Apocalypse Revealed, by Emanuel Swedenborg, , tr. by John Whitehead , at sacred-texts.com
And all green grass was burnt up, signifies, thus every living thing of faith. By "being burnt up" is signified to perish, as just above (n. 400); by "green grass," in the Word, is signified that good and truth of the church or of faith, which first springs up in the natural man; the same also is signified by "the herb of the field"; and because faith lives from good and truth, therefore by "all green grass was burnt up," is signified that every living thing of faith perished; and every living thing of faith perishes when there is no affection of good and perception of truth, of which just above. That "grass" signifies this is also from correspondence; wherefore they who separate faith from charity, not only in doctrine but also in life, in the spiritual world pass the time in a desert, where there is not even grass. As "a fruit tree" signifies man as to the affections of good and the perceptions of truth, so "green grass" signifies man as to that of the church which is first conceived and also born in him, and "grass not green" signifies the same destroyed. In general all things which are in gardens, woods, fields, and plains, signify man as to something of the church, or what is the same, something of the church with him; the reason is, because they correspond. That "grass" has this signification, may appear from these passages: The voice said, Cry; and he said, What shall I cry? All flesh is grass, the grass withereth, and the flower fadeth, because the wind hath breathed upon it; truly the people is grass. The grass withereth and the flower fadeth, but the Word of our God shall stand for ever (Isa. 40:5-8). The inhabitants were as the herb of the field, and as the green grass, as the grass of the roofs, and a field burned before the corn (Isa. 37:27; 2 Kings 19:26). I will pour out My blessing upon those born of thee, and they shall spring up in the midst of the grass (Isa. 44:3-4; and in other places; as in Isa. 51:12; Ps. 37:2; 103:15; 129:6; Deut. 32:2). That by "green" or "growing green," is signified what is living or alive, is evident in Jeremiah 11:16; 17:8; Ezekiel 17:24; 20:47; Hosea 14:8; Psalms 37:35; 52:8; 92:10, 14. The same as what is here described in Revelation came to pass in Egypt, namely: By hail and fire mingled, every tree and every herb of the field was burnt up (Exod. 9:29-35; Ps. 78:47-49; 105:32-33).402.
Verse 8. And the second angel sounded, signifies the exploration and manifestation of what the state of the church is with those who are exteriorly in that faith. That "to sound with a trumpet" signifies to explore and make manifest the state of the church, and thence of the life with those whose religion is faith alone, may be seen above (n. 397). It is said of those who are exteriorly in that faith, because they are here treated of who are in "the sea," and previously they were treated of who were on "the earth;" and by those who were on "the earth" are meant such as are in the internals of the church, who are the clergy, and by those who are in "the sea" are meant such as are in the externals of the church, who are the laity, as may be seen above (n. 398), who in the spiritual world appear as it were in the sea (n. 238, 290).403.
And as it were a mountain 403-1 burning with fire was cast into the sea, signifies the appearance of infernal love with those who are in the externals of the church and in faith alone. By "the sea" is signified the church with those who are in externals, and in faith alone; and they who are in externals are called, in common language, the laity, because they who are in internals are called the clergy (n. 397, 402). "A mountain" signifies love (n. 336), and "a mountain burning with fire" signifies infernal love (n. 494, 599); this is the appearance of this love with those who are here treated of, and is so seen by the angels; the reason is, because faith alone is faith separated from charity (n. 388); and where there is no charity, that is, love towards the neighbor, which is spiritual love, there is infernal love; an intermediate love does not exist except among the lukewarm (concerning whom see in Revelation 3:15, 16).404.
And the third part of the sea became blood signifies that all general truths with them were falsified. By "the third part" is signified all (n. 400); by "blood" is signified the falsification of the truth of the Word (n. 379); by "the sea" is signified the church with those who are in its externals, and in faith alone (n. 398, 402). General truths are falsified with such because they are in them alone, for they do not know the particulars of that faith, as the clergy do; it is from the general truths with them that they appear as in a sea in the spiritual world; the reason is, because waters signify truths (n. 50), and the sea is their general receptacle (n. 238).405.
Verse 9. And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea that had souls died, signifies that they who have lived and do live this faith cannot be reformed and receive life. By "the third part" is signified all of them, as above; by "creatures" are meant those who can be reformed (n. 290); the reason is, because "to create" signifies to reform (n. 254). By "having souls" is signified to be capable of receiving life by reformation; by "they died" is signified that they who live that faith alone cannot receive life; the reason why they cannot is because all are reformed by faith united to charity, thus by the faith of charity, and no one by faith alone, for charity is the life of faith.  Since the affections and thence the perceptions and thoughts of spirits and angels, in the spiritual world, appear at a distance in the forms of animals or creatures upon the earth, which are called beasts, of creatures in the air which are called birds, and of creatures in the sea which are called fishes, therefore in the Word mention is so often made of "beasts," "birds," and "fishes," by which nothing else is meant; as in these passages: Jehovah hath a strife with the inhabitants of the earth, because there is no truth, nor mercy, nor knowledge of God; and everyone that dwelleth therein shall waste away, the beast of the field, and the bird of the heavens; yea, the fishes of the sea shall be collected (Hos. 4:1, 3). I will consume man and beast, the bird of the heavens and the fishes of the sea, and the stumbling blocks with the wicked (Zeph. 1:3). There shall be a great earthquake upon the land of Israel, and the fishes of the sea, and the bird of the heavens, and the beast of the field, shall tremble before Me (Ezek. 38:18-20). Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under his feet, the beasts of the field, the bird of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever passeth through the way of the seas (Ps. 8:6-8). This is concerning the Lord: But, ask now, the beasts, and they will teach thee; or the birds of heaven, and they shall announce to thee; and the fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee. Who knoweth not from all these that the hand of Jehovah hath done this? (Job 12:7-9). Besides many other places.  By "fishes" or "creatures of the sea," are here meant the affections and thence the thoughts of those men who are in general truths, and are thus more attracted by what is natural than what is spiritual; these are meant by "fishes" in the passages above cited, and also in the following: Behold, at My rebuke I dry up the sea, I make the rivers a wilderness: their fish putrefy, and die of thirst (Isa. 50:2). The king of Egypt is a great whale that lieth in the midst of thy rivers; thou hast said, The river is mine, I have made it; therefore I will make the fish of thy rivers to adhere to thy scales, and I will leave thee in the wilderness, thee and all the fish of thy rivers (Ezek. 29:3-5). These things were said to the king of Egypt, because by "Egypt" is signified the natural separated from the spiritual, and therefore by "the fishes of his rivers" are meant those who are in doctrinals, and from them in faith separated, which faith is only science; on account of this separation, one of the miracles that were performed there was as follows: That their waters were turned into blood, and that thereby the fish died (Exod. 7:17-25; Ps. 105:29).  Again: Wherefore dost thou make man as the fishes of the sea, everyone draweth out with a hook, 405-1 and gathereth into the net (Hab. 1:14-16). "Fishes" here are for those who are in general truths, and in faith separated from charity. But "fishes" signify those who are in general truths and in faith conjoined with charity, in Ezekiel: He said unto me, These are the waters that go forth to the eastern boundary; they come to the sea, whence it is that every soul that creepeth liveth: and exceeding much fish; the fishers shall stand upon it to spread forth nets; its fish shall be according to their kinds, exceeding many like the fish of the great sea (Ezek. 47:8-10). In Matthew: Jesus said, The kingdom of the heavens is like unto a net that was cast into the sea, and they collected fishes, the good they put into vessels, but cast the bad away (Matt. 13:47-49). And in Jeremiah: I will bring again the sons of Israel upon their land, and, I will send for many fishers, who shall fish them (Jer. 16:15-16).  He that knows therefore, that such persons and things are signified by "fishes," may see why: The Lord chose fishers for His disciples, and said, Come unto Me, and I will make you fishers of men (Matt. 15:18-19; Mark 1:16-17). That the disciples, by the blessing of the Lord, caught an immense multitude of fishes, and the Lord said unto Peter, Fear not, from henceforth thou shalt catch men (Luke 5:2-10). Why the Lord, when they wished to take tribute of Him, said to Peter to go to the sea, and draw up a fish, and give the piece of money found in it for Himself and him (Matt. 17:24-27). Why the Lord, after the resurrection, gave the disciples a fish and bread to eat (John 21:2-13). And said to them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature (Mark 16:15). For "the nations" which they converted were only in general truths, in natural truth more than in spiritual.406.
And the third part of the ships perished, signifies that all the knowledges of good and truth from the Word serving for use of life were destroyed with them. "The third part" signifies all, as above (n. 400, 404, 405); "ships" signify the knowledges of good and truth from the Word serving for the use of life. That these are signified by "ships" is because ships cross the sea, and bring back the necessaries which are for the natural man for every use; and the knowledges of good and truth are the necessaries which are for the spiritual man for every use of it; for from them is the doctrine of the church, and according to this is life. "Ships" signify these knowledges, because they are containers; and in many places in the Word the container is taken for the thing contained, as a cup for wine, a platter for food, the tabernacle and the temple for the holy things in them, the ark for the law, the altars for worship, and so on.  "Ships" signify the knowledges of good and truth in the following passages: Zebulon shall dwell at the shore of the seas, and he is for a port of the ships (Gen. 49:13). By "Zebulon" is meant the conjunction of good and truth. O Tyre, the builders have perfected thy beauty; of firs from Senir have they made all thy boards; they have taken the cedar of Lebanon to make a mast; they have made thine oars of the oaks of Bashan; thine oar-bench have they made of ivory, the daughter of steps from the isles of Kittim; the inhabitants of Sidon and Arvad were thy rowers; thy wise men were thy ship-masters; all the ships of the sea and their sailors were in thee to trade; the ships of Tarshish were thy troops in thy tradings; whence thou wast exceedingly filled and honored in the heart of the seas (Ezek. 27:4-9, 25). This is concerning Tyre, because the church as to the knowledges of truth and good is signified by "Tyre" in the Word, as may be evident from the particulars concerning it in this chapter and in the eighteenth following, when understood in the spiritual sense. And as the knowledges of the truth and good of the church are signified by "Tyre," a ship is therefore described as to the particulars of it, and by each one is signified some quality of those knowledges that conduces to intelligence. What has the Word in common with the ships of Tyre and its commerce?  The devastation of that church is afterwards described thus: At the voice of the cry of thy shipmasters the suburbs shall quake, and all that hold an oar shall descend from thy ships, all mariners and shipmasters of the sea shall cry out bitterly upon thee (Ezek. 27:28-30; also Isa. 23:14-15). The devastation of Babylon as to all the knowledges of truth is similarly described in what follows in Revelation: In one hour are so great riches devastated; every pilot and everyone employed upon ships, and the sailors, shall cry out, saying, Alas, alas, that great city Babylon, in which all who have ships in the sea were made rich (Rev. 18:17, 19).  See the explanation below. The knowledges of truth and good are also signified by "ships" in the following passages: My days were swift, they fled away, they saw not good, they passed by with the ships of desire (Job 9:25-26). They that go down to the sea in ships, that do work in many waters, these see the works of Jehovah, and His wonders in the deep (Ps. 107:23-24). The isles shall trust in Me, and the ships of Tarshish in the beginning, to bring thy children from afar (Isa. 60:9). The kings gathered themselves together, terror seized them; thou shalt break the ships of Tarshish by the east wind (Ps. 48:4-7). Howl, ye ships of Tarshish (Isa. 23:1, 14; besides other places, as Num. 24:24; Judges 5:17; Ps. 104:26; Isa. 33:21).407.
Verse 10. And the third angel sounded, signifies the exploration and manifestation of the 407-1 church with those whose religion is faith alone, of what quality they are as to the affection and reception of truths from the Word. That this is signified may be evident from the things which now follow, when understood in the spiritual sense.408.
And there fell from heaven a great star burning as it were a lamp, signifies the appearance of their own intelligence from pride arising from infernal love. The appearance of their own intelligence from pride arising from infernal love is signified by "the great star falling from heaven," because it was seen "to burn as a lamp," and because its name was "wormwood," as it follows; and by "a star" and also by "a lamp" intelligence is signified, here one's own intelligence, because it seemed to burn, and all self-intelligence burns from pride; and the pride of it arises from infernal love, which is signified by "the mountain burning with fire" (n. 403). By "wormwood" infernal falsity is signified, from which that intelligence exists and is enkindled. That "a star" signifies intelligence may be seen (n. 151, 954); so too "a lamp" or "a lantern" (796).409.
And it fell upon a third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters, signifies that thence all the truths of the Word were altogether falsified. By "rivers" are signified truths in abundance, because truths are signified by "waters" (n. 50); and by "fountains of waters" the Word is signified (n. 384). The truths of the Word were altogether falsified; because it follows that "the third part of the waters became wormwood," and by "wormwood" infernal falsity is signified (n. 410).  That "rivers" signify truths in abundance may be evident from the following passages: Behold, I do a new thing: I will give waters in the wilderness and rivers in the solitude to give drink to My people, My chosen (Isa. 43:19-20). I will pour water upon the thirsty, and rivers upon the dry ground; I will pour My spirit upon thy seed, and My blessing upon thy children (Isa. 44:3). Then the tongue of the dumb shall sing; for in the wilderness shall waters break out, and rivers in the plain of the wilderness (Isa. 35:6). I will open rivers upon the hillsides, and I will put fountains in the midst of the valleys, I will make the wilderness a pool of waters, and the dry land springs of water (Isa. 41:18). Jehovah hath founded the world upon the seas, He hath established it upon the rivers (Ps. 24:2). I will put His hand in the sea, and His right hand in the rivers (Ps. 89:25). Was Jehovah incensed at the rivers? Was thy anger against the rivers? Was thy wrath against the sea, because thou dost ride upon thy horses? (Hab. 3:8.) A river whose streams shall make glad the city of God (Ps. 46:4). He showed me a pure river of water of life, going forth from the throne of God and of the Lamb (Rev. 22:1). He clave the rock in the wilderness, and gave them drink from the great deeps; He smote the rock and the rivers flowed forth (Ps. 78:15-16, 20; 105:41). Then the waters shall fail in the sea, and the river shall be dried up (Isa. 19:5-7; 42:15; 50:2; Nahum 1:4; Ps. 107:33; Job 14:11). Jesus said, if anyone come unto Me, as the Scripture hath said, Out of his belly shall flow living water (John 7:37, 38. Besides other places, as Isa. 33:21; Jer. 17:7-8; Ezek. 31:3, 4; 47:1-12; Joel 3:18; Zech. 9:10; Ps. 80:11; 93:3-4; 98:7-8; 110:7; Num. 24:6-7; Deut. 8:7).  But that "rivers" in the opposite sense signify falsities in abundance may be evident from these: He shall send ambassadors on the sea to a nation trodden down, whose land the rivers have despoiled (Isa. 18:2). Except Jehovah were for us, the waters would have submerged us, and the river would have gone over our soul (Ps. 124:2-5). When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee, and through the rivers, they shall not submerge thee (Isa. 43:2). The cords of death encompassed me, and the floods of Belial terrified me (Ps. 18:5). The dragon cast forth water as a river out of his mouth after the woman, that he might cause her to be swallowed up by the flood (Rev. 12:15). Behold, Jehovah bringeth up upon you the waters of a river strong and many, and it shall inundate and go over, and shall reach even to the neck (Isa. 8:7-8). The floods came, and beat upon that house, and it fell not, for it was founded upon a rock (Matt. 7:25, 27; Luke 6:48-49). Here "floods or rivers" also stand for falsities in abundance, because the Lord as to the Divine Truth is signified by "the rock." By "floods" also temptations are signified, because temptations are inundations of falsities.410.
Verse 11. And the name of the star is called Wormwood; and the third part of the waters became wormwood, signifies the infernal falsity from which their own intelligence is derived, and by which all the truths of the Word are falsified. By "a star" is signified their own intelligence springing from pride from infernal love (n. 408). By "name" is signified its quality (n. 81, 122, 165); by "wormwood" is signified infernal falsity concerning which something will be said presently; by "waters" are signified truths (n. 50), here the truths of the Word, because the subject relates to faith; by "the third part" is signified all, as above; from these taken together the sense results as delivered above. "Wormwood" signifies infernal falsity, from its intense bitterness, whereby it renders food and drink abominable; such falsity is signified therefore by "wormwood," in the following passages: Behold, I feed these people with wormwood, and I will give them water of gall to drink (Jer. 9:14-15). Thus saith Jehovah against the prophets: Behold, I feed them with wormwood, and I will make them drink the water of gall; for from the prophets of Jerusalem hypocrisy is gone forth into the whole earth (Jer. 23:15). Ye turn judgment into gall, and the fruit of justice into wormwood (Amos 5:7; 6:12). Lest there should be among you a root that beareth gall and wormwood (Deut. 29:18). Since the Jewish church had falsified all the truths of the Word, like the church here treated of, and since the Lord by all things of His passion represented it, by permitting the Jews to treat Him as they did the Word, because He was the Word, therefore: They gave Him vinegar mingled with gall (which is like wormwood), but, tasting it, He would not drink (Matt. 27:34; Mark 15:23; Ps. 69:21). Because the Jewish church was such, therefore it is thus described: He hath filled me with bitterness, and hath made me drunken with wormwood (Lam. 3:15, 18-19).411.
And many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter, signifies the extinction of spiritual life with many from the falsified truths of the Word. "Many men died," signifies the extinction of spiritual life; for man from the spiritual life with him is called alive, but from the natural life separated from spiritual life, he is called dead; "of the waters because they were made bitter," signifies by the falsified truths of the Word; that "waters" are the truths of the Word may be seen above (n. 409). The reason why "bitter" signifies what is falsified, is, because the bitter of wormwood is meant, and by "wormwood" is signified infernal falsity (n. 410).  A Christian man has spiritual life from no other source than from the truths of the Word, for in them there is life; but when the truths of the Word are falsified, and man understands and views them according to the falsities of his religion, then spiritual life with him is extinguished. The reason is, because the Word communicates with heaven, therefore when it is read by man, the truths therein ascend into heaven, and the falsities to which truths are adjoined or conjoined, tend towards hell, whence there is a rending asunder, whereby the life of the Word is extinguished. But this is the case only with those who confirm falsities by the Word, but not with those who do not confirm them. I have seen such rendings asunder, and have heard the noise like that of wood split by the fire on a hearth.  "Bitter" signifies what is falsified also in the following passages: Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil, that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter (Isa. 5:20). They shall not drink wine with a song; strong drink shall be bitter to them that drink it (Isa. 24:9). The like is signified by: The little book that was eaten, which was sweet in the mouth, and by which the belly was made bitter (Rev. 10:9-10). And by this: They came to Marah but they could not drink of the waters, on account of the bitterness; but Jehovah showed him wood, which he cast into the waters, and they became sweet (Exod. 15:23-25). "Wood," in the Word, signifies good. The same is also signified by: The wild gourds which were put into the pottage, by reason of which the sons of the prophets cried out, There is death in the pot, which Elisha healed by putting in meal (2 Kings 4:38-41). Meal signifies truth from good.412.
Verse 12. And the fourth angel sounded, signifies the exploration and manifestation of the state of the church with those whose religion is faith alone, that they are in the evils of falsity, and in the falsities of evil. That this is the signification of these words, is evident from what follows, when understood in the spiritual sense. "To sound" signifies here, as before, to explore and make manifest (n. 398, 402, 407).413.
And the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars, so that the third part of them was darkened, signifies that by reason of evils from falsities and of falsities from evils, they did not know what love is, or what faith is, or any truth. By "the third part" is signified all (n. 400); by "the sun" is signified love (n. 53); by "the moon" is signified intelligence and faith (n. 332); by "stars" are signified the knowledges of truth and good from the Word (n. 51); by "being darkened" is signified not to be seen or known by reason of evils from falsities and falsities from evils. Evils from falsities are with those who assume the falsities of religion, and confirm them till they appear as truths, and when they live according to them they do evils from falsities, or the evils of falsity. But those have falsities from evils, who do not regard evils as sins; and still more those who, by reasonings from the natural man, and more still from the Word, confirm with themselves that evils are not sins. The confirmations themselves are falsities from evils, and are called the falsities of evil.  The reason that "darkness" signifies this is because light signifies truth; and when the light is extinguished, there comes darkness. In confirmation the passages will first be adduced, where similar things to those here in Revelation are said of "the sun, the moon, and the stars," and of "the darkness" arising from the extinction of them: The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and terrible day of Jehovah cometh (Joel 2:31). The stars of the heavens and their constellations shall not shine with their light; the sun shall be darkened in his rising; and the moon shall not make her light to shine (Isa. 13:10; see also 24:23). When I shall extinguish thee, I will cover the heavens; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not make her light to shine; all the luminaries of light in the heavens will I make black over thee, and I will set darkness upon thy land (Ezek. 32:7-8). The day of Jehovah is near; the sun and the moon are blackened, and the stars shall withdraw their brightness (Joel 2:10). Immediately after the affliction of those days the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven (Matt. 24:29; Mark 13:24-25). Who, that elevates his mind, cannot see that the sun, the moon, and the stars of the world are not meant in these cases?  That falsities of various kinds are signified by "darkness," is evident from these passages: Woe to them that desire the day of Jehovah; it is a day of darkness and not of light: is not the day of Jehovah darkness, and not light, thick darkness, and not brightness? (Amos 5:18, 20). The day of Jehovah is a day of darkness and thick darkness, a day of cloud and of cloudiness (Zeph. 1:15). In that day He shall look down upon the earth, which, behold, is darkness; and the light shall grow dark in its ruins (Isa. 5:30; 8:22). Behold, darkness covereth the earth, and thick darkness the peoples (Isa. 60:2). Give glory to Jehovah, before He cause darkness: we wait for light, but He maketh it thick darkness (Jer. 13:16). We wait for light, but behold darkness, and not brightness; we walk in thick darkness; we stumble at noon as in the twilight, as if dead among the living (Isa. 59:9-10). Woe to them that put darkness for light, and light for darkness (Isa. 5:20). The people walking in darkness see a great light (Isa. 9:2; Matt. 4:16). The dayspring from on high hath appeared to those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death (Luke 1:78-79). If thou give thy soul to the hungry, then shall thy light rise in the darkness, and thy thick darkness shall be as the noonday (Isa. 58:10). In that day the eyes of the blind, who are in thick darkness and darkness, shall see (Isa. 29:18; 42:16; 49:9). Jesus said, I am the light of the world; he that followeth Me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life (John 8:12). Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness seize upon you: I am come a light into the world, that everyone that believeth in Me should not abide in darkness (John 12:35, 46). When I sit in darkness Jehovah is a light unto me (Micah 7:8). This is the judgment, that light hath come into the world; but men loved the darkness more than the light (John 3:19; 1:4-5). If the light [lumen] that is in thee be darkness, how great is the darkness (Luke 11:34-36). This is your hour, and the power of darkness (Luke 22:53). By "darkness" in these places is signified falsity arising either from ignorance of the truth, or from a false principle of religion, or from a life of evil. Concerning those who are in the falsities of religion and thence in evils of life, the Lord says that they shall be cast into outer darkness (Matt. 8:12; 22:13; 25:30).414.
That the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise, signifies that there is no longer any spiritual truth nor natural truth serving for doctrine and life from the Word with them. By "the day not shining," is meant that there was no light from the sun; and by "no night likewise," is meant that there was no light from the moon and stars. By "light," in general, is signified the Divine truth, which is truth from the Word; by "the light of the sun," Divine truth spiritual; and by the light of the moon and stars, the Divine truth natural, both from the Word. The Divine truth, in the spiritual sense of the Word, is like the light of the sun by day; and the Divine truth in the natural sense of the Word, is like the light of the moon and stars by night. The spiritual sense of the Word also flows into its natural sense as the sun does with its light into the moon, which gives forth the light of the sun in a mediate manner. In the same way does the spiritual sense of the Word enlighten men, even those who know nothing at all concerning it, whilst they read the Word in its natural sense; but it enlightens the spiritual man, as the sun's light does the eye; but the natural man, as the light of the moon and stars enlighten his eye. Everyone is enlightened according to the spiritual affection of truth and good, and at the same time according to genuine truths, by which he has opened his rational faculty.  The same is meant by "day" and "night," in the following passages: And God said, Let there be luminaries in the expanse of the heavens to distinguish between the day and the night; and God made two great luminaries, the great luminary to rule in the day, and the lesser luminary to rule in the night; and the stars: And God set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth, and to rule in the day and in the night, and to distinguish between the light and the darkness (Gen. 1:14-19). Jehovah made great luminaries, the sun to rule in the day, the moon and stars to rule in the night (Ps. 136:7-9). To Thee, O Jehovah, is the day, and to Thee the night; Thou hast prepared the light and the sun (Ps. 74:16). Jehovah that giveth the sun for the light of the day, the statutes of the moon and stars for the light of the night (Jer. 31:35). If ye can make void My covenant of the day and My covenant of the night, that there should not be day and night in their season, My covenant also with David My servant shall be made void; if I have not set My covenant of the day and of the night, the statutes of heaven and earth, I will also reject the seed of Jacob and of David (Jer. 33:20-21, 25-26). These are adduced, that it may be known that the darkening of both kinds of light is meant.415.
Verse 13. And I saw and I heard an angel flying in the midst of heaven, signifies instruction and prediction from the Lord. By "an angel," in the highest sense, is meant the Lord, and thence also something from the Lord (n. 344) and by "flying in the midst of heaven and saying," is signified to perceive and understand, and when concerning the Lord, to foresee and provide (n. 245); but here, to instruct and foretell.416.
Saying with a great voice, Woe, woe, woe, to them that dwell upon the earth, by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels which are about to sound, signifies deepest lamentation over the damned state of those in the church, who in doctrine and life have confirmed themselves in faith separated from charity. By "woe" is signified lamentation over the evil with anyone, and thence over his unhappy state; here, over the damned state of those who are treated of in the next chapter, and afterwards. And by "Woe, woe, woe," is signified the deepest lamentation; for triplication makes the superlative, because "three" signifies all and full (n. 505). By "them that dwell upon the earth" are meant they who are in the church where the Word is, and by which the Lord is known: that "earth" signifies the church may be seen above (n. 285). By "the voices of the trumpet of the three angels which are about to sound," is signified the exploration and manifestation of the state of the church and of life with those who by doctrine and life have confirmed in themselves faith separated from charity, over whose state lamentation is made. "Woe" signifies lamentation over the present or future calamity, unhappiness, or damnation of others, in these passages: Woe unto you, Pharisees and hypocrites (Matt. 23:13-16, 23, 25, 27, 29). Woe unto that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed (Luke 22:22). Woe unto him by whom offenses come (Luke 17:1). Woe unto them that join house to house. Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning to follow strong drink. Woe unto them that draw iniquity. Woe unto them that call evil good. Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes. Woe unto them that are mighty to drink wine (Isa. 5:8, 11, 18, 20-22; and in many other places).417.
To the above I will add this Relation. I saw in the spiritual world two flocks, one of goats and the other of sheep; I wondered who they were, for I knew that animals, seen in the spiritual world, are not animals, but correspondences of the affections and thence of the thoughts of those who are there. Wherefore I approached nearer, and as I drew near, the likenesses of animals disappeared, and instead of them were seen men. And it was shown, that they who constituted the flock of goats, were those who had confirmed themselves in the doctrine of justification by faith alone; and they who constituted the flock of sheep, were those who believed that charity and faith are a one, as good and truth are a one.  And then I spoke with those who had been seen as goats, and said, "Why are you thus assembled?" They consisted chiefly of clergy, who gloried in their fame for erudition, because they knew the arcana of justification by faith alone. They said that they were assembled to sit in council, because they had heard that what is said by Paul (Romans 3:28), that "man is justified by faith without the works of the Law," was not rightly understood, because Paul by "the works of the Law" meant the works of the Mosaic law, which was for the Jews; which we also clearly see from his words to Peter; whom he rebuked for judaizing, when yet he knew that "no one is justified by the works of the Law" (Galatians 2:14-16); also, that he distinguishes between the law of faith and the law of works; and between Jews and Gentiles, or circumcision and uncircumcision, meaning by circumcision, Judaism, as everywhere else; and likewise from his summing up with these words: Do we then abrogate the law through faith? Not so, but we establish the Law (Rom. 3:31). He says all these things in one series (Romans 3:27-31); and he also says in the preceding chapter: For not the hearers of the Law are justified by God, but the doers of the Law shall be justified (Rom. 3:13). God will render to every man according to his deeds (Rom. 2:6). We must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that each one may receive the things done in the body, whether they be good or evil (2 Cor. 5:10). Besides many other things from him; from which it is evident that Paul rejects faith without good works, equally with James (2:17-26).  That the works of the Mosaic law, which were for the Jews, were meant by Paul, we are additionally confirmed in by this consideration, that all the statutes for the Jews in Moses are called "the Law," thus "the works of the Law," which we perceive from these passages: This is the law of the meal-offering (Lev. 6:9 seq.). This is the law of the sacrifice (Lev. 7:1). This is the law of the sacrifice of the peace-offering (Lev. 7:7, 11 seq.). This is the law of the burnt offering, of the meal-offering, of the sacrifice for sin and guilt, for the consecration (Lev. 7:37). This is the law of the beast and of the bird (Lev. 11:46 seq.). This is the law for her that bringeth forth a son or a daughter (Lev. 12:7). This is the law of leprosy (Lev. 13:59; 14:2, 32, 54, 57). This is the law of him that hath an issue (Lev. 15:32). This is the law of jealousy (Num. 5:29-30). This is the law of the Nazarite (Num. 6:13, 21). This is the law of cleansing (Num. 19:14). This is the law concerning the red heifer (Num. 19:2). The law for the king (Deut. 17:15-19). Yea, the whole book of Moses is called: The book of the law (Deut 31:9, 11-12, 26; also in the evangelists, Luke 2:22; 24:44; John 1:45; 7:22-23; 8:5; and other places). To this they added also what they had seen in Paul, that the law of the Decalogue was to be lived, and that it is fulfilled by charity, which is love towards the neighbor (Romans 13:8-11); thus not by faith alone. They said that this was the reason of their being convened.  But that I might not disturb them, I retired; and then they again appeared, at a distance, like goats, and sometimes as lying down, and sometimes as standing; but they turned themselves away from the flock of sheep. They appeared as if they were lying down, when deliberating, and as standing up, when they came to a conclusion. But, keeping my eyes fixed upon their horns, I wondered on seeing that the horns on their foreheads sometimes appeared to extend forward and upward, then to be bent backward, and at last to be thrown back entirely. And then they all suddenly turned round to the flock of sheep, but still appeared as goats. Wherefore I drew near to them again, and inquired, What now? They replied, that they had come to this conclusion, that faith alone produces the goods of charity, which are called good works, as a tree produces fruit. But then thunder was heard, and lightning seen from above; and presently there appeared an angel standing between the two flocks, who cried to the flock of sheep, "Do not hearken to them; they have not receded from their former faith, which is, that God the Father hath compassion for the sake of the Son; which faith is not faith in the Lord; neither is faith a tree, but man is a tree; but do the work of repentance, and look to the Lord, and you will have faith; faith before that, is not a faith in which there is anything living." Then the goats, whose horns were directed backward, wished to approach the sheep; but the angel standing between them, divided the sheep into two flocks, and said to those on the left, "Join yourselves to the goats; but I say to you, that a wolf will come, which will snatch them away; and you with them."  But after the two flocks of sheep had separated, and they on the left hand had heard the threatening words of the angel, they looked at one another, and said, "Let us confer with our former associates." And then the left-hand flock spoke to the right, saying, "Why have you receded from your pastors? Are not faith and charity a one, as a tree and its fruit are one? For the tree by its branch is continued into the fruit. Tear away anything from the branch which flows by continuity into the fruit, and will not the fruit perish? Ask our priests if it is not so." And then they asked, and the priests looked around to the rest, who winked with their eyelids to intimate that they had spoken well. And then they replied that it was so, that faith is preserved by the fruit; but they would not say faith is continued in the fruit.  But then one of the priests, who was among the sheep on the right hand, rose up and said, "They have answered you that it is so, but they have told their companions that it is not so; for they think otherwise." Wherefore they inquired, "How, then, do they think? Do they not think as they teach?" He said, "No; they think that every good of charity, which is called a good work, done by man for the sake of salvation or eternal life, is not good but evil, by reason that man desires to save himself by his own works, by claiming to himself the justice and merit of the only Savior; and that it is so with every good work, in which man feels his own will. Therefore among themselves they call good works from man, not blessed, but cursed; and say that they merit hell rather than heaven."  But the flock on the left hand said, "You speak falsehoods against them; do they not preach manifestly before us charity and its works, which they call the works of faith?" He replied, "You do not understand their preachings; only a clergyman, who is present, attends and understands. They think only of moral charity, and its civil and political goods, which they call the goods of faith, which yet are not at all so. For a man may be an atheist, and perform these works in the same manner, and under the same form. Wherefore they are unanimous in saying that no one is saved by any works, but by faith alone; but this shall be illustrated by comparisons. An apple tree produces apples; but if a man does what is good for the sake of salvation, as the tree produces apples by continuity, then those apples are rotten within, and full of worms. They say, also, that a vine produces grapes; but that if a man were to do spiritual goods as a vine grapes, he would produce wild grapes."  But then they asked, "What is the nature of their goods of charity or works, which are the fruits of faith?" He replied, "They are inconspicuous, being inwardly in man from the Holy Spirit, concerning which man knows nothing." But they said, "If a man knows nothing concerning them, there must surely be some conjunction, or how could they be called works of faith? perhaps those insensible goods are then insinuated into the voluntary works of man by some mediating influx, as by some affection, aspiration, inspiration, incitation, and excitation of the will; by a tacit perception in thought and thence exhortation, contrition, and thus by conscience, and thence by impulse and obedience to the Decalogue and the Word, as an infant, or as a wise man, or by something else of a similar nature." But he replied, "No; and if they say it is effected by such means because by faith, still they bury them with words in their discourses in such a manner that the result after all is, that they do not proceed from faith; some, however, do maintain such things, but as the signs of faith, but not as its bonds with charity. Some have nevertheless thought of a conjunction by the Word." And then they said, "Is there not thus conjunction, when man voluntarily acts according to the Word?" But he replied, "This is not what they think; they ascribe it solely to the hearing the Word, thus not to the understanding of the Word, lest anything should manifestly enter by the understanding into the thought and will of man; since they assert that everything voluntary in man is meritorious, and that in spiritual things, man cannot begin, will, think, understand, believe, operate, and cooperate anything, any more than a stock; but yet it is different with the influx of the Holy Spirit by faith into the speech of the preacher, because these are acts of the mouth, and not acts of the body; likewise because man acts by faith with God, but by charity with men."  But when one of them heard that it was done merely by hearing the Word, and not by understanding the Word, being indignant, said, "Is this through the understanding of the Word, by the Holy Spirit alone, whilst man, throughout the church service, turns himself away, or sits deaf as a post, or while he is sleeping, or only from an exhalation from the volume of the Word? What is more ludicrous?" After this a certain man of the flock of the right hand, who excelled the rest in judgment, requested to be heard, and said, "I heard a certain person say, 'I have planted a vineyard, now will I drink wine even to intoxication.' But another asked, 'Will you drink the wine out of your own cup by your own right hand?' And he said, 'No; but out of an inconspicuous cup from an inconspicuous hand.' And the other replied, 'Of a certainty then you will not be intoxicated.'" Presently the same man said, "But hear me, I beseech you; I say unto you, drink wine from the Word understood. Do you not know that the Lord is the Word? Is not the Word from the Lord? Is he not therefore in it? If then you do good from the Word, do you not do it from the Lord, from his mouth and will? And if you at the same time look to the Lord, he will also lead you, and will cause you to do it, and this he will do through you, and you as from yourselves. Who can say, when doing anything from a king, from his mouth and will, 'I do this from myself, from my own mouth or command, and from my own will?' After this he turned to the clergy, and said, "Ye ministers of God, seduce not the flock."  On hearing these things, the greater part of the flock on the left hand receded, and joined themselves with the flock on the right; some of the clergy also then said, "We have heard what we have not heard before; we are shepherds; we will not leave the sheep." And they receded along with them, and said, "That man spoke a true word. Who can say, when he does anything from the Word, thus from the Lord, from His mouth and will, I do this from myself? Who that does anything from the mouth and will of a king, says, 'I do this from myself'"? Now we see Divine providence, why a conjunction of faith and works has not been discovered, which has been acknowledged by the ecclesiastical body. It could not be found, because no such conjunction can be given, for theirs is not a faith in the Lord, who is the Word, and therefore neither is it a faith from the Word. But the other priests went away, flourishing their caps, and crying out, "Faith alone! faith alone, it will live still."419.
Revelation 9 1. And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth, and to him was given the key of the pit of the abyss. 2. And he opened the pit of the abyss; and there went up a smoke out of the pit of the abyss, as the smoke of a great furnace: and the sun and the air were darkened from the smoke of the pit. 3. And out of the smoke there went forth locusts upon the earth; and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power. 4. And it was said to them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, nor any green thing, nor any tree; but only the men who had not the seal of God in their foreheads. 5. And it was given to them that they should not kill them, but that they should torment them five months: and their torment was as the torment of a scorpion when it striketh a man. 6. And in those days shall men seek death, and shall not find it; and shall desire to die, and death shall flee from them. 7. And the likenesses of the locusts were like unto horses prepared for war; and upon their heads as it were crowns like gold, and their faces were as the faces of men. 8. And they had hair as the hair of women, and their teeth were as those of lions. 9. And they had breastplates, as breastplates of iron; and the voice of their wings was as the voice of chariots of many horses running to war. 10. And they had tails like unto scorpions; and there were stings in their tails: and their power was to hurt men five months. 11. And they had a king over them, the angel of the abyss, whose name in the Hebrew is Abaddon, and in the Greek he hath the name Apollyon. 12. One woe is past; behold, there come two woes more hereafter. 13. And the sixth angel sounded, and I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar that is before God. 14. Saying to the sixth angel who had the trumpet, Loose the four angels that are bound at the great river Euphrates. 15. And the four angels were loosed; who were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, to kill a third part of men. 16. And the number of the armies of horsemen was two myriads of myriads: and I heard the number of them. 17. And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them that sat upon them, having breastplates of fire, and jacinth, and brimstone; and the heads of the horses were as the heads of lions; and out of their mouths issued fire, and smoke, and brimstone. 18. By these three was a third part of men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, that issued out of their mouths. 19. And their power was in their mouth; for their tails were like unto serpents, having heads, and with them they hurt. 20. And the rest of the men who were not killed by these plagues, yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not adore demons, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and wood; which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk: 21. Neither repented they of their murders, nor of their enchantments, nor of their whoredoms, nor of their thefts. THE SPIRITUAL SENSE The contents of the whole chapter Of the exploration and manifestation of the states of life of those in the church of the Reformed, who are called learned and wise from the confirmation of faith separated from charity, and of justification and salvation by it alone (these are treated of from verses 1-12). Of the exploration and manifestation of those therein, who are not so learned and wise, and are in faith alone, and who live as they please (from verses 13-19). Lastly, of those therein, who know nothing but that faith is the all by which man is saved, and not anything besides (verses 20-21). The contents of each verse Verse 1. "The fifth angel sounded," signifies the exploration and manifestation of the states of life of those in the church of the Reformed, who are called learned and wise from the confirmation of faith separated from charity, and of justification and salvation by it alone (n. 419). "And I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth," signifies spiritual Divine truth flowing from heaven into the church with them and exploring and manifesting (n. 420). "And to him was given the key of the pit of the abyss," signifies the opening of their hell (n. 421). Verse 2. "And he opened the pit of the abyss, and there went up a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace," signifies the falsities of the concupiscences of the natural man springing forth from their evil loves (n. 422). "And the sun and the air were darkened from the smoke of the pit," signifies that thence the light of truth became thick darkness (n. 423). Verse 3. "And there went forth out of the smoke locusts upon the earth," signifies that from them were falsities to the lowest things, such as are with those who have become sensual, and see and judge of all things from the senses and their fallacies (n. 424). "And unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power," signifies the power of persuading that their falsities are truths (n. 425). Verse 4. "And it was said to them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, nor any green thing, nor any tree; but only the men who had not the seal of God in their foreheads," signifies the Divine providence of the Lord, that they should not be able to take away any truth and good of faith, nor any affection and perception of them, from any others than such as are not in charity and thence not in faith (n. 426). Verse 5. "And it was given to them that they should not kill them, but that they should torment them five months," signifies that neither from these should they be able to take away the faculty of understanding and willing truth and good, but that they should only be able to bring on stupor for a short time (n. 427). "And their torment was as the torment of a scorpion when it striketh a man," signifies that this is from their persuasive power (n. 428). Verse 6. "And in those days shall men seek death, and shall not find it; and shall desire to die, and death shall flee from them," signifies that they wish that in matters of faith the understanding should be shut up and the will closed, by which means spiritual light and life are extinguished, and that yet this cannot be done (n. 429). Verse 7. "And the likenesses of the locusts," signifies the appearances and images of those who have confirmed in themselves faith separated from charity (n. 430). "Were like unto horses prepared for war," signifies that because they can reason, they appear to themselves as if they were combating from the understanding of truth from the Word (n. 431). "And upon their heads as it were crowns like gold," signifies that they appeared to themselves as if they were conquerors (n. 432). "And their faces were as the faces of men," signifies that they appeared to themselves as if they were wise (n. 433). Verse 8. "And they had hair as the hair of women," signifies that they appeared to themselves as if they were in the affection of truth (n. 434). "And their teeth were as the teeth of lions," signifies that sensual things, which are the ultimates of the life of the natural man, appeared with them to have power over all things (n. 435). Verse 9. "And they had breastplates, as it were breastplates of iron," signifies that arguments from fallacies, by which they fight and prevail, appeared to them so powerful that they could not be refuted (n. 436). "And the voice of their wings was as the voice of chariots of many horses running to war," signifies their reasonings as if they were from the truths of doctrine from the Word fully understood, for which they must ardently fight (n. 437). Verse 10. "And they had tails like unto scorpions," signifies the truths of the Word falsified, by which they induce stupor (n. 438). "And there were stings in their tails, and their power was to hurt men five months," signifies subtle falsifications of the Word, by which for a short time they darken and fascinate the understanding, and thus deceive and captivate (n. 439). Verse 11. "And they had a king over them, the angel of the abyss, whose name in the Hebrew is Abaddon, and in the Greek he hath the name Apollyon," signifies that they are in the satanic hell who are in falsities from lusts, and by the total falsification of the Word they have destroyed the church (n. 440). Verse 12. "One woe is past; behold, there come two woes more hereafter," signifies still further lamentations over the state of the church (n. 441). Verse 13. "And the sixth angel sounded," signifies the exploration and manifestation of their state of life in the church of the Reformed who are not so wise, and yet place the all of religion in faith, and think of it alone, and live as they please (n. 442). "And I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar that is before God, saying to the sixth angel who had the trumpet" signifies a command from the Lord out of the spiritual heaven to those who were to explore and make manifest (n. 443). Verse 14. "Loose the four angels that are bound at the great river Euphrates," signifies that external bonds should be taken away from them, that the interiors of their minds might appear (n. 444). Verse 15. "And the four angels were loosed," signifies that when external bonds were taken away, the interiors of their minds appeared (n. 445). "Who were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, to kill a third part of men," signifies that they were perpetually in the effort to take away spiritual light and life from the men of the church (n. 446). Verse 16. "And the number of the armies of horsemen was two myriads of myriads," signifies reasoning concerning faith alone, with which the interiors of their minds were filled up, from the great abundance of the mere falsities of evil (n. 447). "And I heard the number of them," signifies that the quality of them was perceived (n. 448). Verse 17. "And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them that sat on them," signifies that it was then discovered that the reasonings of the interiors of their minds concerning faith alone were imaginary and visionary, and that they themselves were insane with them (n. 449). "Having breastplates of fire, and jacinth, and brimstone," signifies their imaginary and visionary arguments from infernal love and their own intelligence, and from the lusts thence (n. 450). "And the heads of the horses were as the heads of lions," signifies fantasies concerning faith alone as if it were in power (n. 451). "And out of their mouths issued fire, and smoke, and brimstone," signifies that in their thoughts and discourses, viewed interiorly, there is nothing, and from them there proceeds nothing, but the love of self and of the world, and the pride of their own intelligence, and the lusts of evil and falsity from these two (n. 452). Verse 18. "By these three was the third part of men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out of their mouths," signifies that from these it is that the men of the church perish (n. 453). Verse 19. "And their power was in their mouth," signifies that they prevail only by their discourse in confirmation of faith (n. 454). "For their tails were like unto serpents, having heads, and with them they do hurt," signifies the reason, because they are sensual and inverted, speaking truths with their lips, but falsifying them by the principle which constitutes the head of their religion, and thus they deceive (n. 455). Verse 20. "And the rest of the men who were not killed by these plagues," signifies those in the church of the Reformed who are not so spiritually dead from visionary reasonings, and from the love of self, the pride of their own intelligence, and from lusts, thence as those before mentioned, and yet make faith alone the head of their religion (n. 456). "Yet repented not of the works of their hands," signifies that neither did they shun the things that are of their proprium, which are evils of every kind, as sins (n. 457). "That they should not adore demons," signifies that thus they are in the evils of their concupiscences, and make one with their like in hell (n. 458). "And idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and wood," signifies that thus they are in worship from mere falsities (n. 459). "Which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk," signifies, in which there is nothing of spiritual and truly rational life (n. 460). Verse 21. "Neither repented they of their murders, nor of their enchantments, nor of their whoredoms, nor of their thefts," signifies that the heresy of faith alone induces on their hearts stupidity, tergiversation, and hardness, so that they do not think anything of the precepts of the Decalogue, nor indeed of any sin that it ought to be shunned because it is in favor of the devil and against God. THE EXPLANATION Verse 1. And the fifth angel sounded, signifies the exploration and manifestation of the states of life of those in the church of the Reformed, who are called learned and wise from their confirmation of faith separated from charity, and of justification and salvation by it alone. That these are treated of in what now follows as far as verse 12, is evident from the particulars, understood in the spiritual sense. That by "sounding" is signified to explore and make manifest the state of the church, and thence the state of life with those whose religion is faith alone, may be seen above (n. 397).420.
And I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth, signifies spiritual Divine truth flowing from heaven into the church as existing with them, and exploring and manifesting. By "a star" is here signified spiritual Divine truth, because it fell from the spiritual heaven, concerning which, above (n. 387, 388); and by "the earth" is here signified the church with those who are in its internals, as above (n. 398). By spiritual Divine truth is meant intelligence from spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbor; and as that intelligence at this date is called faith, and that love, charity, it is faith from charity, or rather it is the truth of faith from the good of charity, which is here signified by "a star." The same is signified by "a star" in the singular number (Revelation 2:28; 22:16); for by "stars," in the plural number, are signified the knowledges of good and truth (n. 51), and by these there is intelligence. That it is the Divine truth exploring and manifesting, is evident from what follows.421.
And to him was given the key of the abyss, signifies the opening of their hell. By "a key" is signified the power of opening, and also the act of opening (n. 62, 174, 840). And by "the abyss" is signified the hell where they are who have confirmed themselves in justification and salvation by faith alone, who are all from the church of the Reformed; but in the present case, they who in their own eyes, and thence in the eyes of many others, appear as learned and erudite, when yet in the sight of the angels in heaven they appear destitute of understanding as to those things which pertain to heaven and the church; since they who confirm that faith even to its interiors, close the higher things of their understanding, till at length they are unable to see any spiritual truth in light. The reason is, because the confirmation of falsity is the denial of truth; therefore when they hear any spiritual truth, which is a truth of the Word serviceable to those who are of the church for doctrine and life, they keep their minds fixed in the falsities which they have confirmed, and then they either veil over the truth they have heard with falsities, or reject them as a mere sound, or yawn at it and avert themselves; and this in the degree in which they are in the pride of their own erudition; for pride glues falsities together, so that at last they cohere like the hardened foam of the sea.  Therefore the Word is hidden from them as a book sealed with seven seals. What their quality is, and what their hell, shall also be told, because it has been granted me to see it, and to discourse with those who are therein, and also to see "the locusts" that went forth from it. That pit, which is like the aperture of a furnace, appears in the southern quarter, and the abyss beneath is of large extent towards the east; there is light in it, but if light from heaven be admitted into it, it becomes darkness, wherefore the pit is closed above. Huts, arched as it were with brick, appear therein, divided into various little cells, in each of which there is a table, with paper and some books lying upon it. Everyone sits at his own table, who in the world had confirmed justification and salvation by faith alone, making charity a merely natural-moral act, and its works only works of civil life, whereby men may gain rewards in the world; but if they are done for the sake of salvation, they condemn them, and this severely, because human reason and will are in them. All who are in this abyss were learned and erudite in the world; and among them there are some metaphysicians and scholastics, who are esteemed there above the rest. When it was granted me to speak with them, I recognized some of them.  But this is their lot: When they are first admitted, they sit in the foremost cells; but as they confirm faith by excluding works of charity; they leave their first habitations, and enter into cells nearer to the east, and so on successively till towards the end, where those are who confirm these dogmas from the Word; and as they then cannot but falsify the Word, their huts disappear, and they see themselves in a desert, whereupon what is described above (n. 153) happens to them. There is also an abyss beneath the one just mentioned, where they are who in like manner have confirmed justification and salvation by faith alone, but who by themselves in their spirit have denied God, and in their hearts have laughed at the holy things of the church. There they do nothing but quarrel, tear their garments, climb upon the tables, kick, and fight with each other with vituperations; and because no one is there permitted to do mischief to the body of another, they menace with their faces and fists. It is unclean and squalid there. But these are not treated of in this place.422.
Verse 2. And he opened the pit of the abyss, and there went up a smoke out of the pit as the smoke of a great furnace, signifies the falsities of the lusts of the natural man springing from their evil loves. By "the pit of the abyss" is signified the hell above described (n. 421); by "the smoke" from thence, are signified the falsities from lusts; and because it is said "the smoke as of a great furnace," the falsities of lusts springing from evil loves are meant, for "fire" signifies love (n. 468); and "the fire of hell," evil love (n. 494). "A great furnace" has a like signification, because it smokes from fire. Infernal spirits are not in any material fire, but in spiritual fire, which is their love; therefore they do not feel any other fire; on which subject see in the work on Heaven and Hell, published at London in 1758 (n. 134, 566-575). Every love in the spiritual world, when it is excited, appears at a distance as fire, within the hells as a glowing fire, and without, as the smoke of a fire or as the smoke of a furnace. The falsities of the lusts springing from evil loves, are also described by "smoke from a fire" and "from a furnace," in other parts of the Word, as in these passages: Abraham looked towards Sodom and Gomorrah, and beheld, and lo, the smoke of the earth went up as the smoke of a furnace (Gen. 19:28). The sun set, and there was thick darkness, and behold, a furnace of smoke and a torch of fire, that passed between those pieces (Gen. 15:17). They go on to sin, therefore they shall be as the smoke out of the chimney (Hos. 13:2-3). The wicked shall perish, into smoke shall they consume (Ps. 37:20). And I will show signs in heaven, and on the earth, fire, and pillars of smoke (Joel 2:30). They shall cast the evil into a furnace of fire, there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth (Matt. 13:41-42, 49-50, and in other places).423.
And the sun and the air were darkened from the smoke of the pit, signifies that thereby the light of truth became thick darkness. By "the sun" and "the air" is here signified the light of truth, for by "the sun" is signified love, and by "the light" thence the Divine truth; wherefore when it is said that "the sun is darkened," and at the same time "the air," it signifies that the Divine truth had become thick darkness; that this was from the falsities of lusts is signified by its being from "the smoke of the pit."424.
Verse 3. And out of the smoke there went forth locusts upon the earth, signifies that from them were falsities in the outermost parts, such as prevail with those who have become sensual, and see and judge of all things from the senses and their fallacies. They are called falsities in the outermost parts, which occupy the outermost things of man's life, and are called sensual, concerning which we shall speak presently; these are signified by "locusts," in the Word: but it is to be known that they did not appear like the locusts of the field, which leap about and lay waste the meadows and the crops, but like pygmies or dwarfs, which is evident also from their description, in that "they had crowns on their heads, faces like men, hair like women, teeth like lions, breastplates of iron, and a king over them, the angel of the abyss." That dwarfs were also called "locusts" by the ancients, may be concluded from these passages: The spies of the land of Canaan said, We saw the Nephilim, the sons of the Anakim, and we were in their eyes as locusts (Num. 13:33). Jehovah who sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as locusts (Isa. 40:22).  But because falsities in outermost things, such as prevail among them, are signified by "locusts" in the Word, therefore they are called "locusts," as also "crowned" and "commanders," in Nahum: The fire shall devour thee, it shall eat thee up like the canker worm; make thyself many as the canker worm, make thyself many as the locust; thy crowned are as the locust, and thy commanders as the locust of locusts (Nah. 3:15-17). It is in consequence of falsities in the outermost parts consuming the truths and goods of the church, as they spring up in man, that they are signified by "locusts," which consume the grass and the herbs of the fields, as may be evident from these passages: Thou shalt carry much seed out into the field, but the locust shall consume it (Deut. 28:38). That which the palmer worm left hath the locust eaten, and that which the locust left hath the canker worm eaten, and that which the canker worm left hath the caterpillar eaten (Joel 1:4). And I will compensate to you the years that the locust, the cancer worm, the caterpillar, and the palmer worm have consumed (Joel 2:25).  The same is signified by "the locusts in Egypt," concerning which it is thus written in Moses: And Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and the east wind brought the locust. And the locust went up over all the land of Egypt; before it there was no such locust, and it did eat every herb of the field, and afterwards Moses stretched forth his rod, and the locust was cast into the Red Sea (Exod. 10:12, and subsequent verses). And in David: He gave their produce to the caterpillar, and their labor to the locust (Ps. 78:46; also 105:34-35). By the miracles in Egypt is described the vastation of the church; and by this miracle, vastation by falsities in outermost things; and the outermost things of man's life, when the interiors on which they depend are closed, are infernal; for this reason "the locusts were cast into the Red Sea," by which is signified hell.  As few at this day know what is meant by the sensual, and what the quality of the sensual man is; and as "locusts" signify that, the following extracts are therefore adduced concerning it from our Arcana Coelestia. That the sensual is the ultimate of the life of man's mind, adhering and cohering to his five bodily senses (n. 5077, 5767, 9212, 9216, 9331, 9730). That he is called a sensual man who judges of all things from the bodily senses, and who believes nothing but what he can see with his eyes, and touch with his hands; saying that these are something, and rejecting the rest (n. 5094, 7693). That the interiors of his mind, which see from the light of heaven, are closed, so that he sees nothing of truth there, which is of heaven and the church (n. 6564, 6844-6845). That such a man thinks in outermost things, and not interiorly from any spiritual light (n. 5089, 5094, 6564, 7693). In a word, that they are in a gross natural light [lumen] (n. 6201, 6310, 6564, 6844-6845, 6612, 6614, 6622, 6524). That thence interiorly they are against the things which are of heaven and the church, but that exteriorly they can speak in favor of them, and ardently, according to the dominion they exercise by means of them (n. 6201, 6316, 6844-6845, 6948-6949). That the learned and erudite, who have confirmed themselves deeply in falsities, and still more they who have confirmed themselves against the truths of the Word, are more sensual than others (n. 6316). That sensual men reason acutely and skillfully, because their thought is so near their speech that it is almost in it, and as it were in their lips, and because they place all intelligence in speech from memory only; also that some of them can dexterously confirm falsities, and that after confirmation they believe them to be truths (n. 195, 196, 5700, 10236). But that they reason and confirm things from the fallacies of the senses, by which the common people are captivated and persuaded (n. 5084, 6948, 6949, 7693). That sensual men are more cunning and malicious than others (n. 7693, 10236). That the avaricious, adulterers, the voluptuous and the deceitful, are especially sensual, although in the eyes of the world they do not appear so (n. 6310). That the interiors of their minds are foul and filthy (n. 6201). That by these they communicate with the hells (n. 6311). That they who are in the hells are sensual, and the more so the deeper they are in it (n. 4623, 6311). That the sphere of infernal spirits conjoins itself with the sensual of man from behind (n. 6312). That they who have reasoned from sensual things only, and thence against the genuine truths of the church, were called by the ancients, serpents of the tree of knowledge (n. 195, 196, 197, 6398, 6399, 10313). Moreover the sensual of man, and the sensual man, are described (n. 10236); and the extension of things sensual in man (n. 9731). That sensual things ought to be in the last place, and not in the first, and that in a wise and intelligent man they are in the last place, and subject to the interiors; but that with an unwise man, they are in the first place, and govern; these are they who are properly called sensual (n. 5077, 5125, 5128, 7645). If sensual things are in the last place, a way is opened by them to the understanding, and truths are elaborated by a mode of extraction (n. 5580). That those sensual things are in close contact with the world, and admit the things which flow from the world, and, as it were, sift them (n. 9726). That man by means of those sensual things, communicates with the world, and, by means of rational things, with heaven (n. 4009). That sensual things supply such as are subservient to the interiors of the mind (n. 5077, 5081). That there are sensual things which minister to the intellectual part; and such as minister to the voluntary part (n. 5077). That unless the thought be elevated above sensual things, man enjoys but little wisdom (n. 5089). That a wise man thinks about sensual things (n. 5089, 5094). That man, when his thought is elevated above sensual things, comes into a clearer light, and, at length, into heavenly light (n. 6183, 6313, 6315, 9407, 9730, 9922). That elevation above sensual things, and abstraction from them, was known to the ancients (n. 6313). That man, by his spirit, might perceive the things which are done in the spiritual world, if he could be withdrawn from sensual things, and be elevated into the light of heaven by the Lord (n. 4622). The reason is, because the body does not think, but the spirit of man in the body; and in proportion as it thinks in the body, in the same proportion it thinks obscurely and in darkness; and in proportion as it does not think in the body, in the same proportion it thinks clearly and in the light; but in spiritual things (4622, 6614, 6622). That the sensual scientific is the ultimate of the understanding, and the sensual delight, the ultimate of the will (n. 9996). What the difference is between the sensual things common to beasts, and the sensual things not common to them (n. 10236). That there are sensual men not evil, by reason that their interiors are not so closed (concerning whose state in another life, see n. 6311).425.
And unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power, signifies the power of persuading that their falsities are truths. By "a scorpion" is signified a deadly persuasive power; and, by "a scorpion of the earth," persuasive power in things relating to the church, "the earth" signifying the church (n. 285); for a scorpion, when he stings a man, induces a stupor upon the limbs, and if it is not cured, death; their persuasion produces a corresponding effect upon the understanding. Such is also the signification of "scorpion" in these passages: Fear not thou on account of them and their words, they are thorny; thou dwellest among scorpions, they are hard of face and obstinate in heart (Ezek. 2:4, 6). Jesus said unto the seventy whom he had sent forth, Behold, I give unto you power to tread upon serpents and scorpions, and on all the power of the enemy; and nothing shall by any means hurt you (Luke 10:19).426.
Verse 4. And it was said to them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, nor any green thing; nor any tree; but only the men who had not the seal of God in their foreheads, signifies the Divine providence of the Lord, that they should not be able to take away any truth and good of faith, nor affection and perception of them, from any others than such as are not in charity and thence not in faith. By "it was said to them," is signified the Lord's Divine providence, because it was said from heaven; by "not hurting the grass of the earth nor any green thing," is signified not to be able to take away any truth and good of faith; for by "grass" is signified the truth of faith, which is what first springs up in man (n. 401); and, by "green thing," is signified the living principle of faith, which is from good (n. 401); by "not hurting any tree," is signified not to be able to take away the affection and perception of truth and good; for by "a tree" is signified man as to these (n. 400); by "those who had not the seal of God in their foreheads" are signified those who are not in charity, and thence in faith; for "the forehead" signifies love and charity (n. 347); and "to have the seal," signifies to know and distinguish them from others (n. 345).  The reason why they who have confirmed faith alone, to the very arcana of justification and salvation by it, cannot take away any truth and good of faith, nor the affection and perception of them, from any but those who are not in the faith of charity, is, because they are scarcely comprehended by anyone but the prelate who teaches and preaches them. The layman hears them, but they enter in at one ear and go out at the other; which the mystery-teaching priest himself, who utters those arcana, may know of a certainty from this circumstance, that he himself spent the whole force of his genius in acquiring a knowledge of them in his youth, and afterwards in retaining them in the following age, likewise from his considering himself as a man of extraordinary learning on account of them. What then must be the case with a layman, who simply thinks of faith from charity, when he hears these mysteries? From what has been said, it may be seen that faith alone justifying is the faith of the clergy, and not of the laity, except of those who live unconcernedly, who imbibe no more from their arcana than that faith alone saves; that they cannot do good from themselves, nor fulfil the law, that Christ suffered for them; besides some other universals of a similar nature.427.
Verse 5. And it was given to them that they should not kill them, but that they should be tormented five months, signifies that from the Divine providence of the Lord, they are not able to take away from those who are not in the faith of charity the faculty of understanding and willing what is true and good, but that they should only be able to induce stupor for a short time. By "its being given them," is signified that it is from the Divine providence of the Lord, as above; "not to be able to kill them," signifies not to be able to take away from those who are not in the faith of charity the faculty of understanding and willing what is true and good, for when this faculty is taken away, man is spiritually killed. By "tormenting them five months," is signified to induce stupor for a short time; "five" signifies a little, or a short time, and "to torment" signifies to induce stupor, because this is what is signified by "a scorpion" (n. 425); and by "the torment like that of a scorpion," as follows (n. 428). That the faculty of understanding truth and of willing it, or rationality and liberty, cannot be taken away from man, is amply shown in the Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Providence (n. 73, 74, 82-86, 92-99, 138-149, 322).  That "five months" signify a little, and a short time, is because that is signified by "five;" for times, whether they be hours, days, weeks, months, or years, do not signify time but state; and the numbers determine its quality (n. 4, 10, 348, 947). That "five" signifies something, and also a little, may appear from these passages: A thousand shall flee at the rebuke of five (Isa. 30:17). Five shall pursue a hundred (Lev. 26:8). Jesus said, The kingdom of the heavens is like unto ten virgins, of whom five were prudent and five were foolish (Matt. 25:1-2). By "ten virgins" are signified all in the church; by "five" are signified a certain part or some of them. The like is signified by "ten" and "five" in the parable: There were given unto the servants talents that they should trade, and one with his talent gained ten talents, and another five (Luke 19:13-20). "Ten talents" signify much, and "five talents" a little. Besides other places (as in Isaiah 17:6; 19:18-19; Matthew 14:15-22).428.
And their torment was as the torment of a scorpion when it striketh a man, signifies that this is from their persuasive power. This follows from what was said (n. 427); for by "torment" is signified the stupor, which their persuasive power induces upon the understanding, as the scorpion does upon the body when he stings it. "The scorpion" signifies that persuasive power (n. 425). In the spiritual world there exists a persuasive power which takes away the understanding of truth, and induces stupor and thus distress upon the mind; but this persuasive power is unknown in the natural world.429.
Verse 6. And in those days shall men seek death, and shall not find it; and shall desire to die, and death shall flee from them, signifies that it is the desire of those who are in the doctrine of faith separated, that in matters of faith the understanding should be shut up and the will closed, and thus that they should not have any spiritual light and life; but that it is nevertheless provided by the Lord that the understanding should not be shut up, nor the will closed, lest spiritual light and life with man should be extinguished. "In those days," signifies the last state of the church, when the doctrine of faith alone is universally received. "Men shall seek death," signifies that they will that, in matters of faith, the understanding should be shut up; "and shall not find it," signifies that it is provided of the Lord, that this should not be done; "and shall desire to die," signifies that they also wish to have the will closed in them; "and death shall flee from them," signifies that it is provided that neither should take place; for thus spiritual light and life would be extinguished, and man would spiritually die. "To seek," is predicated of the understanding; and "to desire," of the will; and "death," of both. That this is the signification of these words, is evident; otherwise, what meaning could there be in that "men should seek death in those days and not find it, and should desire to die and death should flee from them?" For by "death," no other death is meant but spiritual death, which is induced when the understanding is removed from the things that are to be believed; for in this case man does not know whether he thinks and does what is true, or what is false, thus whether he thinks and acts with the angels of heaven, or with the devils of hell.430.
Verse 7. And the likenesses of the locusts, signifies the appearances and images of those who have confirmed in themselves faith separated from charity. By "likenesses," is signified their appearances in a representative image; by "locusts," are signified falsities in outermost things (n. 424); and as falsities make one with those who are in falsities, they also are signified by "locusts." That they who have confirmed themselves in faith alone, or their falsities, are meant by "locusts," appeared evident to me from this circumstance, that the presbyters who were in that faith, embraced the locusts that were seen, and kissed them, and were desirous of introducing them into their houses. For the images, which are forms representative of the affections and thoughts of angels and spirits in the spiritual world, appear as if they were alive, in like manner as the animals, birds, and fishes, mentioned above.431.
Were like unto horses prepared for war, signifies that because they can reason, they appear to themselves as if combating from the understanding of truth from the Word. By "a horse" is signified the understanding of the Word (n. 298); by "war" is signified spiritual war, which consists in reasonings and arguments (n. 500, 586); by "like," or similitudes, are signified appearances, as above (n. 430).432.
And upon their heads as it were crowns like gold, signifies that they appeared to themselves as conquerors. By "crowns on their heads like gold," are signified tokens of victory, because formerly kings wore crowns of gold in battle (n. 300); for it is said that they were seen "like horses," that is, on horses prepared for war (n. 431), for they had the faces of men, as follows; and they are in the persuasion that they cannot be conquered.433.
And their faces were as the faces of men, signifies that they appeared to themselves to be wise. By "man," in the Word, is signified one wise and intelligent (n. 243); and by his "face," wisdom and intelligence; hence it is, that by "their faces as the faces of men," is signified that they appeared to themselves to be wise. They are also called wise, learned, and erudite, although they are among the foolish virgins, who had no oil in their lamps (Matthew 25:1-2). "Oil" signifies love and charity; and among the foolish means among those who hear the Lord, that is, read the Word, and do not do it (Matthew 7:26).434.
Verse 8. And they had hair as the hair of women, signifies that they appeared to themselves to be in the affection of truth. By "man" in the Word, is signified the understanding of truth; and "woman," the affection of truth, because the man is born understanding, and the woman affection; on which subject, see in The Angelic Wisdom Concerning Marriage. By "hair" in the Word, is signified the ultimate of man's life, which is the sensual (see n. 424). This is what gives them the appearance of being in the affection of truth, when yet they are in the affection of falsity; for this they believe to be truth. That a "woman" signifies the affection of truth, may appear from many passages in the Word; hence it is, that the church is called "a wife," "a woman," "a daughter," and "a virgin," and the church is a church from the love or affection of truth; for from this comes the understanding of truth.  The church is called "a woman" in these passages: There were two women of one mother, and they committed whoredom in Egypt, Ohola which is Samaria, and Oholiba which is Jerusalem (Ezek. 23:2-4). Jehovah hath called thee as a woman deserted and afflicted in spirit, and a woman of youth (Isa. 54:6-7). Jehovah will create a new thing in the earth, a woman shall compass a man (Jer. 31:21-22). By "the woman clothed with the sun, whom the dragon persecuted" (Revelation 12:1, 13), is signified the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem. By "women" are signified the affections of truth, from which the church is a church, in many passages, as in the following: The women of My people have ye driven out from the house of her delights (Micah 2:9). The families of houses shall mourn apart, and the women apart (Zech. 12:11-13). Stand up, ye secure women, hear my speech (Isa. 32:9) Wherefore do ye evil to cut off from you man and woman? (Jer. 44:7). I will disperse man and woman (Jer. 51:22). By "man" and "woman," here and elsewhere, is signified, in the spiritual sense, the understanding of truth and the affection of truth.435.
And their teeth were as those of lions, signifies that sensual things, which are the ultimates of the life of the natural man, appeared with them to have power over all things. "Teeth" signify the ultimates of the life of the natural man, which are called sensual things; concerning which above (n. 424). Sensual things are of two kinds, one which is of the will, and the other of the understanding; the sensual things of the will are signified by "the hair of women," of which above (n. 434); and the sensual things of the understanding are signified by "teeth;" the latter, or what is the same, sensual men who are in falsities from confirmation, seem to themselves to be in power over all things, so that they cannot be conquered; wherefore the "teeth of the locusts," by which such sensual things are signified, "were as the teeth of lions," for by "a lion" is signified power (n. 241). That "teeth" signify the ultimates of man's life, which are called sensual things, and which, when separated from the interiors of the mind, are in mere falsities, and do violence to truths even to destroying them, may appear from the following passages: My soul, I lie down in the midst of lions, their teeth are spears and darts (Ps. 57:4). O God, destroy their teeth in their mouth, break out the great teeth of the young lions (Ps. 58:6). A nation is come up upon my land, strong, its teeth are the teeth of a lion, and it hath the great teeth of a lion (Joel 1:6). Jehovah, Thou breakest the teeth of the ungodly (Ps. 3:7). There came up out of the sea a beast terrible and dreadful, and exceedingly strong, which had great iron teeth, it devoured and crushed (Dan. 7:7). Blessed be Jehovah, who hath not given us a prey to their teeth (Ps. 124:6). Since sensual men do not see any truth in its own light, but ratiocinate and dispute about everything, whether it is so; and since these disputes in the hells are heard without as the gnashing of teeth, being in themselves the collisions of falsity and truth, it is evident what is signified by "the gnashing of teeth" (Matthew 8:12; 13:42, 50; 22:13; 24:51; 25:30; Luke 13:28); and in a measure what by "gnashing with the teeth" (Job 16:9; Ps. 35:15-16; 37:12; 112:10; Micah 3:5; Lam. 2:16).436.
Verse 9. And they had breastplates, as breastplates of iron, signifies arguments from fallacies, by which they fight and prevail, which appeared to them so powerful that they could not be refuted. By "breastplates" are signified defenses, because they protect the breast; here, defenses of falsities, which are effected by arguments from fallacies, by which a false principle is defended. For from a false principle nothing but falsities can flow. If truths are advanced, they are only viewed outwardly or superficially, thus also sensually, and are consequently falsified, and, with such persons, become fallacies. The reason why "breastplates" have this signification, is because "wars," in the Word, signify spiritual wars, and thence the "arms of war" signify the various things relating to such wars; as in Jeremiah: Harness the horses and mount, ye horsemen, and stand ye in helmets; polish the lances, and put on the cuirass (Jer. 46:4). In Isaiah: For he put on justice as a cuirass, and an helmet of salvation upon His head (Isa. 59:17). In David: Under His wings shalt thou trust, His truth shall be thy shield and buckler (Ps. 91:4; besides other places; as in Ezek. 23:24; 38:4; 39:9; Nahum 2:3; Ps. 5:12; 35:2-3). "Their breastplates were as of iron," signifies that their arguments seemed to them so strong that they could not be refuted; for "iron" from its hardness, signifies what is strong.437.
And the voice of their wings was as the voice of chariots of many horses running to war, signifies their reasonings as if they were from truths of doctrine from the Word fully understood, for which they must ardently fight. "The voice of wings" signifies reasonings, because "to fly" signifies to perceive and instruct (n. 245, 415); "chariots" signify doctrinals, as will be seen presently; "horses" signify the understanding of the Word (n. 298); and "many horses," what is plenary; that "running to war" signifies ardor for fighting, is evident. That "a chariot" signifies doctrine, is plain from these passages: The chariots of God are two myriads, thousands of peaceful ones, the Lord is among them (Ps. 68:17). Jehovah maketh the clouds His chariots; He walketh upon the wings of the wind (Ps. 104:2-3). Jehovah, Thou didst ride upon thine horses, Thy chariots are salvation (Hab. 3:8). Behold, Jehovah will come with fire and with His chariots like a whirlwind (Isa. 66:15). Ye shall be satisfied at My table with horse and chariot; and I will set My glory among the nations (Ezek. 39:20-21). I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem (Zech. 9:10). I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, I will overthrow the chariot, and those that ride in them (Hag. 2:22). Set a watchman who may look, let him announce; and he saw a chariot with a pair of horsemen, and a camel chariot and the chariot of a man, and he said, Babylon is fallen, is fallen (Isa. 21:6-7, 9). "Elijah" and "Elisha" represented the Lord as to the Word, and thence signify doctrine from the Word, as did all the prophets (n. 8), therefore they were called "the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof"; and for the same reason: Elijah was seen taken into heaven in a chariot of fire, and there were seen by Elisha's boy chariots and horses of fire round about him (2 Kings 2:11-12; 6:17; 13:14; besides other places where "chariots" occur; as in Isa. 31:1; 37:24; 66:20; Jer. 17:25; 22:4; 46:2-3, 8-9; 50:37-38; 51:20-21; Ezek. 26:7-8, 10-11; Dan. 11:40; Nahum 3:1-3; Joel 2:1-5).438.
Verse 10. And they had tails like unto scorpions, signifies the truths of the Word falsified, by means of which they induce stupor. By "the tail" is signified the ultimate of the head, because the brain is continued through the backbone into the tail, therefore the head and tail make one; as the first and last; when, therefore, by "the head," faith alone justifying and saving is signified, by "the tail" is signified all the confirmations thereof in a summary, which are from the Word, thus which are the truths of the Word falsified. Everyone, who from his own intelligence assumes a principle of religion, and establishes it as the head, also takes confirmations from the Word, and makes them the tail; thus he induces a stupor upon others, and so hurts them. Therefore it is said, that "they had tails like unto scorpions"; and presently after, "that there were stings in their tails, and that their power was to hurt men"; for by "a scorpion" is signified the power of persuasion inducing stupor upon the understanding (n. 425). That "the tail" is a continuation of the brain through the backbone to its ultimate, any anatomist will tell you; or merely observe a dog or any other wild beast with a tail, and encourage and coax him, and you will see that the ridge of his back will become smooth, and his tail move correspondingly; but that, on the contrary, he will set his back up if you provoke him.  The primary tenet of the understanding which is assumed as a principle, is signified by "the head," and the ultimate thereof by "the tail," in these passages also: He will cut off from Israel head and tail, the old and the honored, he is the head, and the prophet that teacheth lies, he is the tail (Isa. 9:14, 15). Egypt shall not have any work to make head and tail (Isa. 19:15). Nothing else is signified by: The seven heads of the dragon, and by his tail, with which he drew a third part of the stars of heaven, and cast them to the earth (Rev. 12:4); Also by: The tails like serpents, having heads with which they do hurt (Rev. 9:10). Since by "the tail" is signified the ultimate, and the ultimate is the complex of all, therefore Jehovah said to Moses: Take the serpent by the tail; and he took it, and it became a rod (Exod. 4:3-4). And therefore it was commanded that: They should take off the tail entire near the backbone, and sacrifice it together with the fat that was upon the entrails, kidneys, intestines, and liver (Lev. 3:9-11; 8:25; 9:19; Exod. 29:22). That the ultimate is that which contains and comprehends all prior things, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scriptures (n. 38, 65), and in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom (n. 209-222).439.
And there were stings in their tails, and their power was to hurt men five months, signifies subtle falsifications of the Word, by which, for a short time, they darken and fascinate the understanding, and thus deceive and captivate. By "stings in their tails" are signified subtle falsifications of the Word; by "stings," subtlety; and by "tails," the truths of the Word falsified (n. 438). By "the power to hurt," is signified that by means of these they can induce stupor, that is, they can darken and fascinate the understanding, and thus deceive and captivate; "for their tails were like scorpions," and by "scorpions" such things are signified (n. 425). By "five months" is signified for a short time, as above (n. 427). This takes place when they quote and apply anything from the Word; for the Word is written according to correspondences, and correspondences are in part appearances of truth, containing within them genuine truths. If these truths are not known in the church, many things may be taken from the Word, which at first appear as if in agreement with heresy; but when genuine truths are known in the church, then the appearances of truth are rendered manifest, and genuine truths come to view. But before this is done, a heretic, by various things drawn from the Word, may obscure and fascinate the understanding, and thus deceive and captivate. That this is done by those who assert that man's sins are remitted, or, in other words, that he is justified by an act of faith, concerning which no one knows anything, and this in a moment, and if not before, even at the last hour of death, might be illustrated by examples, but this is not the place to do so. By "stings" are signified falsities from evil, doing hurt, also in Amos: Behold, the days shall come upon you, when they shall take you away with stings (Amos 4:2). And in Moses: That they should extirpate the inhabitants of the land, lest they should be thorns in their eyes, and stings in their sides (Num. 33:55). "Thorns," "briers," "brambles," and "thistles," also signify falsities of evil, from their stings.440.
Verse 11. And they had a king over them, the angel of the abyss; whose name in the Hebrew is Abaddon, and in the Greek he hath the name Apollyon, signifies that they are in the satanic hell who are in falsities from lusts, and, by the total falsification of the Word, have destroyed the church. By "the king, the angel of the abyss," is not signified any angel who is a king there, but the falsity reigning therein; for by "a king," in the genuine sense, is signified one who is in truths from the affection of good, and, abstractly, that truth itself (n. 20); and thence, in the opposite sense, by "a king" is signified one who is in falsities from the lusts of evil, and, abstractly, that falsity itself. By the "abyss" is signified the satanic hell, where they are (n. 387, 421); by "name" is signified the quality of the state (n. 81, 122, 165); "Abaddon," in the Hebrew tongue, is he that destroys and a destroyer; so "Apollyon," in the Greek tongue; and this is falsity in outermost things, which, by the total falsification of the Word, has destroyed the church. By "Abaddon," in the Hebrew text, is signified destruction, in these places: Thy truth in destruction (Ps. 88:11). Hell is naked before Him, and destruction hath no covering (Job 26:6). For a fire consumeth even to destruction (Job 31:12). Destruction and Death say (Job 28:22). In other places, hell and the devil are called "destruction" and "destroyer" (Isaiah 54:16; Ezekiel 5:16; 9:1; Exod. 12:13); but by another word.441.
Verse 12. One woe is past; behold, there come two woes more hereafter, signifies further lamentations over the devastation of the church. That "woe" signifies lamentation over calamity, unhappiness, and damnation, see n. 416; here, then, by "two woes to come," are signified further lamentations over the state of the church.442.
Verse 13. And the sixth angel sounded, signifies the exploration and manifestation of their state of life in the church of the Reformed who are not so wise, and yet place the all of religion in faith, and think of it alone and of nothing except it, and the customary worship, and so live as they please. That these are treated of to the end of this chapter, will appear from the explanation of what follows. That "to sound" signifies to explore and make manifest the state of the church, and thence of the life of those whose religion consists in faith alone, may be seen above (n. 397).  These who are now treated of, are altogether distinct from those referred to thus far in this chapter, the falsities of whose faith were seen in the form of locusts. They are distinct in this: those already described are studious in exploring the arcana of justification by faith, and also in giving the signs of it, and its testimonies, which, with them, are the goods of moral and civil life; insisting that the precepts of the Word are indeed in themselves Divine, but that with man they become natural, because they proceed from his will, which have no conjunction with the spiritual things of faith; and because they confirm these things by rational considerations, which savor of erudition, they dwell in the southern quarter of the abyss, according to the description above (n. 421).  But they who are treated of in what follows to the end of the chapter, do not study those arcana, but only make mere faith the all of religion, and nothing besides it and the customary worship, and so live as they please. I have been permitted to see and converse with these also; they live in the northern quarter, in huts that are scattered about, and constructed of reeds and rushes plastered over with lime, in which the ground is the floor. The more ingenious, who, by means of natural light, know how to establish that faith by reasonings, and confirm that it has nothing in common with life, dwell in front, the more simple behind them, and the more stupid toward the western part of that region; the multitude of them is so great that it is incredible. They are instructed by angelic spirits, but they who do not receive the truths of faith, and live according to them, are let down into the hell which is under them, and imprisoned.443.
And I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar which is before God (verse 14), saying to the sixth angel which had the trumpet, signifies a command from the Lord out of the spiritual heaven to those who were to explore and make manifest. By "a voice" is signified a Divine command; by "the golden altar," or altar of incense, is signified the spiritual heaven (n. 277, 392); by "the four horns" of that altar is signified its power (n. 270); here, the power of loosing the four angels bound at the river Euphrates, as follows: by "the sixth angel" who had the trumpet, is signified to those to whom the office of exploring and making manifest these things was enjoined (n. 442).444.
Loose the four angels that are bound at the great river Euphrates, signifies that external bonds should be removed from them, that the interiors of their minds might appear. That this is the signification of these words, no one can know, and scarcely can suspect, unless he knows what is meant by "the great river Euphrates," and what by "the four angels bound there." By "Euphrates," in the Word, are signified the interiors of man's mind, which are called things rational, which, with those who are in truths from good, are full of wisdom, but in those who are in falsities from evil, are full of insanity. The reason why these are signified in the Word by "the river Euphrates," is, because that river divided the land of Canaan from Assyria; and by "the land of Canaan" was signified the church; and by "Assyria," its rational; and thence by the river which bounded it, are signified the interiors of the mind which are called rational, in both senses. For there are three things which constitute the man of the church, the spiritual, the rational or intellectual, and the natural, which is also the scientific. The spiritual of the church was signified by "the land of Canaan" and its rivers; the rational or intellectual of the church, by "Ashur" or "Assyria" and its "river Euphrates;" and the natural, which is also the scientific of the church, by "Egypt" and its "river" the Nile; but concerning these more may be seen below (n. 503). By "the four angels bound at the river Euphrates," are signified those interiors with the men of the church which are said "to be bound," because they are not openly avowed; for they are infernal spirits, who are meant by these four angels, since it is said of them, in what follows (n. 446), that "they were prepared to kill the third part of men," and the interiors of men make one with spirits, either infernal or celestial, because they cohabit: by "loosing them" is signified to remove external bonds, that the interiors of their minds may appear. Such is the signification of these words.  By "Euphrates" are signified the interiors of man's mind bordering upon the spiritual things of his church, may appear from those passages in the Word where "Ashur" or "Assyria" is mentioned; but "Euphrates" occurs in the opposite sense, in which it signifies the interiors full of falsities and thence of insanities, in these passages: Behold, God bringeth up over them the waters of the river (Euphrates) strong and many; the King of Assyria, he shall go through Judah; he shall overflow and go over (Isa. 8:7-8). What hast thou to do with the way of Egypt, that thou drinkest the waters of Sihor? and what hast thou to do with the way of Assyria, that thou drinkest the waters of the river? (Jer. 2:18). Jehovah shall curse the tongue of the sea of Egypt, and shall shake His hand over the river Euphrates (Isa. 11:15-16). The sixth angel poured out his vial upon the river Euphrates, whose water was dried up (Rev. 16:12). It was commanded the prophet that he should put a girdle upon his loins, and should afterwards hide it in a hole of a rock by the Euphrates, and when after a short time he took it again, behold, it was rotten, nor was it good for anything (Jer. 13:1-7, 11). And it was also commanded him that after he should finish reading the book, he should throw it into the midst of the Euphrates, and say, Thus shall Babylon sink, and shall not rise again (Jer. 51:63-64). By these things the interiors of the state of the church with the sons of Israel were represented. That the "river of Egypt," the Nile, and "the river of Assyria," the Euphrates, were the boundaries of the land of Canaan, is manifest from this: Jehovah made a covenant with Abraham, Unto thy seed will I give this land, from the river of Egypt even to the great river Euphrates (Gen. 15:18). That the Euphrates was a boundary, see Exodus 23:31; Deuteronomy 1:7, 8; 11:24; Joshua 1:4; Micah 7:12.445.
Verse 15. And the four angels were loosed, signifies that when the external bonds were taken away, the interiors of their minds appeared. This follows from what is said above.446.
Prepared for an hour and a day and a month and a year, to kill a third part of men, signifies that they were in the perpetual effort to take away from the men of the church spiritual light and life. By "prepared" is signified that they were in the effort; by "an hour, a day, a month, and a year," is signified continually and perpetually, the same as by "all time;" by "to kill" is signified to take away spiritual light and life from the men of the church (n. 325); and the third part signifies all (n. 400).447.
Verse 16. And the number of the armies of horsemen was two myriads of myriads, signifies reasonings concerning faith alone, with which the interiors of their minds were filled, from the abundance of mere falsities of evil. By "armies" are signified goods and truths; and, in the opposite sense, evils and falsities; here, the falsities of evil, of which below. By "horsemen" are signified reasonings concerning faith alone; because by "a horse" is signified the understanding of the Word (n. 298); and also the understanding of the Word destroyed (n. 305, 313, 320); therefore by "horsemen" are signified reasonings from the understanding of the Word destroyed; here, concerning faith alone; because they who are principled therein are treated of. By "two myriads of myriads" are not meant so many in number, but a great abundance; "two" are mentioned, because two are predicated of good, and, in the opposite sense, of evil (n. 322); and "myriads" are predicated of truths, and, in the opposite sense, of falsities (n. 287). Hence it may be seen that by "the number of the armies of horsemen, two myriads of myriads," are signified reasonings concerning faith alone, with which the interiors of their minds were filled, from the abundance of mere falsities of evil.  That by "armies," in the Word, are signified the goods and truths of heaven and the church, and, in the opposite sense, evils and falsities, may appear from those places where the sun, moon, and stars are called "armies" (hosts); and by "the sun" is signified the good of love; by "the moon," the truth of faith; and by "the stars," the knowledges of good and truth; and the contrary, in the opposite sense (n. 51, 53, 332, 413); both the former and the latter are called "armies" (hosts), in these passages: Praise Jehovah all His hosts, praise ye Him sun and moon, praise Him all stars (Ps. 148:2-3). My hands have stretched out the heavens, and all their hosts have I commanded (Isa. 45:12). By the Word of Jehovah were the heavens made, and all the host of them by the breath of His mouth (Ps. 33:6). The heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them (Gen. 2:1). The horn of the he-goat grew even to the host of the heavens; and it cast down unto the earth from the host and from the stars; yea, it raised itself up even to the prince of the host: and the host was delivered to it on account of the continual sacrifice for transgression, because he cast down the truth to the earth: the Holy One said, How long is the holy place and the host given to be trodden down? (Dan. 8:10-14). Jehovah uttered His voice before the army (Joel 2:11). Upon the roofs of the houses they have offered incense to all the host of the heavens (Jer. 19:13). Lest thou shouldst bow thyself down and serve the sun, the moon, the stars, and all the hosts of the heavens (Deut. 4:19; 17:3; Jer. 8:2; so too in Isa. 13:4; 34:4; 40:26; Jer. 33:22; Zech. 9:8; Rev. 19:14).  Since the goods and truths of heaven and the church are signified by "the hosts (armies) of the heavens," the Lord is therefore called "Jehovah Zebaoth," that is, Jehovah of armies (hosts); and on this account the ministry of the Levites was called a military service (Numbers 4:3, 23, 30, 39); and it is said in David: Bless Jehovah, all His hosts, His ministers that do His will (Ps. 103:21). The evils and falsities in the church are signified by: The army of the nations (Isa. 34:2). The army of the king of the north with which he came against the king of the south (Dan. 11:13, 15, 20). "The king of the north" is the falsity of evil in the church, and "the king of the south" is the truth of good therein. It is said by the Lord: When ye shall see Jerusalem encompassed with armies, know that its devastation is near (Luke 21:20). By "Jerusalem" the church is here signified, and by "armies" the evils and falsities which were devastating it. The consummation of the age is there treated of, which is the last time of the church. Evils and falsities are signified by armies in Joel: I will recompense to you the years which the locust hath consumed, the canker worm, the caterpillar, and the palmer worm, the great army, which I have sent among you (Joel 2:25). That by "the locust" and the rest falsity in outermost things is signified, may be seen above (n. 424).448.
And I heard the number of them, signifies their quality perceived, that it was as follows: By "hearing" is signified to perceive: by "number" the quality and state of a thing is signified (n. 10, 348, 364). It is the quality of their state as now follows, because it is described in the following; on which account it is said, "and thus I saw."449.
Verse 17. And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them that sat upon them, signifies that then it was discovered that the reasonings of the interiors of their minds concerning faith alone were imaginary and visionary, and that they themselves were insane from them. "To see" signifies to discover their quality; by "horses" are signified the reasonings of the interiors of their minds concerning faith alone; in the present case, imaginary and visionary reasonings, because it is said, that he saw them "in vision." By "those sitting upon horses" are signified such as are intelligent from the Word understood, but here, such as are insane from imaginary and visionary things which are contrary to the Word.  Because the interiors of their minds appeared under such forms as signify imaginary and visionary reasonings concerning faith alone, a few of them, which I have heard from their own mouths, shall be made public; as these: "Was not faith alone, after the grievous fall of man, made the only means of salvation? How can we appear before God without that means? Is it not the only means? Are we not born in sins, and is not our nature entirely corrupted by the transgression of Adam? Can there be any other means of healing but faith alone? What can our works contribute towards this? Who can do any good work from himself; who can purify, forgive, justify, and save himself? Does not merit and self-righteousness lurk in every work that man does from himself? And if, perchance, we should do anything that was good, could we do all, and fulfil the law? Besides, if anyone sins against one commandment, he sins against all, because they cohere. Why did the Lord come into the world, and suffer so grievously on the cross, but to take away from us damnation and the curse of the law, to reconcile God the Father, and become merit and righteousness alone, which might be imputed to man through faith? Otherwise, what good could be answered by His coming? Since, then, Christ suffered for us, and fulfilled the law for us, and took away its right of condemnation, can evil then any longer condemn, and can good save us? Therefore we who have faith, are in the full liberty of thinking, willing, speaking, and doing whatever we please, provided we do no injury to our reputation, honor, and interest, nor incur the penalties of the civil law, which would be a disgrace and hurt to us." Some, who wander further north, said, "That good works, which are done for the sake of salvation, are hurtful, pernicious and cursed; among these, also, there were some presbyters.  These things are what I heard, but they mumbled and muttered many more, which I did not hear. They spoke, also, shamelessly with all license, and were lascivious, both in words and deeds, without fear for any wicked deed, except out of pretense, for the sake of appearing honest. Such are the interiors of the mind, and thence the exteriors of the body of those who make faith alone the all of religion. But all those things, which were uttered by them, fall to the ground, if the Lord Himself, the Savior, is immediately approached, and believed in, and good is done, each for the sake of salvation, and by man as from himself, with a belief, however, that it is from the Lord. Unless these things are done as by man, neither faith nor charity can be given at all; nor, consequently, can religion nor salvation.450.
Having breastplates of fire, and jacinth, and brimstone, signifies their imaginary and visionary arguments from infernal love and their own intelligence, and from the lusts thence. By "breastplates" are signified arguments from which they fight for faith alone (n. 436); by "fire" is signified celestial love, and in the opposite sense, infernal love (n. 452, 468, 494); by "jacinth" is signified intelligence from spiritual love, and, in the opposite sense, intelligence from infernal love, which is one's own intelligence, of which below; and by "brimstone" is signified lusts from that love through one's own intelligence (n. 452). Hence it follows, that by "breastplates of fire, jacinth, and brimstone," such things are signified.  The reason why their arguments in favor of faith alone are thus described, is because all they who believe themselves justified, that is, absolved from sins by faith alone, never think of repentance; and an impenitent man is in mere sins, and all sins are derived from, and thence draw their nature from infernal love, one's own intelligence, and from the lusts thence; and they who are in these things, not only act from them, but also speak, yea, think and will, and consequently reason and argue from them; these constitute, indeed, the very man, because they are his very life; but a man devil, and his life which is an infernal life. They who live a moral life, only for the sake of themselves and the world, do not know this; the reason is, because their interiors are infernal whilst their exteriors are similar to the exteriors of those who live a Christian life: let them know, however, that everyone, when he dies, comes into his interiors, because he becomes a spirit, this being the internal man; and then the interiors accommodate the exteriors to themselves, and they become alike; wherefore the morality of their life in the world then becomes as the scales of fishes which are wiped away. The case is quite different with those who hold the precepts of moral life to be Divine, and then also civil, because they are of love towards the neighbor.  "A jacinth" signifies intelligence from the affection of spiritual love, because that color partakes of the redness of fire and the whiteness of light; and by "fire" is signified love; and by "light," intelligence: this intelligence is signified by: The hyacinthine blue in the coverings and veils of the tabernacle (Exod. 26:31, 36; 27:16). In Aaron's ephod (Exod. 28:6, 15). By the cloth of hyacinth which was placed over the ark, the table, the candlestick, and the altar, when they journeyed (Num. 4:6-7, 9, 11-12). By the thread of blue on the skirts of their garments (Num. 15:38-39). And by hyacinth (Ezek. 27:7, 24). But intelligence from the affection of infernal love, is signified by "hyacinth" in Ezekiel: Oholah, or Samaria, committed whoredom and delighted in her lovers, the Assyrians, her neighbors, clothed in hyacinth, horsemen riding upon horses (Ezek. 23:4-6). Hereby the church is described, which, by reasonings from their own intelligence, had falsified the truths of the Word. And in Jeremiah: They are infatuated and foolish; the teaching of vanities is wood; silver spread into plates is brought from Tarshish, the work of the workmen and of the hands of the founder; hyacinth and purple is their clothing, they are all the work of the wise (Jer. 10:8-9). "The work of the workmen and of the hands of the founder, and all the work of the wise," signify here, that they are all from their own intelligence.
403-1 The original Latin omits "mountain."
405-1 The original Latin has "homo" for "hamo," "man" for "hook."
407-1 The original Latin omits "status" ("state").