signifies insanity arising from mere falsities: "And ten horns" signifies much power: "And upon his horns ten diadems" signifies the power of falsifying many truths of the Word: "And upon his heads the name of blasphemy" signifies denial of the Lord's Divine Human, and doctrine of the church not drawn from the Word, but from self-derived intelligence. Verse 2. "And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard" signifies a heresy destructive of the church because derived from truths of the Word falsified: "And his feet like a bear's" signifies full of fallacies from the literal sense of the Word read but not understood: "And his mouth as the mouth of a lion" signifies reasonings from falsities as if from truths: "And the dragon gave him his power, and his throne, and great authority" signifies that this heresy prevails and reigns in consequence of its reception by the laity. Verse 3. "And I saw one of his heads as if wounded to death" signifies that the doctrine of faith alone does not accord with the Word, in which works are so often enjoined: "And the stroke of his death was healed" signifies the remedy applied on this account: "And the whole earth wondered after the beast" signifies that then this doctrine and faith was gladly received. Verse 4. "And they adored the dragon which gave authority to the beast" signifies the acknowledgment that it is such as is laid down by the leaders and teachers, who have established its authority on the reception they have procured for it among the community at large: "And they adored the beast" signifies the acknowledgment on the part of the community that it is holy truth: "Saying, who is like unto the beast? Who is able to fight with him?" signifies the excellence of that doctrine, because it cannot be contradicted by anyone. Verse 5. "And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies" signifies that it teaches what is evil and false: "And there was given unto him authority to work forty-two months" signifies the liberty of teaching and doing the evils and falsities of that doctrine, even to the end of that church and the beginning of the new. Verse 6. "And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme His name" signifies their sayings, which are scandals against the essential Divinity and Divine Human of the Lord, and at the same time against everything relating to the church derived from the Word, whereby the Lord is worshiped: "And his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven" signifies scandals against the Lord's celestial kingdom and against heaven. Verse 7. "And it was given unto him to make war with the saints and to overcome them," signifies that they have impugned the Divine truths of the Word, and cast them down to the ground: "And there was given him authority over every tribe and tongue and nation" signifies consequent dominion over all things of the church, both as to its doctrine and as to its life. Verse 8. "And all that dwell on the earth shall adore him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb" signifies that all acknowledged that heretical doctrine as holy in the church, except those who believed in the Lord: "Slain from the foundation of the world" signifies the Lord's Divine Human not acknowledged from the first establishment of the church. Verse 9. "If anyone hath an ear let him hear" signifies that they should attend to this who desire to attain wisdom. Verse 10. "If anyone shall lead into captivity he shall go into captivity" signifies that he who by means of this heretical doctrine misleads others from believing well and living well, will himself be drawn into hell by his own evils and falsities: "If anyone shall kill with the sword he must be killed with the sword" signifies that he who by means of falsities destroys the soul of another, is himself destroyed by falsities, and perishes: "Here is the patience and the faith of the saints" signifies that the man of the Lord's New Church, by temptations from such things, is explored as to the quality of his life and faith. Verse 11. "And I saw another beast coming up out of the earth" signifies the clergy who are principled in the doctrine and faith of the dragon concerning God and salvation: "And he had two horns like a lamb, and he spoke as a dragon" signifies that what they say, teach, and write is from the Word, as though it were the Lord's Divine truth, and yet it is truth falsified. Verse 12. "And he exerciseth all the authority of the first beast before him" signifies that they confirmed these tenets, which thence derive their authority: "And he causeth the earth and them that dwell therein to adore the first beast whose stroke of his death was healed" signifies that from their being received by the community at large, it is established and confirmed that they ought to be acknowledged and held sacred in the church. Verse 13. "And he doeth great signs" signifies testifications that the things they teach are true, although they are false: "So that he also maketh fire to come down from heaven unto the earth before men" signifies attestations that their falsities are truths. Verse 14. "And he seduceth them that dwell upon the earth, on account of the signs, which were given him to do before the beast" signifies that by their testifications and attestations they lead the men of the church into errors: "Saying to them that dwell upon the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which hath the stroke of a sword and did live" signifies that they induce the men of the church to receive for doctrine, that faith is the only medium of salvation, for the reasons already mentioned. Verse 15. "And it was given unto him to give breath to the image of the beast, that the image of the beast may both speak" signifies that it was permitted them to confirm that doctrine by means of the Word, whereby it does as it were receive life when it is taught: "And cause that as many as do not adore the image of the beast should be killed" signifies that they denounce damnation against those who do not acknowledge their doctrine of faith to be the holy doctrine of the church. Verse 16. "And he causeth all, both the small and the great, and the rich and the poor, and the free and the bond" signifies all in that church, whatsoever may be their condition, learning, and intelligence: "That he should give them a mark in their right hand or in their foreheads" signifies that no one is acknowledged to be a Reformed Christian unless he receives that doctrine in faith and love. Verse 17. "And that no one could buy or sell, if he hath not the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name" signifies that it is not lawful for anyone to teach from the Word, unless he acknowledges it, and swears to the belief and love thereof, or to something which amounts to the same. Verse 18. "Here is wisdom" signifies that it is the part of a wise man, from what had been said and explained in this chapter, to see and understand the nature of the doctrine and faith of the clergy respecting God and salvation: "He that hath intelligence let him count the number of the beast" signifies that he who is in illumination from the Lord, may know the nature and quality of the proofs they produce from the Word in confirmation of that doctrine and faith: "For it is the number of a man" signifies the quality of the Word and thence of the church: "And his number is six hundred sixty-six" signifies this quality, that all the truth of the Word is falsified by them. THE EXPLANATION Verse 1. And I saw a beast coming up out of the sea, signifies the laity in the churches of the Reformed who are in the doctrine and faith of the dragon concerning God and salvation. What the faith of the dragon is, and its quality, may be seen (n. 537). The same faith continues to be treated of in this chapter; and by this "beast" which "was seen to come up out of the sea," is meant that faith with the laity; but by "the beast out of the earth" (mentioned at verse 11), is meant that faith with the clergy. That the dragon continues to be treated of here is evident from these things in this chapter; that "the dragon gave the beast coming up out of the sea his power, and throne, and great authority" (verse 2); and that "they adored the dragon which gave authority to the beast" (verse 4); and of "the beast from the earth, that he spoke like the dragon" (verse 11); and that he exerciseth all the authority of the former beast before the dragon (verse 12). The reason why the laity are meant by "the beast out of the sea," and the clergy by "the beast out of the earth," is because by "the sea" is signified the external of the church, and by "the earth" its internal (n. 398, and in other places); and the laity are in the externals of the doctrine of the church, and the clergy are in its internals; on this account "the beast out of the earth" is also called, in what follows, "the false prophet." That they who are in the churches of the Reformed are meant, is because the Reformed are treated of as far as chapter 16 inclusive, and the Roman Catholics in chapters 17 and 18, and afterwards the last judgment, and finally the new church.  They were seen as "beasts," because a dragon is a beast, and because "a beast" in the Word signifies man as to his affections; harmless and useful beasts signify man as to good affections, and noxious and useless beasts signify man as to his evil affections; on which account the men of the church in general are called "sheep," and a congregation of them, "a flock," and their teacher is called "a pastor." Hence also it is that the Word as to its power, affection, understanding, and wisdom, is described above, by "four animals," which were "a lion, a calf, an eagle, and a man" (chapter 4); and that the understanding of the Word is described by "horses" (chapter 6). The reason is because the affections of a man, in the spiritual world, appear at a distance as beasts, as has been stated before; and beasts, considered in themselves, are nothing but forms of natural affections, but men are not only forms of natural, but of spiritual affections at the same time.  That men, as to their affections, are meant by "beasts," may appear from these passages: Thou didst cause a bountiful rain to drop, thou didst confirm thy inheritance, when it was laboring; the beast of thy assembly shall dwell in it (Ps. 68:9-10). Every wild beast of the forest is mine, the beasts upon a thousand mountains. I know every bird of the mountains, the beasts of the fields are mine (Ps. 50:10). Assyria is a cedar in Lebanon, he has become of high stature, in his branches all the birds of the heavens made their nests, and under his branches all the beasts of the field have brought forth, and under his shadow have dwelt all great nations (Ezek. 31:3-6, 10, 13; Dan. 4:7-13). In that day I will make a covenant for them with the beast of the field, and with the bird of the heavens, and I will betroth thee unto me forever (Hos. 2:18-19). Rejoice and be glad, be not afraid, ye beasts of my fields, for the habitations of the wilderness have become herbaceous (Joel 2:21-22). In that day there shall be a great tumult, Judah shall fight against Jerusalem, and there shall be a plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of every beast; then shall everyone that is left go up to Jerusalem (Zech. 14:13-16). The birds shall abominate it, and every beast of the earth shall condemn it (Isa. 18:6). Thou, son of man, say to the bird of every wing, and to every beast of the field, Assemble yourselves to my sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel; so will I give my glory among the nations (Ezek. 39:17-21). Jehovah gathered the outcasts of Israel; all ye beasts of my fields, come ye (Isa. 56:8-9). Jehovah will destroy Assyria, every wild beast of the nation shall rest in the midst of her; both the spoonbill and the bittern in her pomegranates (Zeph. 2:13-14). The sheep are scattered without a shepherd, and are food for every wild beast of the field (Ezek. 34:5, 8). I will cast thee forth upon the faces of the field, and will make every bird of the heavens to dwell upon thee, and I will satisfy every wild beast of the earth from thee (Ezek. 32:4; also 5:17; 29:5; 33:27; 39:4; Jer. 15:3; 16:4; 19:7; 27:5-6). The enemy reproacheth Jehovah; O give not to the beast the soul of the turtledove (Ps. 74:18-19). I saw in vision four beasts coming up out of the sea, the first was like a lion, and had eagle's wings, the second was like a bear, the third like a leopard, and the fourth was terrible (Dan. 7:2-7). The spirit impelling Jesus made Him go into the wilderness, and He was with the beasts, and the angels ministered unto him (Mark. 1:12-13).  He was not with beasts, but with devils, who are here meant by "beasts"; besides other passages where "beasts" and "wild beasts" are named (as in Isa. 35:9; 43:20; Jer. 12:4, 8-10; Ezek. 8:10; 34:23, 25, 28; 38:18-20; Hos. 4:2, 3; 13:8; Joel 1:16, 18, 20; Hab. 2:17; Dan. 2:37, 38; Ps. 8:6-8; 80:13; 104:10, 11, 14, 20, 25; 148:7, 10; Exod. 23:28-30; Lev. 26:6; Deut. 7:22; 32:24). In all these places by "beasts" are signified men as to their affections.  By "man and beast" together is signified man as to spiritual and natural affection (as in the following passages: Jer. 7:20; 21:6; 27:5; 31:27; 32:43; 33:10-12; 36:29; 50:3; Ezek. 14:13, 17, 19; 25:13; 32:13; 36:11; Zeph. 1:2-3; Zech. 2:4; 8:9-10; Jonah 3:7-8; Ps. 36:6; Num. 18:15). By all the beasts that were sacrificed were signified good affections; and likewise by the beasts which were eaten; but the contrary by the beasts which were not to be eaten (Lev. 20:25-26).568.
Having seven heads, signifies insanity from mere falsities, in like manner as by "the seven heads of the dragon" (n. 538).569.
And ten horns, signifies much power, in like manner as the horns of the dragon, which also were ten (n. 539).570.
And upon his horns ten diadems, signifies the power of falsifying many truths of the Word. By "a horn" is signified power (n. 539); by "ten" is signified much (n. 101); and by "diadems" are signified the truths of the Word falsified (n. 540); therefore by "upon his horns ten diadems," is signified to have it in his power to falsify many truths of the Word. Of the dragon it is said that he had "seven diadems" on his heads, but of this beast that he had "ten diadems" on his horns; the reason is, because here it signifies the power of falsifying many truths of the Word, but there the falsification of all; for the laity are able, but do not; for they who are in falsities and in the belief of them, are opposed to truths, consequently, when they see truths in the Word, they falsify them.571.
And upon his heads the name of blasphemy, signifies the denial of the Lord's Divine Human and the doctrine of the church derived not from the Word, but from one's own intelligence. By "seven heads" is signified insanity from mere falsities, as above (n. 568); and this insanity speaks blasphemy, when it denies the Lord's Divine in His Human; and also when it does not draw the doctrine of the church from the Word, but hatches it from its own intelligence. As to the first, that it is blasphemy to deny the Lord's Divine in His Human, the reason is that he who denies it is opposed to the faith received throughout the whole Christian world, named from Athanasius, where it is expressly said, that in Jesus Christ, God and Man, that is, the Divine and the Human, are not two but one, and that they are one Person, united like soul and body. Therefore they who deny the Divine in His Human, are not far from the Socinians and Arians, especially when they think of the Lord's Human alone as of that of another man, and nothing at all of His Divine from eternity.  As to the second, that it is blasphemy not to draw the doctrine of the church from the Word, but to hatch it out of one's own intelligence, the reason is, because the church is from the Word, and its quality is according to the understanding of the Word, as may be seen in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 76-79). And the doctrine that faith alone, that is, faith without the works of the law, justifies and saves, is not from the Word, but from a single expression of Paul falsely understood (Rom. 3:28, see n. 417); and every falsity of doctrine is derived from no other source than from one's own intelligence. For what is more universally taught in the Word, than to shun evil and do good? And what is more evident than that God and the neighbor ought to be loved? And who does not see, that no one can love the neighbor, unless he lives according to the works of the law, and he who does not love his neighbor does not love God? For in the love of the neighbor the Lord conjoins himself with man, and man conjoins himself with the Lord, that is, the Lord and man are together in that love. And what is it to love the neighbor but not to do him evil, according to the commandments of the Decalogue (Rom. 13:8-11)? And as far as man does not will to do evil to the neighbor, so far he is willing to do him good; hence it is evident that it is blasphemy to exclude the works of this law from salvation, as they do, who make faith alone saving, which is faith separated from good works. By "blasphemy" (Matt. 12:31-32; Rev. 17:3; Isa. 37:6-7, 23-24) is meant to deny the Lord's Divine, as the Socinians do, and to deny the Word; for they who thus deny the Lord's Divine cannot enter heaven, for the Lord's Divine is the all in all in heaven, and he who denies the Word denies all things of religion.572.
Verse 2. And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, signifies a heresy destructive of the church, because it is from the truths of the Word falsified. By "beasts" in general are signified men as to affections (n. 567); and by "a leopard" is signified the affection or lust of falsifying the truths of the Word; and because it is a ferocious beast, and kills harmless animals, it signifies also a heresy destructive of the church. That "a leopard" signifies the truths of the Word falsified, is owing to its black and white spots, for by the black spots are signified falsities, and by the white among them is signified truth. Therefore because it is a fierce and savage beast, it signifies the truths of the Word falsified and thus destroyed. Similar is the signification of a "leopard" in the following passages: Can the Ethiopian change his skin, and the leopard his spots? Then may ye also do good that have been taught to do evil (Jer. 13:23). The lion out of the forest hath smitten the magnates, and a wolf of the fields shall devastate them, a leopard shall watch over their cities, everyone that goeth out shall be torn in pieces, because their backslidings are strong (Jer. 5:6). "The leopard watching against their cities," means watching against the truths of doctrine. "A city" means doctrine (n. 194). As they have forgotten Me, therefore I have become unto them as a lion, as a leopard by the way will I observe them (Hos. 13:6-7). "A way" also signifies truth (n. 176). The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard with the kid (Isa. 11:6). Here the Lord's kingdom which is to come is treated of; "a kid" signifies the genuine truths of the church, and "a leopard" the same falsified. The third beast which came up out of the sea was like a leopard which had upon the back of it four wings (Dan. 7:6). Concerning the four beasts seen by Daniel, see below (n. 574).573.
And his feet like a bear's, signifies full of fallacies from the sense of the letter of the Word read but not understood. By "feet" is signified the natural, which is the ultimate, upon which that heresy, meant by "the leopard," subsists, and as it were walks, and this is the sense of the letter of the Word, and by "a bear" are signified those who read the Word and do not understand it, whence they have fallacies. That these are signified by "bears" was clear to me from the bears seen in the spiritual world, and from some there who were clothed in bear skins, who had all read the Word, but had not seen any doctrinal truth therein; also who had confirmed the appearances of truth therein, whence they had fallacies. In that world there appear bears that are hurtful, and bears that are harmless, and some that are white; but they are distinguished by their heads; those which are harmless have heads like calves or sheep. "Bears" have such a signification in the following passages: He hath overturned my highways, as a bear lying in wait for me, as a lion in secret places, he hath turned aside my ways, he hath made me desolate (Lam. 3:9-11). I will meet them as a bear that is bereaved, and there will I devour them like an immense lion, the wild beast of the field shall tear them (Hos. 13:7-8). The calf and the young lion shall lie down together, and the cow and the bear shall feed (Isa. 11:6-7). The second beast coming up out of the sea was like a bear, and it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth (Dan. 7:5). The lion and the bear, which David took by the beard and smote (1 Sam. 17:34-37) has a like signification and likewise 2 Sam. 17:8.  "The lion and the bear" are mentioned in those places, because by "a lion" is signified falsity destroying the truths of the Word, and by "a bear" are signified fallacies, which also destroy, but not in so great a degree; therefore it is said in Amos: The day of Jehovah is a day of darkness and not of light, as if one fleeth from a lion, and he falls upon a bear (Amos 5:18-19). We read in the second book of Kings, that: Elisha was mocked by boys, and they called him bald-head; and therefore forty-two boys were torn by the two bears out of the forest (2 Kings 2:23-24). This took place because Elisha represented the Lord as to the Word (n. 298); and because "baldness" signifies the Word without the sense of the letter, thus not anything (n. 47); and the number forty-two, blasphemy (n. 583); and "bears" signify the sense of the letter of the Word, read indeed, but not understood.574.
And his mouth as the mouth of a lion, signifies reasonings from falsities as if from truths. By "mouth" is signified doctrine, preaching and discourse (n. 452), here reasoning from falsities of doctrine, because by "the head," in which is the mouth, is signified insanity from mere falsities (n. 568); by "a lion" is signified Divine Truth in power (n. 241, 471), but here falsity in power appearing like truth by reasonings (n. 573); hence by "his mouth being as the mouth of a lion," are signified reasonings from falsities as if from truths. That "a leopard," "a bear," and "a lion," signify such things, may appear from similar beasts that were seen by Daniel, of which it is thus written: Four great beasts came up out of the sea; the first was like a lion, and had eagle's wings; I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and erected upon its feet like a man, and a man's heart was given to it. The second beast was like a bear, and it raised up itself on one side; and it had three ribs in its mouth, between its teeth; and it was said, Arise, devour much flesh. The third beast was like a leopard, which had upon its back four wings as of birds; the beast had also four heads, and dominion was given to it. The fourth beast was terrible and dreadful, and exceedingly strong, and it had great iron teeth; it devoured and broke in pieces, and trampled the residue with its feet (Dan. 7:3-7).  By these four "beasts" are described the successive states of the church, from its first to its last, even to its utter devastation as to every good and truth of the Word; after which is the Lord's advent. By "the lion" is signified the Divine Truth of the Word in its first state, and the establishment of the church thereby, which is meant by "being lifted up from the earth, and erected upon the feet like man, and a man's heart being given to it." By "the bear" is described the second state of the church, when the Word is read indeed, but not understood; by "the three ribs between the teeth" are signified appearances and fallacies, and by "much flesh" is signified the sense of the letter of the Word as a whole. The third state of the church is described by "the leopard," by which is signified the Word falsified as to its truths; by "the four wings, as of birds, on his back," are signified confirmations of what is false. The fourth or last state of the church is described by "the beast terrible and dreadful," by which is signified the destruction of all truth and good, for which reason it is said that "it crushed in pieces and devoured, and trampled the residue with its feet;" lastly, the Lord's advent is described, and then the destruction of that church, and the establishment of a new one (from Verse 9 to the end).  These four beasts were seen by Daniel to come up out of the sea successively, but by John the first three beasts were seen united in one body, and also coming out of the sea; the reason is, because in Daniel the successive states of the church are described by them, but here in Revelation its last state is described, in which all the former states exist together; but as to the body this beast appeared like a leopard, and as to its feet like a bear, and as to its mouth like a lion; "the leopard" and "the bear" have everywhere a like signification; but by "a mouth like that of a lion" are signified reasonings from falsities, because it follows that "The beast out of its mouth spoke blasphemies" (verses 5-6), and by "his heads" insanity from mere falsities is signified.575.
And the dragon gave him his power, and his throne, and great authority, signifies that this heresy prevails and reigns in consequence of its reception by the laity. By "the dragon" is signified that heretical doctrine (concerning which see n. 537); by "this beast" the laity are signified (n. 567), who do not speak from themselves, but from their teachers; and as they are the people themselves, it is manifest that from reception by them that heresy prevails and reigns. This therefore it is, which is signified by "the power, throne, and great authority," which the dragon gave to this beast, and by these words following, "And they adored the dragon who gave authority to the beast" (verse 4). The dragon prevails and reigns through them, especially through this dogma of their religion: That the understanding is to be kept under obedience to faith; and that it is a faith which is not understood; and that, in spiritual things, faith in a thing which is understood is intellectual faith, which is not justifying. When these prevail with the laity, the clergy have authority, veneration, and a species of adoration, on account of the divine things which they believe they know, and which are to be received from their mouths. By "power" is signified prevalence; by "throne," government; and by "great authority," dominion.576.
Verse 3. And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded unto death, signifies that this point of doctrine, which is the head of the rest, that man is justified and saved by faith alone without the works of the law, does not agree with the Word, where works are so often commanded. By "one of the heads" is signified the chief and fundamental article of the whole doctrine of the church of the Reformed. For the beast had seven heads, by which is signified insanity from mere falsities (n. 568); thus also all falsities in the aggregate: for by "seven" in the Word is signified all (n. 10, 391). And as all the falsities of their doctrine concerning salvation depend on this one, that man is justified and saved by faith alone without the works of the law, it is this which is signified by "one of the heads of the beast." By its being "as it were wounded unto death," is signified that it does not agree with the Word, where works are so often commanded. For everything of the doctrine of the church, which does not agree with the Word, is not sound, but is sick with a deadly disease; for the doctrine of the church must be from the Word, and from no other source.577.
And the stroke of his death was healed, signifies the healing of that head of the doctrine by this reasoning, that no one can do a good work of himself, and fulfil the law, and that there is on that account provided another means of salvation instead, which is faith in the justice and merit of Christ, who suffered for man, and thereby took away the condemnation of the law. That this is the healing for "the wounded head," and is also applied, is known, when by the wounded head is meant that which precedes (n. 576); and therefore there is no need to explain it further.578.
And the whole earth wondered after the beast, signifies that then that faith was received with joy, and became the doctrine of the whole church, because they thus would not be servants under the law, but free under faith. And "it wondered," signifies astonishment that the stroke of death was healed, and thence reception with joy. By "the whole earth" is signified the whole church of the Reformed, for the earth is the church (n. 285); therefore by "the whole earth wondered after the beast" is signified that this faith was received with joy, and became the doctrine of the whole church. It is received with joy because they thus are not bondmen under the law, but free under faith; not knowing that the very reverse is true, namely, that they who believe themselves to be free under faith, or from that faith, or through that faith, are slaves under sin, that is, under the devil, for sin and the devil are one and the same; for thus they believe that the law does not condemn, and therefore that to sin without the condemnation of the law is freedom, provided they have faith; when nevertheless this is slavery itself; but man when he shuns sin, that is, the devil, from being a slave becomes free.  Here I will add this Relation: I spoke in the world of spirits with some doctors of the church, about what they meant by "works of the law," and what by "the law" under whose yoke, servitude, and condemnation, they say they are not. They said they meant the works of the law of the Decalogue. And I then said, "What are the things decreed in the Decalogue? Are they not these: `Thou shalt not kill;' `thou shalt not commit whoredom;' `thou shalt not steal;' `thou shalt not bear false witness'? Are these the works of the law, which you separate from faith, saying, that `faith alone, without the works of the law, justifies and saves,' and are these what Christ made satisfaction for?" And they replied, "They are." And then there was heard a voice from heaven, saying, "Who can be so insane?" And immediately their faces were turned towards some diabolical spirits, among whom was Machiavelli, and several from the order of Jesuits, who permit all these things provided they guard themselves from the laws of the world; and they would have associated themselves with these, had not a society interposed which separated them. It is said that "all the earth wondered after the beast;" that "after" the beast means to follow and obey it, appears from these passages: David hath kept My commandments, and hath walked after Me with the whole heart (1 Kings 14:8). The sons of Jesse went after Saul to the war (1 Sam. 17:13). Thou shalt not go after many to do evil. Thou shalt not answer in a cause after many, to pervert (Exod. 23:2). Go not after other gods, whom ye know not (Jer. 7:9). They went after other gods to serve them (Jer. 11:10; Deut. 8:19). The men that went after Baalpeor Jehovah will destroy (Deut. 4:3).579.
Verse 4. And they adored the dragon, which gave authority to the beast, signifies the acknowledgment of the doctrine of justification by faith, without the works of the law, by the leaders and teachers, who have caused it to prevail through reception by the common people. By "adoring" is signified to acknowledge it as holy in the church; by "the dragon" is signified the doctrine of justification and salvation by faith alone, without the works of the law (n. 537); by this "beast" is signified the common people because it is the laity (n. 567); by "giving power" is signified to cause it to prevail by its reception among the laity (n. 575).580.
And they adored the beast, signifies the acknowledgment by the common people that it is holy truth, that no one can do good works from himself, nor fulfill the law. "To adore" signifies to acknowledge it as holy in the church, as above (n. 579), here, to acknowledge it as holy truth, that no one can do good works of himself, and fulfil the law; and these two being regarded as holy truths, it follows, that the works of the law are to be removed from faith, as not saving. But that these truths, and many others, are falsified, may be seen above (n. 566). By "the beast" is here signified the same as by "the dragon," on account of the reception and acknowledgment; therefore it is said that they "adored the dragon," and "adored the beast."581.
Saying, Who is like unto the beast? Who is able to fight with him? signifies the excellence of that doctrine above all others, because it cannot be contradicted by anyone. "Who is like unto the beast," signifies the opinion of the excellence of that church above all others on account of its doctrine; by "the beast" is signified the common people, thus the church, and abstractly its doctrine. "Who is able to fight with him," signifies, who can contradict that man is not able to do any spiritual good from himself, besides other things, as above (n. 566); and as this cannot be contradicted, "are we not therefore saved by faith without the works of the law?" But that this conclusion is absurd, yea, insanity itself, may be seen by everyone who knows anything and is wise from the Word. "Who is able to fight with him," also signifies that this doctrine has been so ingeniously and subtly confirmed, and so fortified by its leaders, and the teachers after them, that it cannot be impugned.582.
Verse 5. And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies, signifies that it teaches evils and falsities. By "a mouth speaking" is signified doctrine, preaching, and discourse (n. 452); by "speaking great things and blasphemies," is signified to teach evils and falsities; for "great" is predicated of good, and in the opposite sense of evil (n. 656, 663, 896, 898), and by "blasphemies" are signified the truths of the Word falsified thus falsities; what is here signified by "blasphemies" in particular, may be seen above (n. 571). The reason why it teaches evils is because it removes the works of the law, thus the things which ought to be done, from salvation, and he who does this, is in spiritual evils, which are sins.583.
And there was given unto him authority to work forty-two months, signifies the ability of teaching and doing the evils and falsities of that doctrine, even to the end of that church, and the beginning of the New. By "authority was given him of working" is signified the authority of speaking great things and blasphemies, that is, of teaching and doing the evils and falsities mentioned above (n. 582); "forty-two months" signify even to the end of the former church and beginning of the New, as above (n. 489); the same as is signified by "three days and a half" (n. 505); and by "a time and times and half a time" (n. 562); and also by "a thousand two hundred and sixty" (n. 491), because forty-two months make three years and a half.584.
Verse 6. And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, and His name, signifies their sayings, which are scandals, against the Divine Itself and the Divine Human of the Lord, and at the same time against everything of the church from the Word, by which the Lord is worshiped. "He opened his mouth in blasphemy," signifies the things uttered, which are false; by "a mouth" is signified doctrine, preaching, and discourse (n. 452), thus by "opening the mouth," is signified to utter them; and "blasphemies" signify falsifications of the Word, and other things, as above (n. 571, 582), and in the present case, scandals, because it follows, against God and His name; by "God" is signified the Lord's Divine, as also in many other parts of Revelation; and by "his name" is signified everything by which the Lord is worshiped, likewise the Word, because worship is according to it (n. 81). That by "the name" of Jehovah, or of God, is signified the Lord's Divine Human, and at the same time the Word, likewise everything by which He is worshiped, may further appear from the following passages: Jesus said, Father, glorify Thy name; then came a voice from heaven, saying, I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again (John 12:28). Jesus said, I have manifested Thy name to men, and I have made known to them Thy name (John 17:6, 26). Whatsoever ye shall ask in My name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son; if ye shall ask anything in My name, I will do it (John 14:13-14). In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. But as many as received, to them gave He power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on His name; and the Word was made flesh (John 1:1, 12, 14). Jesus said, He that believeth not in Him is condemned already, because He hath not believed in the name of the only-begotten Son of God (John 3:18). By "the name of Jehovah God," which is not to be profaned, in the second commandment of the Decalogue; and by "the name of the Father," which is to be hallowed, in the Lord's prayer, nothing else is meant.585.
And His tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven, signifies scandals against the Lord's celestial church and against heaven. By "a tabernacle" nearly the same is signified as by "a temple," namely, in the supreme sense, the Lord's Divine Human, and, in a relative sense, heaven and the church (n. 191, 529). But by "a tabernacle," in this latter sense, is signified the celestial church, which is in the good of love from the Lord to the Lord; and by "a temple," the spiritual church, which is in the truths of wisdom from the Lord; by "them that dwell in heaven" is signified heaven. "The tabernacle" signifies the celestial church, because the Most Ancient Church, which was celestial, because in love to the Lord, held holy worship in tabernacles; and the Ancient Church, which was a spiritual church, held holy worship in temples. Tabernacles were of wood, and temples of stone, and "wood" signifies good, and "stone" truth.  That by "a tabernacle" is signified the Lord's Divine Human as to the Divine Love, likewise heaven and the church, which are in love to the Lord, may appear from the following passages: Jehovah, who shall abide in Thy tabernacle; who shall dwell in the mountain of Thy holiness? He that walketh uprightly and doeth justice, and speaketh the truth (Ps. 15:1-2). Jehovah shall hide me in His tent, in the secret of His tabernacle shall He hide me, He shall exalt me (Ps. 27:5). I will abide in Thy tabernacle forever (Ps. 61:4). Look upon Zion; thine eyes shall see Jerusalem, a quiet habitation, a tabernacle that shall not be dissipated (Isa. 33:20). Jehovah that spreadeth out the heavens as a tabernacle to dwell in (Isa. 40:22). Thou hast made Jehovah the Most High thy habitation, neither shall any plague come nigh thy tabernacle (Ps. 91:9-10). Jehovah hath set His tabernacle in their midst, and will walk in their midst (Lev. 26:11-12). Jehovah forsook the tent of Shiloh, the tabernacle in which He dwelt among men (Ps. 78:60). I heard a great voice out of heaven, saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them (Rev. 21:3). My tabernacle is devastated (Jer. 4:20; 10:20). He shall pluck thee out of the tabernacle, and root thee out of the land of the living (Ps. 52:5; besides other places, as Isa. 16:5; 54:2; Jer. 30:18; Lam. 2:4; Hos. 9:6; 12:9; Zech. 12:7).  Since the Most Ancient Church, which was a celestial church, because in love to the Lord, and thence in conjunction with Him, held holy worship in tabernacles, therefore: The Lord commanded Moses to erect a tabernacle, in which all things of heaven and the church were represented; which was so holy, that it was not lawful for anyone to go into it, except Moses, Aaron, and his sons; and if anyone of the people entered he would die (Num. 17:12-13; 18:1, 22-23; 19:14-19). In the inmost part of it was the ark, in which were the two tables of the Decalogue, over which was the mercy-seat and the cherubim; and outside the veil was the table on which was the bread of faces, the altar of incense, and the lampstand with seven lamps; all which were representatives of heaven and the church. It is described (Exod. 26:7-16; 36:8-37); and we read that: The pattern thereof was shown to Moses on Mount Sinai (Exod. 25:9; 26:30). And whatsoever is given to be seen from heaven, the same is representative of heaven, and thence of the church. In memory of the holy worship of the Lord in tabernacles by the most ancient people, and of their conjunction with Him by love, "the feast of tabernacles" was instituted, as mentioned in Lev. 23:39-44; Deut. 16:13, 14; Zech. 14:16, 18, 19.586.
Verse 7. And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them, signifies that they have assailed the Divine truths of the Word, and have overthrown them. By "war" is signified spiritual war, which is that of falsity against truth, and of truth against falsity (n. 500); hence "to make war" is to assail; by "saints" are meant they who are in Divine truths from the Lord through the Word, and thence, abstractly from persons, Divine truths (n. 173); therefore, by "overcoming them" is signified to cause that truths should not prevail, thus to overthrow them. The like is signified by these words in Daniel: The fourth beast that came up out of the sea, which had a mouth speaking great things, made war with the saints and prevailed (Dan. 7:20-21). Also by these: The he-goat ran at the ram, and cast him to the earth, and stamped upon him; and lifted himself up against the prince of the host, and the habitation of his sanctuary was cast down; and he cast down the truth to the earth (Dan. 8:5-7, 11-12). That by the "he-goat" is meant faith separated from charity, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning Faith (n. 61-68). In like manner by these words: A king shall arise hard of faces, understanding subtle things; he shall destroy the mighty, and the holy people, and he shall rise up against the Prince of princes; and fraud shall succeed and shall prosper in his hand (Dan. 8:23-25). That this "king" is the "he-goat," is said there (verse 21). The like is also signified by: The beast that came up out of the abyss, and made war with the two witnesses, and overcame and killed them (Rev. 11:7). (See n. 500.) They overcame, because the laity do not discern their subtleties, which they call mysteries, for they conceal them under appearances and fallacies; therefore they said, "Who is like unto the beast? Who is able to fight with him?" (verse 4), (n. 579, 581).  That by "saints" are meant those who are in truths from the Lord through the Word, may appear from the passages adduced above (n. 173), and also from the following: Jesus said, Father, sanctify them in Thy truth, Thy Word is truth. I sanctify Myself, that they may be sanctified in the truth; I in them, and Thou in Me (John 17:17, 19, 23). Jehovah came from Sinai, He came from the myriads of holiness, from His right hand went the fire of the law to them, all His saints are in Thy hand; he shall receive of thy words (Deut. 33:2-3). From this it is plain, that they are called "saints" who are in Divine truths from the Lord through the Word: also, that they who live according to the commandments, that is, according to the truths of the Word, were the "saints of Jehovah" (Lev. 19:2; Deut. 26:18-19). And if they would keep the covenant, they would be a "holy nation" (Exod. 19:5-6). The Decalogue is the covenant which they were to do (n. 529). Thence the place in the tabernacle, where the ark was, in which was the Decalogue, was called the holy of holies (Exod. 26:33-34).  They are called "saints" who live according to the truths of the Word; not that they are holy, but the truths in them are holy, and they are holy when they are in them from the Lord; and the Lord is in them when the truths of His Word are in them (John 15:7). By virtue of truths from the Lord the angels are called "holy" (Matt. 25:31; Luke 9:26); and in like manner the prophets (Luke 1:70; Rev. 18:20; 22:6); and the apostles (Rev. 18:20). It is for this reason that the temple is called "the temple of holiness" (Ps. 5:7; 65:4) and Zion, "the mountain of holiness" (Isa. 65:11; Jer. 31:23; Ezek. 20:40; Ps. 2:6; 3:4; 15:1). And Jerusalem is called "the holy city" (Isa. 48:2; 64:10; Rev. 21:2, 10; Matt 27:53). And the church is called "the people of saints" (Isa. 62:12; 63:18; Ps. 149:1); and also the "kingdom of saints" (Dan. 7:18, 22, 27). The reason why they were called holy, is because "angels," in an abstract sense, signify Divine truths from the Lord; "prophets," truths of doctrine; "apostles," truths of the church; "the temple," heaven and the church as to Divine truth; and, in like manner, "Zion," "Jerusalem," "the people" and "the kingdom of God." That no one is holy from himself, not even the angels, may be seen in Job 15:14, 15, but from the Lord, because "the Lord alone is holy" (Rev. 15:4). (See n. 173.)587.
And there was given to him authority over every tribe and tongue and nation, signifies thus dominion over all things of the church, both as to its doctrine and as to its life. By "authority" is signified dominion as above (n. 575); by "tribe" is signified the church as to its truths and goods, and, in an opposite sense, as to its falsities and evils (n. 27, 349); by "tongue" is signified its doctrine (n. 282, 483) and by "nation" is signified a life according to it (n. 483).588.
Verse 8. And all that dwell on the earth shall adore him, whose names are not written in the Lamb's book of life, signifies that all of the church of the Reformed acknowledged that heretical doctrine, which is meant by the "dragon" and the "beast," as holy in the church, except those who believed in the Lord. "To adore" signifies to acknowledge as a holy thing of the church, as above (n. 579-580); by "all that dwell on the earth," are signified all of the church of the Reformed (as in n. 558); by "names not written in the Lamb's book of life," is signified, except those who believe in the Lord; by "names," they are signified as to their quality (n. 81, 122, 165); by "the book of life" is signified the Word of the Lord, and all doctrine respecting Him (n. 256, 257, 259, 469); and as all the doctrine of the church from the Word refers to this point, that they should believe in the Lord, therefore this is here meant by "name written in the Lamb's book of life." Concerning faith in the Lord, see above (n. 67 and 533).589.
Slain from the foundation of the world, signifies the Lord's Divine Human not acknowledged from the establishment of the church. By "the Lamb slain" is signified that the Lord's Divine Human is not acknowledged, may be seen above (n. 59, 269), where these words are explained: I am the First and the Last, and am He that liveth, and was dead, and behold I am alive for ages of ages (Rev. 1:17-18). And the following: And I saw, and behold, in the midst of the throne, a Lamb standing as it were slain; and they sang a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, for Thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God (Rev. 5:6, 9). "From the foundation of the world," signifies from the establishment of the church, both the Jewish and the Christian. That the Jews did not acknowledge the Lord's Divine Human, is known. That the Roman Catholics do not, is also known. And that the Reformed do not, may be seen above (n. 294). By "the foundation of the world" is not here meant the creation of the world, but the establishment of the church; for by "the world," in the most extensive sense, is meant the whole world, and the good as well as the evil therein, and sometimes the evil only; but in a less extensive sense, by "the world" is meant the same as by "the globe" and "the earth," thus the church. That by "the globe" is signified the church, may be seen (n. 551), and the same by "the earth" (n. 285). That by "laying the foundation of the globe and the earth" is signified to establish the church, and that by "the founding" and "foundation" thereof, its establishment is signified, may appear from Isa. 24:18; 40:21; 48:12-13; 51:16-17; 58:12; Jer. 31:37; Micah 6:1-2; Zech. 12:1; Ps. 18:7, 15; 24:2; 82:5; 89:11. That "the world" also signifies the church, may be seen in Matt. 13:37-39; Joel 1:9-10; and that the Lord from faith in Him is called "the Savior of the world" (John 3:16-19; 4:42; 6:33, 51; 8:12; 9:4-5; 12:46-47). That "the world" also means the people of the church (John 12:19; 18:20). From this it may be seen what is signified by "the foundation of the world" (also in Matt. 25:34; Luke 11:50; John 17:24; Rev. 17:8).590.
Verse 9. If anyone hath an ear, let him hear, signifies that they should attend to this, who desire to attain wisdom. That by "having an ear to hear" is signified to perceive and obey, and also to attend, may be seen above (n. 87); that it also means those who desire to be wise, follows. Here it is said, "If anyone hath an ear let him hear," in order that they may attend to what goes before, and that otherwise they are not wise.591.
Verse 10. If anyone shall lead into captivity he shall go into captivity, signifies that he who by means of this heretical doctrine leads others away from believing well and living well, will himself be led away into hell by his own falsities and evils. By "leading into captivity" is signified to persuade and draw over to his own party, that they may consent and adhere to that heresy, which is meant by "the dragon" and "the beast," and so to lead away from believing well and from living well. By "going into captivity" is signified to be led away into hell by his own falsities and evils. By "captivity" is here meant spiritual captivity, which is to be seduced, and thus led away from truths and goods, and led into falsities and evils. That by "captivity" in the Word is meant this spiritual captivity, may appear from the following passages: Hear all ye people, and see my sorrow; my virgins and my young men have gone into captivity (Lam. 1:18). God forsook His habitation and tent where He dwelt among men, and gave his strength into captivity (Ps. 78:60-61). The wind shall feed all thy pastors, and thy lovers shall go away into captivity; then shalt thou be ashamed for all thy wickedness (Jer. 22:22). I will make Mine arrows drunk with the blood of the pierced and of the captivity (Deut. 32:42). They bend down and bow down, and their soul will go into captivity (Isa. 46:1-2). Jehovah hath sent Me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, to the bound, to the blind (Isa. 61:1; Luke 4:18-19). I have raised him up in justice; and he shall let go my captivity, not for price nor reward (Isa. 45:13). Thou hast ascended on high, Thou hast led captivity captive (Ps. 68:18). Shall the just captive be delivered? Even the captivity of the mighty shall be taken away, and the prey of the violent shall be delivered (Isa. 49:24-25). Shake thyself from the dust, sit down, O Jerusalem, open the bands of thy neck, O captive daughter of Zion (Isa. 52:2); besides other passages (Jer. 48:46, 47; 50:33, 34; Ezek. 6:1-10; 12:1-12; Obad. 1:11; Ps. 14:7; Jer. 50:33-34; Ps. 53:6). By the captivities of the sons of Israel by their enemies, spoken of in the book of Judges, and 2 Kings 25, and in the prophets, were represented, and thence signified, spiritual captivities, of which elsewhere; similar things are signified by "the bound," as by "captives," in the following passages: By the blood of thy covenant I have sent forth the bound out of the pit (Zech. 9:11). Let the sighing of the bound come to thee (Ps. 79:11). The bound shall be gathered in the pit, and shall be shut up in the prison (Isa. 24:22). That made the world as a wilderness, he opened not the house to his bound (Isa. 14:17). The King said, I was in prison, and ye came not unto me (Matt. 25:36, 43). Jesus said, Ought not this daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, be loosed from this bond on the Sabbath day? (Luke 13:16.)592.
If anyone shall kill with the sword, he must be killed with the sword, signifies that he who by falsities destroys the soul of another, is himself destroyed by falsities, and perishes. By "a sword," "a sabre," and "a long sword," is signified truths, and in the opposite sense, falsity, both combating (n. 52, 836); therefore by "killing" and "being killed" is signified to destroy and be destroyed, or to destroy and perish, which is effected by falsities.593.
Here is the patience and the faith of the saints, signifies that the man of the Lord's New Church, by temptations from them, is explored as to the quality of his life and faith. By "patience" is here signified patience in temptations, and then exploration of man's quality as to life according to the Lord's commandments, and as to faith in the Lord; therefore it is said, "here is the patience and the faith;" by "saints" are signified they who are of the Lord's New Church, specifically they who are in Divine truths therein (n. 586). Patience is predicated of temptations, whereby man is explored as to what he really is; also elsewhere in Revelation (as in chapters 1:9; 2:3, 19; 3:10). That it is as to life according to the Lord's commandments, and as to faith in Him, is evident from these words: They have no rest day nor night who adore the beast and his image, here is the patience of the saints; here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus (Rev. 14:11-12).594.
Verse 11. And I saw another beast coming up out of the earth, signifies the clergy in the churches of the Reformed who are in the doctrine and faith of the dragon concerning God and salvation. What the faith of the dragon is and its quality, may be seen above (n. 537). That it is the laity that are meant by "the beast which came up out of the sea," and the clergy by "the beast which came up out of the earth," because by "the sea" is signified the external of the church, and by "the earth" its internal (n. 398, 567); and the laity are in the externals of the doctrine of the church, and the clergy are in its internals. That the clergy are now described, appears from all the particulars which follow, when understood in the spiritual sense; and manifestly from this, that this beast is also called "the false prophet" (Rev. 16:13; 19:20; 20:10); and especially from the following passage: And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that did signs before him, by which he seduced them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that adored his image (Rev. 19:20). That this beast did signs before the other, by which he seduced them, is said in this chapter in these words: And he doeth great signs, and he seduceth them that dwell on the earth, on account of the signs which it was given him to do before the beast, saying to them to make an image to the beast, and adore it (Rev. 13:13-15).595.
And he had two horns like a lamb, and he spoke like the dragon, signifies that they speak, teach, and write from the Word, as if it were from the Lord's Divine truth, and yet it is truth falsified. By "horns" is signified power (n. 270, 443), here the power of speaking, teaching, and writing, thus of reasoning and arguing. That the horns were seen "like a lamb," signifies that they propagate these their notions as though they were the Lord's Divine truths, because they are from the Word; for by "a lamb" is meant the Lord as to the Divine Human, and also as to the Word, which is the Divine truth from the Divine good; hence it is that upon this beast, which is also the false prophet (n. 594), there appeared two horns like a lamb; but that they were Divine truths falsified, is signified by "he spoke like a dragon." That all the truths of the Word are falsified by those who are in the faith of the dragon concerning God and salvation, may be seen above (n. 566).  That these two things are signified by "this beast had two horns like a lamb and he spoke like a dragon," appears evidently from these words of the Lord in Matthew: If anyone shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there, believe it not; for there shall arise false Christs and false prophets, and shall give great signs and wonders, insomuch that if it were possible, they shall lead into error the elect; behold I have told you before (Matt. 24:23-25). By "Christ" is signified the same as here by "lamb"; namely the Lord as to the Divine truth of the Word; therefore their saying, "Lo, here is Christ," signifies that they would say that this is the Divine truth of the Word; but that it is that falsified is signified by these words: "If anyone shall say unto you, here is Christ, or there, believe it not, for there shall arise false Christs and false prophets." That these are they concerning whom the Lord prophesied, is plain from this, that it is said they would give great signs and wonders, and would if possible lead into error the elect; the same as is said of the beast, which is the false prophet (in verses 13, 14, of this chapter). The things which the Lord foretold in that chapter of Matthew relate to the last time or state of the church, which is there meant by "the consummation of the age."596.
Verse 12. And he exerciseth all the authority of the first beast before him, signifies that they have confirmed the dogmas which are signified by "the dragon," and are received by the laity, and that through it they prevail. That this is signified, may be seen from the explanation above concerning the authority given by the dragon to the beast coming up out of the sea (n. 575, 579); and because this beast, which is the false prophet, exercised that authority before the dragon, nothing else is signified than that they caused them to prevail by confirmations.597.
And He causeth the earth and them that dwell therein to adore the first beast the stroke of whose death was healed, signifies that thus by confirmations they have established this, that it is to be acknowledged as a holy thing of the church, that because no one can do a good work from himself and fulfill the law, the only means of salvation is faith in the justice and merit of Christ, who suffered for man, and thereby took away the condemnation of the law. It is unnecessary to explain this any further, because it follows from the explanations given above (n. 566, 577-582). By "the earth and them that dwell therein," are signified the churches of the Reformed as above; "to adore" signifies to acknowledge as a holy thing of the church, as appears also above; here this is meant by "the beast coming up out of the sea, after the stroke of his death was healed;" and this has been explained already.598.
Verse 13. And he doeth great signs, signifies testifications that the things they teach are true, although they are false. By "signs" are signified testifications that things are true, because formerly signs were wrought to bear testimony to the truth. But after signs and miracles ceased, their signification still remains, which is a testification of the truth. But here by "signs" are signified testifications from the beast or false prophet, that his falsities were truths, by reason that after they are confirmed they do not appear otherwise. That the testifications that it is the truth are signified by signs, may appear from the following passages: In the consummation of the age there shall arise false Christs and false prophets, and shall give great signs and portents, and, if it were possible, they shall lead into error the very elect (Matt. 24:24; Mark 13:22). There shall also be dreadful signs from heaven; and there shall be signs in the sun, the moon, and the stars, the sea and the waves roaring (Luke 21:11, 25). Jehovah maketh void the signs of the liars. He maketh the diviners mad, rejecting the wise men backward and maketh their science foolish (Isa. 44:25). Learn not the way of the nations, and be not dismayed by the signs of the heavens (Jer. 10:2). They are the spirits of demons working signs to gather them to the battle of that great day (Rev. 16:14). The beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that did signs before him, and seduced (Rev. 19:20).  That "signs" were testifications that it was truth, appears further from the following passages: The disciples said to Jesus, What sign doest Thou, that we may believe Thee? What dost Thou work? (John 6:30-33.) The Jews, Scribes, and Pharisees sought a sign of the Lord, that they might know that He was the Christ (Matt. 12:38-40; 16:1-4; Mark 8:11, 12; Luke 11:16, 29-30; John 2:16, 18-19). The disciples said to Jesus, What is the sign of Thy coming and of the consummation of the age? (Matt. 24:3; Mark 13:4.) If they will not believe thee, nor hear the voice of the first sign, yet they will believe the voice of the latter sign (Exod. 4:8). "The voice of a sign" is testification. They showed among them the words of His signs (Ps. 105:27). He said unto Ahaz, Ask thee a sign from Jehovah (Isa. 7:11, 14). This shall be a sign from Jehovah unto thee, behold, I will bring again the shadow of the degrees, which is gone down in the sun dial of Ahaz (Isa. 38:7-8). Hezekiah had said, What is the sign that I shall go up to the house of Jehovah? (Isa. 38:22.) This shall be a sign unto you, that I will visit upon you in this place, that ye may know that my words shall stand (Jer. 44:29-30). O Jehovah, make me a sign for good, that they which hate me may see and be ashamed (Ps. 86:17). Let them announce to you 598-1 what shall happen, that we may set our heart; show a sign of what is to come, that we may know that ye are gods (Isa. 41:22-23). Thine enemies roar in the midst of thy festival, they have set up their signs for signs (Ps. 74:3-4, 9; besides other places; as Isa. 45:11, 13; Jer. 32:20-21; Ezek. 4:3; Ps. 65:6-8; 78:42-43; Exod. 7:3; Num. 14:11, 22; Deut. 4:34; 13:1-3; Judges 6:17, 21; 1 Sam. 2:34; 14:10; Mark 16:17-18, 20; Luke 2:11-12, 16). The like is signified by "the sign of the covenant" (Gen. 9:13; 17:11; Ezek. 20:12, 20).  Hence it may clearly be seen, that by "the great signs," which this beast of the dragon works, are not meant signs, but the testifications by them that what they teach are truths; for every heretic who has confirmed himself in falsities, after confirmation strives to prove that his falsities are truths; for then he no longer sees truths, inasmuch as the confirmation of falsity is the denial of truth, and a truth denied loses its light; and so far as falsities shine from the light of confirmation, which is a fatuous light, so far the light of truth becomes darkness, as may be seen above (n. 566).599.
So that he also maketh fire to come down from heaven upon earth before men, signifies attestations that their falsities are truths of heaven, and that they who receive them are saved, and that they who do not receive them perish. The reason why this is signified by these words, is, because the greatest signs were made by fire from heaven; whence it was a common expression among the ancients in confirmation of anything, when the attestation of truth was spoken of, that "they could bring down fire from heaven and testify it;" by which was signified that they could testify even to that extent. That the truth was also attested by "fire from heaven," appears from the following passages: That the burnt-offering which was offered by Aaron was consumed by fire from heaven (Lev. 9:24). In like manner the burnt-offering offered by Elijah (1 Kings 18:38).  "Fire from heaven," in the opposite sense, was a sign testifying that they were in evils and thence in falsities and that they would perish; but this fire was a consuming fire; as: The fire from heaven that consumed the two sons of Aaron (Lev. 10:1-6). That which consumed two hundred and fifty men (Num. 26:10). That which consumed the uttermost parts of the camp (Num. 11:1-4). That which twice consumed fifty men sent by the king to Elijah (2 Kings 1:10, 12). The fire and brimstone from heaven upon Sodom (Gen. 19:24-25). The fire from heaven which consumed those who compassed the camp of the saints and the beloved city (concerning which see Rev. 20:9). The disciples being angry with the impenitent, said to Jesus, Lord, wilt Thou that we call fire to come down from heaven and consume them? (Luke 9:54.) These passages are adduced to show that "fire from heaven" signifies a testification, yea, an attestation, that truth is truth, and, in the opposite sense, that falsity is truth, as here. "Fire" also signifies celestial love, and thus zeal for the truth, and in the opposite sense, infernal love, and thence zeal for falsity (n. 468, 494).600.
Verse 14. And he seduceth them that dwell on the earth, on account of the signs which were given him to do before the beast, signifies that by their testifications and attestations they lead the men of the church into errors. "To seduce" signifies to lead into errors; by "them that dwell on the earth" are signified the men of the churches of the Reformed, as above (n. 578-588, 597); by "the signs" which it was given him to do before the beast, are signified testifications, and attestations (n. 598-599); by "the beast out of the sea," before which the signs were done, is signified the faith of the dragon among the laity (n. 567); and by "the beast coming up out of the earth," which did signs, and which in other places is called the false prophet, is signified the faith of the dragon among the clergy (n. 594). The like is said by the Lord in Matthew (24:24-26).
551-1 The Hebrew has "his."
565-1 English Bible, 13:1.
598-1 The Hebrew has "us."