Apocalypse Revealed, by Emanuel Swedenborg, , tr. by John Whitehead , at sacred-texts.com
And he went forth conquering and to conquer, signifies victory over falsities and evils to eternity. It is said "conquering and to conquer," because he who in spiritual combats, which are temptations, conquers in this world, conquers to eternity, for the hells cannot assault anyone who has conquered them.302.
Verse 3. And when He had opened the second seal, signifies exploration by the Lord of those upon whom the Last Judgment was to be executed, as to their states of life. The signification here is similar to what was shown before (n. 295), only with the difference mentioned in what follows.303.
I heard the second animal saying, signifies according to the Divine truth of the Word, as above (n. 296).304.
Come and look, signifies manifestation concerning the second in order, as may appear from the explanation above (n. 297); but there concerning the first in order, and here concerning the second.305.
Verse 4. And there went out another horse that was red, signifies the understanding of the Word destroyed as to good, and thence as to life with these. By "a horse" is signified the understanding of the Word (n. 298); and by "red" [rufus] is signified good destroyed. That the color white is predicated of truths, because it is from the light of the sun of heaven, and the color red [ruber] is predicated of goods because it is from the fire of the sun of heaven may be seen above (n. 167, 231). But the reason why "red" [rufus] is predicated of good destroyed, is, because by red [rufus] an infernal red is meant, which is from infernal fire, which is the love of evil; the red which is an infernal red is hideous and abominable, there being nothing alive therein, but all dead; hence it is, that by "a red horse" is signified the understanding of the Word destroyed as to good. This may also appear from the description of it below; that "it was given him to take peace from the earth, that they should kill one another:" "the second animal" also, which was like a calf, by which is signified the Divine truth of the Word as to affection (n. 242), said, "Come and look," and thus showed that there was no affection of good, and thence no good with them. That red is spoken of love, as well the love of good as of evil, may appear from the following passages: Who washed His clothing in wine, His covering in the blood of grapes; His eyes are redder than wine, and His teeth whiter than milk (Gen. 49:11-12). This is concerning the Lord: Who is this that cometh from Edom, red as to His garment, and His garment as of him that treadeth in the winepress (Isa. 63:1-2). This is also concerning the Lord: The Nazarites were whiter than snow, brighter than milk; their bones were redder than red-shining gems (Lam. 4:7). In these passages "red" is predicated of the love of good; in the following, of the love of evil: The shield was made red, and the men were empurpled; in the fire of torches were their chariots, their aspect was as of a torch (Nahum 2:3-4). If your sins were as scarlet, they shall be white as snow; If they were red as purple, they shall be as wool (Isa. 1:18). Neither is anything else signified by the "red dragon" (Revelation 12:3); and by the "red horse standing among the myrtle trees" (Zechariah 1:8). Similar things are said of the colors which are derived from red, as of scarlet and purple.306.
And it was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, signifies the taking away of charity, spiritual security, and internal rest. By "peace" are signified all things in their aggregate which are from the Lord, and thence all things of heaven and the church, and the happiness of life in them; these are of peace in the highest or inmost sense. It follows therefore that "peace" is charity, spiritual security, and internal rest; for when man is in the Lord, he is in peace with his neighbor, which is charity; in protection against the hells, which is spiritual security; and when he is in peace with his neighbor, and in protection against the hells, he is in internal rest from evils and falsities. Since therefore all these are from the Lord, it may appear what is signified in general and in particular by "peace" in the following passages: For unto us a Boy is born, unto us a Son is given; and the government shall be upon His shoulder, and His name shall be called God, Hero, The Father of Eternity, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of His government and peace there shall be no end (Isa. 9:6-7). Jesus said, Peace I leave with you, My peace I give you (John 14:27). Jesus said, These things have I spoken, that in Me ye might have peace (John 16:33). In His days shall the just flourish, and abundance of peace (Ps. 72:3, 7). Then I will make a covenant of peace (Ezek. 34:25, 27; 37:25, 26; Mal. 2:4-5). How delightful upon the mountains are the feet of Him that bringeth good tidings, that maketh to hear peace, that saith unto Zion, Thy King 306-1 reigneth (Isa. 52:7). Jehovah bless thee, and lift up His countenance upon thee, and give thee peace (Num. 6:24-26). Jehovah will bless His people with peace (Ps. 29:11). Jehovah will redeem my soul in peace (Ps. 55:18). And the work of justice is peace, and the labor of justice is quietness, and security forever. That they may dwell in a tabernacle of peace and in a tent of security, and in quiet tranquil places (Isa. 32:17-18). Jesus said unto the seventy whom He sent out, Into whatsoever house ye enter, first say, Peace be to this house; and if the son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon it (Luke 10:5-6; Matt. 10:12-14). The meek shall possess the earth, and shall delight themselves in the multitude of peace: behold the upright, for the end of that man is peace (Ps. 37:11, 37). Zacharias, prophesying, said, The day-spring from on high hath appeared, to direct our feet into the way of peace (Luke 1:78-79). Depart from evil and do good: seek peace and pursue it (Ps. 34:14). Much peace have they that love Thy law (Ps. 119:165-166). O that thou hadst hearkened to My commandments! then had thy peace been as a river. There is no peace, saith Jehovah, to the wicked (Isa. 48:18, 22). Jehovah will speak peace to His people: justice and peace shall kiss each other (Ps. 85:8, 10). There is no peace in my bones because of my sin (Ps. 38:3). He hath filled me with bitterness, my soul is removed from peace; I forgot good (Lam. 3:15, 17). Besides many other passages; from which it may be seen, that the above-mentioned things are meant by "peace;" keep in mind spiritual peace, and you will clearly perceive that this is the case (so likewise in these passages, Isaiah 26:12; 53:5; 54:10, 13; Jeremiah 33:6, 9; Haggai 2:9; Zechariah 8:16, 19; Psalms 4:6-8; 120:6, 7; 122:6-9; 128:5, 6; 147:14). That peace is what inmostly affects all good with blessedness, may be seen in the work concerning Heaven and Hell (n. 284-290).307.
And that they should kill one another, signifies intestine hatreds, infestations from the hells, and internal restlessness. These things are signified, when by "taking away peace" is signified taking away charity, spiritual security, and internal rest, and when by "the red horse" is signified the understanding of the Word destroyed as to good; for these things exist when there is no longer any good; and there is no longer any good when it is not known what good is. That intestine hatreds exist when there is no charity, likewise infestations by the hells when there is no spiritual security, and internal restlessness when there is no rest from evils and their lusts, is evident; but this is the case after death, if not in the world. That "to kill" has such a signification, is plain from the signification of "a sword," in what follows.308.
And there was given unto him a great sword, signifies the destruction of truth by the falsities of evil. That "a sword" [gladius], "saber" [machaera], and "long sword" [romphaea] signify truth combating against falsities and destroying them, and in the opposite sense, falsity combating against truths, and destroying them, may be seen above (n. 52); here "a great sword" signifies the falsities of evil destroying the truths of good. They are called falsities of evil, because there are falsities which are not falsities of evil, and the latter do not destroy truths, but the former do. That such is the signification of "a great sword" is evident from its being said that presently "a black horse" was seen, by which is signified the understanding of the Word destroyed as to truth, and truth is destroyed by nothing but evil.309.
Verse 5. And when He had opened the third seal, signifies exploration by the Lord of those upon whom the Last Judgment was to be executed, as to the states of their life. The same is here signified by these words as before (n. 295), only with the difference explained below.310.
And I heard the third animal saying, signifies according to the Divine truth of the Word as above (n. 296).311.
Come and look, signifies manifestation concerning the third in order, as may appear from the explanation (above n. 297); only there the first in order are treated of, but here the third.312.
And I saw, and behold, a black horse, signifies the understanding of the Word destroyed as to truth, thus as to doctrine with these. That "a horse" signifies the understanding of the Word, was shown above; the reason why "black" signifies what is not true, thus falsity, is because black is the opposite of white, and white is predicated of truth (n. 167, 231, 232); white also derives its origin from light, and black from darkness, thus from the absence of light, and light is truth. But in the spiritual world there exists blackness from a twofold origin, one from the absence of flaming light, which light is with those who are in the Lord's celestial kingdom, and the other from the absence of bright light, which is the light with those who are in the Lord's spiritual kingdom; the latter blackness has the same signification as "darkness," but the former as "thick darkness." There is a difference between these two kinds of blackness, the one is abominable, the other not so much so; it is the same with the falsities which they signify. They who appear in the abominable kind of blackness are called devils, such holding truth in abomination as horned owls do the light of the sun. But they appear in that kind of blackness, which is not abominable, who are called satans; these do not abominate truth, but are averse to it; the latter may therefore be compared to owls, and the former to horned owls. That "black," in the Word, is spoken of falsity, may appear from these passages: Her Nazarites were whiter than snow, their form is darkened more than blackness (Lam. 4:7-8). The day shall grow black over the prophets (Micah 3:6). In the day when thou goest down into hell, I will make Lebanon black over thee (Ezek. 31:15). The sun became black as sackcloth of hair (Rev. 6:12). The sun, the moon, and the stars, became black (Jer. 4:27-28; Ezek. 32:7; Joel 2:10; 3:15; and elsewhere). The reason why "the third animal" showed "a black horse," was, because it had a face like a man, by which is signified the Divine truth of the Word as to wisdom (n. 243), therefore this animal showed that there was no longer any truth of wisdom with those who were the third in order.313.
And he that sat upon him had a pair of balances in his hand, signifies the estimation of good and truth, of what kind it was with these. By "the pair of balances in his hand," is signified the estimation of truth and good; for all measures and weights, in the Word, signify the estimation of the thing treated of. That measures and weights signify such things is manifest from these words in Daniel: There appeared a writing before Belshazzar the king of Babylon, when he was drinking wine from the vessels of gold and silver taken out of the temple of Jerusalem, Mene, Mene, Thekel, Perizin; that is, Numbered, Numbered, Weighed, Divided; the interpretation of which is this: Mene, God hath numbered thy kingdom, and finished it; Thekel, Thou art weighed in the balance, and found wanting; Perez, The kingdom is divided, and given to the Mede and the Persian (Dan. 5:1-2, 25-28). By "drinking from the gold and silver vessels of the temple of Jerusalem," and at the same time worshiping other gods, signifies the profanation of good and truth; as also by "Babylon." By "Mene," or to number, is signified to know his quality as to truth; by "Thekel," or to weigh, is signified to know his quality as to good; by "Perez," or to divide, is signified to disperse. That the quality of truth and good is signified by measures and by balances in the Word, is manifest in Isaiah: Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of His hand, and hath meted out the heavens with the span, and hath embraced the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in balances (Isa. 40:12). And in Revelation: The angel measured the wall of the holy Jerusalem a hundred and forty-four cubits, which is the measure of a man, that is, of an angel (Rev. 21:17).314.
Verse 6. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four animals, saying, signifies the Divine guard of the Word by the Lord. That "the four animals" or cherubs signify the Word from firsts to ultimates, and guards lest its interior truths and goods should be violated, may be seen above (n. 239); and because these guards are from the Lord, the voice was therefore heard in the midst of the four animals. By "in the midst" of them is meant the Word as to its internal spiritual sense, which the Lord guards. That a guard is signified, is manifest from the things that it said: A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and hurt not the oil and the wine (Rev. 6:6); by which is signified that because the estimation of good and truth is so trifling that it is scarcely anything, it must be provided that the holy goods and truths, which lie hid interiorly in the Word, should not be violated and profaned; and this is provided by the Lord by this means, that they at length do not know any good, and thence neither any truth, but mere evil and falsity: for they who know goods and truths can violate, yea, they can profane them, but not so they who do not know them. That such is the operation of the Divine providence in guarding the Word, may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Providence (n. 221-233, n. 257, the end; n. 258, the beginning).315.
A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny, signifies because the estimation of good and truth is so small as to be scarcely anything. These are signified because by "a measure" [choenix] which was the measure and the quantity measured, is signified quality, as above (n. 314); by "wheat" and "barley" is signified good and truth; and by a penny [denarius] which is a very small coin, that they are held in little or no estimation. It is said "three" measures of barley, because "three" signify all, and are predicated of truths (n. 515). The reason why "wheat" and "barley" signify good and truth, here the good and truth of the church from the Word, is, because all things which belong to the field and the vineyard, signify such things as are of the church, because "a field" signifies the church as to good and truth thence, and "a vineyard," the church as to truth and good therefrom; therefore where these are mentioned in the Word, the angels, who perceive all things spiritually, understand nothing else; as in Joel: The field is wasted, the land mourneth; for the corn is wasted; the must is dried up, the oil languisheth. Be ye ashamed, O ye husbandmen; howl, O ye vine dressers, for the wheat and the barley; because the harvest of the field is perished (Joel 1:10-12).  All these things signify such things as are of the church. That "wheat" and "barley" signify the good and truth of the church, may be seen from these passages: John saith concerning Jesus, that He will gather the wheat into the barn, and burn up the chaff with fire (Matt. 3:11-12). Jesus said, Let the tares and the wheat grow together, and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares to burn, but gather the wheat into My barn (Matt. 13:24-30). I have heard the consummation and decision from Jehovah God; he layeth up the measured wheat, and the appointed barley; for his God doth instruct him to judgment, and doth teach him (Isa. 28:22, 25-26). Jehovah shall lead thee to a land of wheat and barley (Deut. 8:7-8). "A land of wheat and barley" here is the land of Canaan, by which the church is signified. They shall come and sing in the height of Zion, and shall flow together to the goodness of Jehovah, for wheat and must (Jer. 31:12). Jehovah shall satiate thee with the fat of wheat (Deut. 32:13-14; Ps. 81:16; 147:14). Jehovah said to the prophet Ezekiel that: He should make himself cakes of barley mixed with dung, and eat them (Ezek. 4:12, 15). And to the prophet Hosea that: He should take a woman an adulteress; whom he bought for a homer of barley, and half a homer of barley (Hos. 3:1-2). Which things were done by those prophets, that they might represent the falsifications of truth in the church, for "barley" signifies truths, and "barley mixed with dung" truths falsified and profaned; "a woman an adulteress" also signifies truth falsified (n. 134).316.
And hurt not the oil and the wine, signifies that it is provided by the Lord that the holy goods and truths, which lie interiorly concealed in the Word, shall not be violated and profaned. "Oil" signifies the good of love, and "wine" truth from that good, therefore "oil" signifies holy good, and "wine" holy truth; "hurt them not," signifies that it is provided by the Lord that they shall not be violated and profaned; for this was heard "from the midst of the four animals," thus from the Lord (n. 314); what is said by the Lord, the same is also provided for by Him; that it is provided, may be seen above (n. 314, 255). That "oil" signifies the good of love, will be seen below (n. 778, 779); but that "wine" signifies truth from that good, is evident from the following passages: Everyone that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no silver, come ye, buy and eat, yea come, buy wine and milk without silver (Isa. 55:1). And it shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall drop down must, and the hills shall flow with milk (Joel 3:18; Amos 9:13-14). And joy is taken away from Carmel, and in the vineyards there shall be no singing; wine shall not be trodden in the wine-press, I have made their shouting to cease (Isa. 16:10; Jer. 48:32-33). By "Carmel" is signified the spiritual church, because vineyards were there.  Howl, all ye drinkers of wine, because of the must; for it is cut off from your mouth; howl, O ye vine dressers (Joel 1:5, 10-11). Nearly the same words occur in Hosea 9:2-3; Zephaniah 1:13; Lamentations 2:11-12; Micah 6:15; Amos 5:11; Isaiah 24:6-7, 9, 11. He washeth his garments in wine and his covering in the blood of grapes; his eyes are red from wine (Gen. 49:11-12). These things are concerning the Lord; "wine" signifies Divine truth. This is the reason why the Holy Supper was instituted by the Lord, in which the bread signifies the Lord as to the Divine good, and the wine the Lord as to the Divine truth, and with the recipients the bread signifies holy good, and the wine, holy truth, from the Lord; therefore He said: I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this product of the vine, until the day when I shall drink it with you in My Father's kingdom (Matt. 16:29; Luke 22:18). Because "bread and wine" had this signification, therefore, also: Melchizedek, going to meet Abram, brought forth bread and wine, and he was the priest of the most high God, and he blessed Abram (Gen. 14:18-19).  Similar is the signification of the meal-offering and drink-offering, in the sacrifices, concerning which see Exodus 29:40; Leviticus 23:12, 13, 18, 19; Numbers 15:2-15; 28:6, 7, 18, to the end; 29:1-7, and the following verses. The meal offering was of fine flour of wheat, and was therefore instead of bread, and the drink-offering was of wine. From which it may appear what is signified by these words of the Lord: Neither do men put new wine into old bottles, but they put new wine into new bottles, and both are preserved (Matt. 9:17; Luke 5:37). "New wine" is the Divine truth of the New Testament, thus of the new church, and "old wine" is the Divine truth of the Old Testament, thus of the old church. Similar is the signification of these words of the Lord at the marriage in Cana of Galilee: Every man at first setteth forth good wine, and when men have had enough, the worse; thou hast kept the good wine until now (John 2:1-10).  The like is also signified by "wine" in the Lord's parable of the man that was wounded by robbers, that: The Samaritan poured oil and wine into his wounds (Luke 10:33-34). For by him that was "wounded by robbers," are meant they who are spiritually wounded by the Jews by evils and falsities, to whom the Samaritan gave assistance "by pouring in oil and wine" into his wounds, that is, by teaching good and truth, and, so far as he was able, by healing. Holy truth is also signified by "must" and "wine" in other parts of the Word (as in Isaiah 1:21, 22; 25:6; 36:17; Hosea 7:4, 5, 14; 14:6-8; Amos 2:8; Zechariah 9:15, 17; Psalms 104:14, 15). Hence it is that "a vineyard," in the Word, signifies a church that is in truths from the Lord.  That "wine" signifies holy truth, may also appear from its opposite sense, in which it signifies truth falsified and profaned; as in these passages: Whoredom, and wine, and must, occupy the heart. Their wine has failed, they have committed whoredom continually (Hos. 4:11, 17-18). "Whoredom" signifies the falsification of truth, as do "wine and must" here. In the hand of Jehovah is a cup, and He hath mixed it with wine; He hath filled it with mixture, and poureth it out, and the dregs of it all the wicked of the earth suck out and drink (Ps. 75:8). Babylon is a cup of gold in the hand of Jehovah that maketh all the earth drunken; the nations have drunken of her wine; therefore they are insane (Jer. 2:7). Babylon hath fallen, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the anger of her whoredom. If anyone adore the beast, he shall drink of the wine of the anger of God, which is prepared unmixed in the cup of the anger of God (Rev. 14:8-10). Babylon hath made all nations drink of the wine of her whoredom (Rev. 18:3). Great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fury of the anger of God (Rev. 16:19). The inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her whoredom (Rev. 17:1-2).  By the wine which Belshazzar, king of Babylon, and his magnates, and wives, and concubines, drank out of the vessels of the temple of Jerusalem, and at the same time: They praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone (Dan. 5:2-4). Nothing else is meant than the holy truth of the Word and of the church profaned. Wherefore the writing then appeared upon the wall, and the king was slain that night (verses 25, 30). "Wine" signifies truth falsified also in Isaiah 5:11, 12, 21, 22; 28:1, 3, 7; 29:9; 56:11, 12; Jeremiah 13:12; 23:9, 10. The same is signified by the drink-offering which they offered to idols (Isaiah 65:11; 57:6; Jeremiah 7:18; 44:17-19; Ezekiel 20:28; Deuteronomy 32:38). That "wine" signifies holy truth, and, in the opposite sense, truth profaned, is from correspondence; for the angels, who perceive all things spiritually, understand nothing else, when man reads "wine" in the Word; such a correspondence is there between the natural thoughts of men and the spiritual thoughts of angels. It is similar with the wine in the Holy Supper, and hence it is, that introduction into heaven is effected by the Holy Supper (n. 224, at the end).317.
Verse 7. And when He had opened the fourth seal, signifies exploration by the Lord of those upon whom the Last Judgment was to be executed, as to their states of life, as above (n. 295, 302), only with the difference explained below.318.
I heard the voice of the fourth animal saying, signifies according to the Divine truth of the Word, as above (n. 296, 303).319.
Come and look, signifies manifestation concerning the fourth in order, as is evident from the explanation above (n. 297); but there it is applied to the first in order, here to the fourth.320.
Verse 8. And I saw, and behold, a pale horse, signifies the understanding of the Word destroyed both as to good and as to truth. "A horse" signifies the understanding of the Word (n. 298), and "pale" signifies no vitality. In the Word, this want of vitality is predicated of those who are not in goods of life from truths of doctrine; for the Word, in the sense of the letter, is not understood without doctrine, and doctrine is not perceived without a life according to it; the reason is, because a life according to doctrine which is from the Word, opens the spiritual mind, when light flows into it from heaven and enlightens and gives to perceive. That this is the case, he does not know who knows truths of doctrine, and yet does not live according to them. The reason why "the fourth animal" showed "a pale horse," was, because that animal was like "a flying eagle," and by it was signified the Divine truth of the Word as to knowledges and understanding therefrom (n. 244). Therefore he showed that with those who were now seen there were no knowledges of good and truth from the Word, nor any understanding of them, and such in the spiritual world appear pale, like those who are without life.321.
And his name that sat upon him was Death, and hell followed with him, signifies the extinction of spiritual life, and thence damnation. By "death" is here signified spiritual death, which is the extinction of spiritual life; and by "hell" is signified damnation, which follows that death. Every man, indeed, has from creation, and therefore from birth, spiritual life, but that life is extinguished when he denies God, the holiness of the Word, and eternal life; it is extinguished in the will, but remains in the understanding, or rather in the faculty of understanding. By this man is distinguished from beasts. As "death" signifies the extinction of spiritual life, and "hell" damnation thence, therefore "death and hell" in some passages are named together; as in these: I will redeem them from the hand of hell, I will liberate them from death: O death, I will be thy plagues; O hell, I will be thy destruction (Hos. 13:14). The cords of death encompassed me; the cords of hell encompassed me; the snares of death prevented me (Ps. 18:4-5; 116:3). Like sheep they are laid in hell; death shall feed on them, hell is their habitation, but God will redeem my soul from the hand of hell (Ps. 49:14-15). I have the keys of hell and death (Rev. 1:18).322.
And power was given them over the fourth part of the earth to kill, signifies the destruction of all the good of the church. Since by "death" is meant the extinction of man's spiritual life, and by "hell" damnation, it follows that "to kill" here means to destroy the life of man's soul; the life of the soul is spiritual life; "a fourth part of the earth" signifies all the good of the church; "the earth" is the church (n. 285). That "a fourth part" is all good, cannot be known by anyone, unless he knows what numbers in the Word signify. The numbers "two" and "four" in the Word, are predicated of goods, and signify them; and the numbers "three" and "six" are predicated of truths, and signify them; thus "a fourth part," or simply "a fourth," signifies all good, and "a third part," or simply "a third," signifies all truth; therefore "to kill a fourth part of the earth," here signifies to destroy all the good of the church. That "power was not given to him that sat upon the pale horse to kill a fourth part of the habitable earth," is evident.  Besides, "four" in the Word signifies the conjunction of good and truth. That "four" has these significations, may indeed be confirmed from the Word; as by "the four animals or cherubim" (Ezekiel 1, 3, 10; Revelation 4); by "the four chariots between the two mountains of brass" (Zechariah 6); by "the four horns" (Zechariah 1:18); and by "the four horns of the altar" (Exodus 27:1-8; Revelation 9:13); by "the four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth" (Revelation 7:1; Matthew 24:31); as also by "visiting the iniquity upon the thirds and fourths" (Numbers 14:18); and in other places by "the third and fourth generation." By these, and by many other passages in the Word, I say, it can be confirmed that "four" is predicated of goods, and signifies them, and also the conjunction of good and truth; but since this would not appear without a prolix explanation of these passages, it is sufficient to mention, that nothing else is meant in heaven by "four" and by "a fourth part."323.
With sword and with hunger, and with death, and by the beasts of the earth, signifies by falsities of doctrine, by evils of life, by the love of the proprium, and by lusts. That by "a sword" is signified truth combating against evils and falsities, and destroying them, and in the opposite sense, falsity combating against goods and truths, and destroying them, may be seen above (n. 52, 108, 117). Here, therefore, by "sword," because the destruction of all the goods in the church is treated of, are signified falsities of doctrine. That "hunger" signifies evils of life, will be confirmed below. The reason why "death" signifies the love of man's proprium, is, because "death" signifies the extinction of spiritual life, and thence natural life separated from spiritual life (as above, n. 321), and this life is the life of the love of man's proprium; for from it man loves nothing but himself and the world, and thence also he loves all kinds of evils, which, from the love of that life, are delightful to him. That "beasts of the earth" signify lusts from that love, will be seen below (n. 567). Here something shall be said concerning the signification of "hunger." (1) "Hunger" signifies deprivation and rejection of the knowledges of truth and good arising from evils of life. (2) It also signifies ignorance of the knowledges of truth and good arising from a deficiency thereof in the church. (3) And it signifies likewise a desire to know and understand them.  (1) That "hunger" signifies the deprivation and rejection of the knowledges of truth and good, arising from evils of life, and thence evils of life, may appear from the following passages: They shall be consumed by the sword and by famine, and their carcass shall be food for the birds of the heavens, and for the beasts of the earth (Jer. 16:4). These two things shall come unto thee, devastation and breaking, and the famine and the sword (Isa. 51:19). Behold, I will visit upon them; the young men shall die by the sword, their sons and their daughters shall die by famine (Jer. 11:22). Give his sons to famine, and make them to flow down at the hand of the sword; that the men may be killed by death (Jer. 18:21). I will send upon them the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, and will make them like vile figs that cannot be eaten, they are so evil, and I will pursue them with the sword, famine, and pestilence (Jer. 29:17-18). I will send among them the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, till they be consumed from off the land (Jer. 24:10). I proclaim liberty for you, to the sword, to the famine, and to the pestilence, and I will give you for a commotion to all nations (Jer. 34:17). Because thou hast polluted My sanctuary, a third part of thee shall die with the pestilence, and with famine shall they be consumed, and a third part shall fall by the sword, when I shall send upon them the evil arrows of famine, which shall be for destruction (Ezek. 6:11-12, 16-17). The sword without, and the pestilence and famine within (Ezek. 7:15). For all the evil abominations they shall fall by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence (Ezek. 6:11-12). I will send My four evil judgments upon Jerusalem, the sword, the famine, and the evil beast, and the pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast (Ezek. 14:13, 15, 21; besides other places, as Jer. 14:12-13, 15-16; 42:13-14, 16-18, 22; 44:12-13, 17; Matt. 24:7-8; Mark 13:8; Luke 21:11). The "sword," "famine," "pestilence," and "beast," in those passages, have a signification similar to that of "the sword," "hunger," "death," and "the beasts of the earth," here mentioned; for in the Word there is a spiritual sense in every single expression, in which sense "a sword" is the destruction of spiritual life by falsities; "hunger," the destruction of spiritual life by evils; "beasts of the earth," the destruction of spiritual life by cupidities of falsity and evil; and "pestilence" and "death" signify plenary consumption, and thus damnation.  (2) That "hunger" signifies ignorance of the knowledges of truth and good arising from a deficiency of such knowledges in the church, is also evident from various passages in the Word (as from Isaiah 5:13; 8:19-22; Lamentations 2:19; 5:8-10; Amos 8:11-14; Job 5:17, 20; and other places). (3) That "famine" or hunger signifies the desire of knowing and understanding the truths and goods of the church, is plain from the following: Isaiah 8:21; 32:6; 49:10; 58:6, 7; 1 Samuel 2:4, 5; Psalms 33:18, 19; 34:9, 10; 37:18, 19; 107:8, 9, 35-37; 146:7; Matt. 5:6; 25:35, 37, 44; Luke 1:53; John 6:35; and elsewhere.324.
Verse 9. And when He had opened the fifth seal, signifies exploration by the Lord of their states of life, who were to be saved at the day of the Last Judgment, and in the meantime were reserved. That these are here treated of, is evident from what now follows. But it is to be known that these, and the like, are treated of throughout the twentieth chapter, the explanation of which may be seen, n. 840-874, manifesting who they are, and why reserved.325.
I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the Word of God, and for the testimony which they held, signifies those who were hated, reproached and rejected by the evil on account of their life according to the truths of the Word, and their acknowledgment of the Lord's Divine Human, and who were guarded by the Lord lest they be seduced. "Under the altar" signifies the lower earth, where they were guarded by the Lord; "an altar" signifies the worship of the Lord from the good of love; by "the souls of the slain," are not here signified the martyrs, but they who are hated, reproached, and rejected by the evil in the world of spirits, and who could be seduced by the dragonists and heretics. "For the Word of God and for the testimony which they held" signifies for living according to the truths of the Word, and acknowledging the Lord's Divine Human. "Testimony" in heaven is not given to any but to those who acknowledge the Lord's Divine Human, for it is the Lord who testifies, and gives the angels to testify (n.16): For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy (Rev. 19:10).  Since they were "under the altar," it is evident they were guarded by the Lord; for they who have led any life of charity are all guarded by the Lord lest they be injured by the evil; and after the Last Judgment, when the evil have been removed, they are released from the guards and elevated into heaven. I have frequently seen them, since the Last Judgment, liberated from the lower earth and taken up into heaven.  That by "the slain" are meant they who are rejected, reproached and hated by the evil in the world of spirits, and who could be seduced, and also who desire to know truths, but cannot, by reason of falsities in the church, may appear from these passages: Jehovah God saith, Feed the sheep of the slaughter, whose possessors slay them; and I will feed the sheep of slaughter, on account of you, O poor of the flock (Zech. 11:4-5, 7). We are killed all the day long; we are counted as sheep for the slaughter; O Jehovah forsake us not (Ps. 44:22-23). Jacob shall cause them which are to come to take root, or is he slain according to the slaughter of them that were slain by him? (Isa. 27:6-7). For I have heard the voice of the daughter of Zion, woe is me, now; my soul is wearied by the slayers (Jer. 4:31). They shall deliver you into affliction, and shall kill you, and ye shall be hated for My name's sake (Matt. 24:9; John 16:2-3). This the Lord said to the disciples; but by disciples are meant all who worship the Lord and live according to the truths of His Word.  The evil in the world of spirits continually desire to kill; but because there they cannot do this as to the body, they continually desire to do it as to the soul; and since they are not able to do this, they burn with such hatred against them, that nothing delights them more than to do evil to them. This is the reason why they are guarded by the Lord, and when the evil are cast into hell, which takes place after the Last Judgment, they are led forth from their guards; but see the explanation of chapter 20, n. 846, which treats of this subject. That "to kill" in the Word signifies to destroy souls, which is to kill spiritually, is evident from many passages there, as also from the following: Isaiah 14:19-21; 26:21; Jeremiah 25:33; Lamentations 2:21; Ezekiel 9:1, 6; Revelation 18:24.326.
Verse 10. And they cried with a great voice, signifies grief of heart, as is evident from what now follows.327.
Saying, How long, O Lord, 327-1 dost Thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth? signifies, by reason that the Last Judgment is delayed, and they who offer violence to the Word and to the Lord's Divine Human are not removed. "How long, O Lord, dost Thou not judge," signifies, why is the Last Judgment delayed? "and avenge our blood," signifies, why in justice are they not condemned, who have offered them violence for acknowledging the Lord's Divine Human, and for living according to the truths of His Word? By "blood" is signified violence offered to them (n. 379); by "them that dwell on the earth," are meant the evil in the world of spirits, from whom they were guarded that they might not be hurt.328.
Verse 11. And white robes were given unto each of them, signifies that there was given them a communication and conjunction with the angels who were in Divine truths. "Garments" signify truths (n. 166), and "white garments" genuine truths (n. 212). "Garments" have this signification, because all in the heavens are clothed according to the truths with them; and everyone is clothed according to conjunction with angelic societies. Therefore when conjunction is granted, they immediately appear clothed in a similar manner; hence it is, that by "white robes were given to each of them," is signified that communication and conjunction was given them with angels who were in Divine truths. "Robes," "mantles," and "cloaks," signify truths in general, because they are general coverings. He who knows this signification of these things may know the arcana which lie hidden in the following passages: That Elijah, when he found Elisha, cast his mantle upon him. (1 Kings 19:19). That Elijah by his mantle divided the waters of Jordan (2 Kings 2:8). And in like manner Elisha (2 Kings 2:14). That the mantle fell from Elijah when he was taken up, and Elisha took it up (2 Kings 2:12-13). For by Elijah and Elisha the Lord was represented as to the Word, and therefore their "mantle" signified the Divine truth of the Word in general. As also was signified by: The robe of Aaron's ephod, at the border of which there were pomegranates of blue and purple, and bells of gold (Exod. 28:31-35). That it signifies the Divine truth in general may be seen in The Arcana Coelestia, published at London (n. 9825). "Cloaks" and "mantles" have a similar signification in the following passages: All the princes of the sea shall come down from their thrones and cast away their cloaks (Ezek. 26:16). The scribes and Pharisees make broad the borders of their cloaks, that they may be seen of men (Matt. 23:5). My people have made themselves an enemy on account of a garment, ye pull off the mantle from them that pass by (Micah 2:8; and in other places).329.
And it was said, 329-1 that they should rest yet for a little while, until their fellow-servants 329-2 that should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled, signifies that the Last Judgment should yet be delayed a little, till they should be collected from all quarters, who would, in like manner, be hated, reproached, and rejected by the evil for acknowledging the Lord's Divine Human, and for living according to the truths of His Word. That this is the signification, appears from what has been said above. Similar is the signification of this passage in Isaiah: Thy dead shall live; awake and shout, ye that dwell in the dust; Come, my people, enter into thy chambers, and shut the door after thee; hide thyself as it were for a little moment, until the anger be passed by. For, behold, Jehovah goeth forth out of His place, to visit the iniquity of the inhabitants of the earth upon him; the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain (Isa. 26:19-21). But, as was said before, this subject, and others of a similar nature, are treated of in chapter 20 and following, which is explained (n. 840-874).330.
Verse 12. And I saw when He had opened the sixth seal, signifies exploration by the Lord of their state of life, who were interiorly evil, and on whom the Last Judgment was to be executed. That these are treated of is evident from what now follows; but that they may be understood, two arcana are to be revealed: First, that the Last Judgment was executed only on such as appeared in their external form as Christians, and orally professed the things of the church, but in their internal form, or in heart, they were against them; and because they were such, they were therefore in conjunction with the ultimate heaven as to their exteriors, but with hell as to their interiors. Secondly, that as long as they were in conjunction with the ultimate heaven, so long the internals of their will and their love were closed, for which reason they did not appear evil before others; but when they were separated from the ultimate heaven, then their interiors were disclosed, and found to be totally in opposition to their exteriors, from which they dissembled and feigned that they were angels of heaven, and that the places they inhabited were heavens. These heavens, so called, were those which passed away at the time of the Last Judgment (Revelation 21:1). But more on this subject may be seen in the small work on The Last Judgment (n. 70, 71); and in The Continuation of the Last Judgment (n. 10).331.
And, behold, there was a great earthquake, signifies the state of the church with these altogether changed, and terror. "Earthquakes" signify changes of state in the church, because "the earth" signifies the church (n. 285); and because in the spiritual world, when the state of the church is perverted anywhere, and there is a change, there is an earthquake, and as this is a prelude to their destruction, they are in terror. For the earths in the spiritual world are in appearance like the earths in the natural world (n. 260); but as the earths there, like all other things in that world, are from a spiritual origin, therefore changes occur according to the state of the church among the inhabitants, and when the state of the church is perverted, they quake and tremble, yea, sink down and are moved out of their place. That this was the case, when the Last Judgment was at hand and accomplished, may be seen in the small work on The Last Judgment. Hence it may appear what is meant by "earthquakes," "shakings," and "commotions" of the earth, in the following passages: There shall be pestilences, famines, and earthquakes in diverse places (Matt. 24:7; Mark 13:8; Luke 21:11). This is said of the Last Judgment: In the fire of indignation have I spoken; surely in that day there shall be a great earthquake, and every man upon the face of the earth shall tremble, and the mountains shall be overturned (Ezek. 38:19-20). There was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth (Rev. 16:18). I will shake heaven, and the earth shall be removed out of her place in the indignation of Jehovah of Hosts (Isa. 13:13). And the foundations of the earth have been shaken, the earth is moved exceedingly, for the transgression thereof is heavy upon it (Isa. 24:18-20). The earth is shaken and moved, and the foundations of the mountains, because He was wroth (Ps. 18:7). The mountains tremble before Jehovah, and the rocks are overturned (Nahum 1:5-6: and so in other places; as Jer. 10:10; 49:21; Joel 2:10; Hag. 2:6-7; Rev. 11:19; and elsewhere). But these things are to be understood as being done in the spiritual world, but not in the natural world; in this respect they signify such things as are explained above.332.
And the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood, signifies the adulteration of all the good of love in them, and the falsification of all the truth of faith. That "the sun" signifies the Lord as to Divine love, and thence the good of love from Him; and in the opposite sense, the denial of the Lord's Divinity, and thence the adulteration of the good of love, may be seen above (n. 53). And as "the sun" signifies the good of love, "the moon" therefore signifies the truth of faith; for the sun is red from fire, and the moon is white from the light of the sun; and fire signifies the good of love, and light, the truth from that good. Concerning the moon, see also the passages adduced above (n. 53). It is said, "the sun became black as sackcloth of hair," because adulterated good in itself is evil, and evil is black; and the reason why it is said "the moon became as blood," is, because "blood" signifies the Divine truth, and in the opposite sense, the Divine truth falsified, as may be seen below (n. 379, 684). Nearly the same is said of the sun and moon in Joel: The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and terrible day of Jehovah cometh (Joel 2:31).333.
Verse 13. And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, signifies the dispersion of all the knowledges of good and truth. That "stars" signify the knowledges of good and truth, may be seen above (n. 51); that "to fall from heaven to earth" means to be dispersed is evident; in the spiritual world, also, stars appear to fall from heaven to the earth there, when the knowledges of good and truth perish.334.
Even as a fig tree casteth her unripe figs, when shaken by a great wind, signifies by reasonings of the natural man separated from the spiritual. It is said to have this signification, when yet it is a comparison, because all comparisons in the Word are also correspondences, and in the spiritual sense they cohere with the subject treated of, as in the present instance; for "a fig," from correspondence signifies the natural good of man conjoined with his spiritual good, but here, in the opposite sense, the natural good of man separated from his spiritual good, which is not good; and as the natural man, when separated from the spiritual, perverts by reasonings the knowledges of good and truth, which are signified by the stars, it follows that this is signified by "a fig tree shaken by a great wind." That "wind" and "storm" signify reasoning is evident from many passages in the Word, but it is not necessary to adduce them here, because it is a comparison. The reason why "a fig tree" signifies the natural good of man is because every tree signifies something of the church in man, therefore also man with respect thereto. In confirmation are these passages: All the host of heaven shall fall down, as a leaf falleth from the vine, and as it falleth from the fig tree (Isa. 34:4). I will consume them, there shall be no grapes on the vine, nor figs on the fig tree, and the leaf shall fall (Jer. 8:13). All thy bulwarks shall be like fig trees with the first fruits; if they be shaken, they shall even fall upon the mouth of the eater (Nahum 3:12; besides other places; as Jer. 24:2-3, 5, 8; Isa. 38:21; Jer. 29:17-18; Hos. 2:12; 9:10; Joel 1:7, 12; Zech. 3:10; Matt. 21:18-21; 24:32-33; Mark 11:12-14, 20-24; Luke 6:44; 13:6-9). In which places nothing else is meant by "a fig tree."335.
Verse 14. And heaven departed as a book rolled together, signifies separation from heaven and conjunction with hell. It is said that "heaven departed as a book rolled together," because the interior understanding, and hence the thought, of man is as heaven; for his understanding can be elevated into the light of heaven and in such elevation can think with the angels concerning God, concerning love and faith, and concerning eternal life: but if his will is not at the same time elevated into the heat of heaven, the man is not conjoined with the angels of heaven, thus is not like heaven. That this is the case, may be seen in Angelic Wisdom concerning Divine Love and Wisdom, Chapter 5. By virtue of this faculty of the understanding, the evil who are here treated of, could be in consociation with the angels of the ultimate heaven; but when these were separated from the former, their heaven departed as "a book rolled together." By "a book rolled together" is meant parchment, rolled up, because their books were parchments, and the comparison is made with a book, because the book is the Word (n. 256); therefore when it is rolled up like a parchment, nothing that it contains is apparent, and it is as though it were not. On this account the like is said in Isaiah: And all the host of heaven shall waste away, and the heavens shall be rolled together as a book, and shall fall down as the leaf falleth from the fig tree (Isa. 34:4). "Hosts" are the goods and truths of the church from the Word (n. 447). From these things it may appear, that by "heaven departing as a book rolled together," is signified separation from heaven, and conjunction with hell. That separation from heaven is conjunction with hell, is evident.336.
And every mountain and island were moved out of their places, signifies that all the good of love and truth of faith receded. That this is the signification of these words no one can see without the spiritual sense. They have this signification, however, because by "mountains" are meant those who are in the good of love, because the angels dwell upon mountains; such as are in love to the Lord dwelling on high mountains, and such as are in love towards their neighbor dwelling on lower ones; wherefore by "every mountain" is signified every good of love. By "islands" are meant those who are more remote from the worship of God, see above (n. 34); here those who are in faith, and not so much in the good of love, therefore in the abstract sense "every island" signifies every truth of faith; by "being moved out of their places" is signified to recede. It is because the habitations of the angels are upon mountains and hills, that "mountains" and "hills" in the Word signify heaven and the church, where there exists love to the Lord and love to the neighbor, and in the opposite sense, hell, where there exists self-love and the love of the world.  That by "mountains" and "hills" are signified heaven and the church, where there exists love to the Lord and love to the neighbor, and thus where the Lord is, is evident from the following passages: Lift up the eyes to the mountains, from whence cometh help (Ps. 121:1). Behold upon the mountains the feet of him that publisheth peace (Nahum 1:15; Isa. 52:7). Praise Jehovah, mountains and hills (Ps. 148:9). The mountain of God is the mountain of Bashan, a mountain of hills is the mountain of Bashan. Why leap ye, O mountains, ye hills of the mountain? Jehovah desireth to dwell therein, yea, Jehovah will dwell in it forever (Ps. 68:15-16). The mountains leaped like rams; the hills like the sons of the flock; before the Lord, thou art in travail, O earth (Ps. 114:4-7). And I will bring forth a seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah an inheritor of My mountains, and My elect may possess them, and My servants shall dwell there (Isa. 65:9). In the consummation of the age; then let them which be in Judea flee into the mountains (Matt. 24:16). Thy justice, O Jehovah, is like the mountains of God (Ps. 36:6). Jehovah will go forth and fight, His feet shall stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives, before Jerusalem on the east (Zech. 14:3-4).  Because "the Mount of Olives" signifies Divine love, therefore: The Lord in the daytime preached in the temple, but at night He went out and passed the night in the Mount of Olives (Luke 21:37; 22:39; John 8:1). And the Lord discoursed with His disciples on that mountain concerning his coming and the consummation of the age (Matt. 24:3; Mark 13:3, and following verses). And also He went from thence to Jerusalem and suffered (Matt. 21:1; 26:30; Mark 11:1; 14:26; Luke 19:29, 37; 21:37; 22:39). Because a mountain signified heaven and love: Jehovah descended upon the top of Mount Sinai, and promulgated the Law (Exod. 19:20; 24:17). And for the same reason the Lord was transfigured before Peter, James, and John, upon a high mountain (Matthew 17:1). And on this account Zion was upon a mountain, and also Jerusalem, and they are called "the mountain of Jehovah," and "the mountain of holiness," in many parts of the Word. "Mountains" and "hills" have a similar signification in other places (as in Isaiah 7:25; 30:25; 40:9; 44:23; 49:11, 13; 55:12; Jeremiah 16:15, 16; Ezekiel 36:8; Joel 3:17, 18; Amos 4:1, 13; 9:13, 14; Psalms 65:6; 80:8, 10; 104:5-10, 13).  That those loves are signified by "mountains" and "hills," may appear still more evidently from their opposite sense, in which they signify infernal loves, which are self-love and the love of the world, as is manifest from the following passages: The day of Jehovah shall come upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up (Isa. 2:12, 14). Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low (Isa. 40:3-4). The mountains shall be overthrown and the steep places shall fall (Ezek. 38:20-21). Behold, I am against thee, O mountain, destroying the whole earth, I will make thee a mountain of burning (Jer. 51:25). I saw the mountains, and behold they were shaken, and all the hills were overturned (Jer. 4:23-25). A fire is kindled in mine anger, and it shall set on fire the foundations of the mountains (Deut. 32:22). I will lay waste mountains and hills (Isa. 42:15). Behold, O Jacob, I have made thee like a threshing instrument, that thou mayest thresh and beat in pieces the mountains, and make the hills as chaff, that the wind may carry them away (Isa. 41:15-16). Give glory to Jehovah God, before your feet stumble on the mountains of twilight (Jer. 13:16). Nor is anything else meant by "the seven mountains, upon which the woman sat, which was Babylon" (Revelation 17:9; besides other places; as Isaiah 14:13; Jeremiah 50:6; 9:10; Ezekiel 6:3, 13; 34:6; Micah 6:1, 2; Nahum 1:5, 6; Psalms 46:2, 3). From the above it is evident what is meant by "every mountain and island were moved out of their places." Also in what follows, by: Every island fled away, and the mountains were not found (Rev. 16:20; n. 714).337.
Verse 15. And the kings of the earth, and the great ones, and the rich, and the rulers of thousands, and the mighty, and every servant, and every freeman, signifies those who before separation were in the understanding of truth and good, in the science of the knowledges thereof, in erudition, either from others or from themselves, and yet not in a life according to them. That this is the signification of the above words in their order, can only be known by those who know what is signified in the spiritual sense by "kings," "great ones," "rich," "rulers of thousands," "the mighty," "servants, and freemen." For by "king," in this sense, are signified they who are in truths; by "great ones," they who are in goods; by "the rich," they who are in the knowledges of truth; by "rulers of thousands," they who are in the knowledges of good; by "the mighty," they who are in erudition; by "servants," they who are in such things from others, thus from the memory; by "freemen," they who are in such things from themselves, thus from judgment. But to prove the signification of all these names from the Word would be too prolix. What is signified by "kings" has been shown before (n. 20); and what by "the rich" (n. 206); what by "great ones," is evident from Jeremiah 5:5; Nahum 3:10; Jonah 3:7; for "great" is predicated of good (n. 896, 898); that "mighty," and "servants, and freemen," are such as are in erudition, either from others or from themselves, will be seen below. It is said, they who are in these things, and yet not in a life according to them, because the evil, yea, the worst, may be in the science and in the understanding of the knowledges of truth and good, and also in much erudition, but because they are not in a life according to them, they are not in them actually; for what is only in the understanding, and not at the same time in the life, is not in the man, but is out of him, as it were in a court; but that which is at the same time in the life, is in the man, it is within him as in the house; therefore the latter are preserved, and the former rejected.338.
Hid themselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains, signifies that they were now in evils and in the falsities of evil. "To hide themselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains," signifies to be in evils and in the falsities of evil, because they who pretended before the world that they were in the good of love, and yet were in evil, after death hide themselves in caves; and they who have pretended that they were in the truths of faith, and yet were in the falsities of evil, hide themselves in the rocks of the mountains. The entrances appear like holes in the earth, and like clefts in the mountains, into which they betake themselves like serpents, and there hide themselves. That such are their abiding places I have frequently seen. Hence it is that by "caves" are signified the evils with such, and by "holes" and "clefts" the falsities of evil, in the following passages: In that day they shall go into the caves of the rocks and into the fissures of the cliffs when Jehovah ariseth to terrify the earth (Isa. 2:19). In that day they shall go into the clefts of the rocks and into the fissures of the cliffs for dread of Jehovah (Isa. 2:21). To dwell in the fissures of the valleys, in holes of the earth, and in the rocks (Job 30:6). The pride of thine heart hath deceived thee, who dwellest in fissures (Obad. 3). In that day they shall come and shall rest in the rivers of desolation, and in the fissures of the rocks (Isa. 7:19). The palace shall be a desert, the hillside and towers shall be for caves forever (Isa. 32:14). The pride of thine heart hath deceived thee, that dwellest in the holes of the rock (Jer. 49:16). And they shall hunt them from upon every mountain and hill, and out of the holes of the rocks; they shall not be hidden before Me, neither is their iniquity hidden (Jer. 16:16-17). In that day the suckling shall play on the hole of the viper, and the weaned shall put his hand on the cave of the basilisk (Isa. 11:8).339.
Verse 16. And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall upon us, and hide us from the face of Him that sitteth upon the throne, and from the anger of the Lamb, signifies confirmation of evil by falsity, and of falsity from evil, until they did not acknowledge anything Divine in the Lord. "Mountains" signify the loves of evil, thus evils (n. 336), and "rocks" signify the falsities of faith; by "falling upon them and hiding them," is signified to be defended against influx from heaven; and as this is done by confirmations of evils by falsity, and of falsity from evil, therefore these are signified; by "hiding themselves from the face of Him that sitteth upon the throne, and from the anger of the Lamb," is signified until they do not acknowledge anything Divine in the Lord; by "Him that sitteth on the throne" is meant the Divine of the Lord, from whence are all things; and by "the Lamb" is meant Himself as to the Divine Human; the Lord as to both was upon the throne, as has been shown above. It is said "from His face and from His anger," because all they who are in caves and rocks, dare not set foot out of them, nor even put forth a finger, by reason of the pain and torment consequent on doing so; this is owing to the hatred which they bear against the Lord, even to their not being able to name Him; and the Divine sphere of the Lord fills all things, which they cannot remove from themselves, except by confirmations of evil by falsity, and of falsity from evil; the delights of evils do this.  Similar is the signification of this passage in Hosea: And they shall say to the mountains, Cover us, and to the hills, Fall upon us (Hos. 10:8). And in Luke: Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall upon us; and to the hills, Hide us (Luke 23:30). That this is the spiritual sense of these words, cannot appear in the letter, but it appears in the spiritual sense from this, that when the Last Judgment is executed, they who are in evil, and desire to be in good, suffer hard things in the beginning; whereas they suffer less on such an occasion who confirm themselves in their evil by falsities, for these last cover their evil by falsities, but the former lay bare their evil, and in this case cannot endure the Divine influx, as is seen in what follows. The caves and caverns into which they cast themselves, are correspondences.340.
Verse 17. Because the great day of His anger is come, and who is able to stand? signifies that they were made such of themselves by their separation from the good and faithful on account of the Last Judgment, which otherwise they could not endure. "The great day of the anger of the Lamb," signifies the day of the Last Judgment; "and who is able to stand?" signifies their inability to endure it by reason of their torment; for when the Last Judgment is at hand, the Lord, together with heaven, approaches, and of those who are below in the world of spirits, no others can endure the Lord's coming, but those who are interiorly good, who shun evils as sins, and look to the Lord. That "the day of the Lord's anger" signifies the Last Judgment is evident from the following passages: Before the fierce anger of Jehovah come upon you, before the day of Jehovah's anger come upon you, it may be ye shall be hid in the day of Jehovah's anger (Zeph. 2:2-3). Behold the day of Jehovah cometh, cruel both with indignation and wrath of anger (Isa. 13:9, 13). The great day of Jehovah is near, a day of wrath, a day of straitness and distress, a day of darkness and thick darkness (Zeph. 1:14-15). Thy anger is come, and the time of the dead to be judged, and to give reward unto Thy servants, and to destroy them that destroy the earth (Rev. 11:18). Kiss the Son, lest He be angry and ye perish in the way, because His anger is kindled quickly; happy are all they that trust in Him (Ps. 2:12).341.
To the above I will add this Relation. I saw some of the English clergy assembled, to the number of six hundred, who prayed to the Lord that they might be permitted to ascend to a society of the higher heaven; which being granted them, they ascended. And when they entered, they saw their king, the present king's grandfather, 341-1 and they were glad, who went up to two bishops that were among them, whom he had known in the world, and entering into discourse with them, asked them, "How came you here?" They replied, that they had made supplication to the Lord, and it was granted them. He said to them, "Why to the Lord, and not to God the Father?" And they answered, that they were so instructed below. And he said, "Did I not sometimes tell you in the world, that the Lord ought to be approached, and also that charity is primary? What reply did you then make concerning the Lord?" And it was given them to recollect, that they had made answer, "That when the Father is approached, the Son also is approached." But the angels who were about the king said, "You are mistaken, you did not think so, nor is the Lord approached, when God the Father is approached; but God the Father is approached, when approach is made to the Lord, because they are one, like soul and body. Who approaches a man's soul, and thus his body? When a man is approached as to his body, which is seen, is not his soul also approached, which is not seen?" To this they were silent. And the king went up to the two bishops, with two gifts in his hand, saying, "These are gifts from heaven." They were celestial forms of gold which he wished to present to them, when a dusky cloud covered them, and separated them. And they descended by the way that they had come up; and they wrote these things in a book.  The rest of the English clergy, who had heard that their companions had been permitted to ascend to the higher heaven, assembled at the foot of the mountain, where they waited for their return. On their return they saluted their brethren, and related what had happened to them in heaven, and that the king had presented the bishops with two celestial forms of gold, most beautiful to behold; but that they fell out of their hands. They then went out of the public place into a grove, which was near, and discoursed among themselves, looking about to see if anyone heard them; but nevertheless they were heard. Their discourse was about unanimity and concord, and then about supremacy and dominion. The bishops spoke, and the rest assented. And on a sudden, to my surprise, they no longer appeared as many, but as one great figure whose face was like the face of a lion, having on his head a turreted miter, on which was a crown: and he spoke in a lofty tone, and walked proudly; and, looking behind, he said, "Who else has a right to supremacy but me?" The king looked down from heaven and saw them, first all as one, and afterwards as several unanimous; but most of them, as he said, in a secular dress.342.
Revelation 7 1. After these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree. 2. And I saw another angel ascending from the rising of the sun, having the seal of the living God. And he cried with a great voice to the four angels, to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea. 3. Saying, Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God upon their foreheads. 4. And I heard the number of them that were sealed; a hundred and forty and four thousand, sealed out of every tribe 342-1 of Israel. 5. Of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Reuben were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Gad were sealed twelve thousand. 6. Of the tribe of Asher were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Naphtali were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Manasseh were sealed twelve thousand. 7. Of the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Levi were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Issachar were sealed twelve thousand. 8. Of the tribe of Zebulon were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Joseph were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand. 9. After these things, I saw, and, behold, a great multitude which no one could number, of every nation, and tribes, and peoples, and tongues, standing before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands. 10. And crying with a great voice, saying, Salvation to our God that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb. 11. And all the angels stood around the throne, and the elders, and the four animals, and fell before the throne on their faces, and adored God. 12. Saying, Amen; blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, and honor, and power, and might, be unto our God, for ages of ages, Amen. 13. And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, Who are these that are arrayed in white robes? and whence came they? 14. And I said unto him, Lord, thou knowest. And he said unto me, These are they that come out of great affliction, and have washed their robes, and made their robes white in the blood of the Lamb. 15. Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve Him day and night in His temple: and He that sitteth on the throne shall dwell among them. 16. They shall not hunger anymore, neither thirst any more, neither shall the sun fall upon them, nor any heat. 17. For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters: and God shall wipe away every tear from their eyes. THE SPIRITUAL SENSE The contents of the whole chapter In this chapter it treats of those who are and will be in the Christian heaven; and first of their separation from the evil (verses 1-3); after that, of those who are in love to the Lord and thereby in wisdom, of whom the higher heavens consist (verses 4-8); and of those who are in charity and its faith from the Lord, because they have fought against evils, of whom are the lower heavens (verses 9-17). The contents of each verse Verse 1. "After these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth," signifies the entire heaven now in the effort to execute the Last Judgment (n. 342). "Holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree," signifies a withholding and restraining by the Lord, of a nearer and thence more powerful influx into the lower parts, where the good were conjoined with the evil (n. 343). Verse 2. "And I saw another angel ascending from the rising of the sun," signifies the Lord providing and regulating (n. 344). "Having the seal of the living God," signifies who alone knows all and each, and can distinguish and separate them one from another (n. 345). "And he cried with a great voice to the four angels, to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea (verse 3), saying, Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees," signifies the presenting and withholding by the Lord of a nearer and stronger influx into the lower parts (n. 346). "Till we have sealed the servants of our God upon their foreheads," signifies before they are separated who are in truths from good from the Lord (n. 347). Verse 4. "And I heard the number of them that were sealed, a hundred and forty and four thousand," signifies all who acknowledge the Lord as the God of heaven and earth, and are in truths of doctrine from the good of love, from Him through the Word (n. 348). "Sealed out of every tribe 342-2 of Israel" signifies the Lord's heaven and church composed of them (n. 349). Verse 5. "Of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand," signifies celestial love, which is love to the Lord, and this with all who will be in the New Heaven and the New Church (n. 350). "Of the tribe of Reuben were sealed twelve thousand," signifies wisdom from celestial love, with them who will be there (n. 351). "Of the tribe of Gad were sealed twelve thousand," signifies uses of life, which are of wisdom from that love, with those who will be there (n. 352). Verse 6. "Of the tribe of Asher were sealed twelve thousand," signifies mutual love with them (n. 353). "Of the tribe of Naphtali were sealed twelve thousand," signifies the perception of use, and what use is with them (n. 354). "Of the tribe of Manasseh were sealed twelve thousand" signifies the will of serving, and of action, with them (n. 355). Verse 7. "Of the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand," signifies spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbor, with them (n. 356). "Of the tribe of Levi were sealed twelve thousand," signifies the affection of truth from good, from whence comes intelligence with them (n. 357). "Of the tribe of Issachar were sealed twelve thousand" signifies the good of life with them (n. 358). Verse 8. "Of the tribe of Zebulon were sealed twelve thousand," signifies the conjugial love of good and truth with them (n. 359). "Of the tribe of Joseph were sealed twelve thousand," signifies the doctrine of good and truth with them (n. 360). "Of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand," signifies the life of truth from good according to doctrine with them (n. 361). Verse 9. "After this I saw and behold, a great multitude which no one could number," signifies all the rest who are not of those enumerated, and yet are in the New Heaven and New Church of the Lord, and who constitute the ultimate heaven and the external church, whose quality no one knows but the Lord alone (n. 363-364). "Of every nation, and tribes, and peoples, and tongues," signifies all in the Christian world, who are in religion from good, and in truths from doctrine (n. 365). "Standing before the throne and before the Lamb," signifies hearing the Lord and doing the things which He commands (n. 366). "Clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands," signifies communication and conjunction with the higher heavens, and confession from Divine truths (n. 367). Verse 10. "And crying with a great voice, saying, Salvation to our God that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb," signifies acknowledgment from the heart that the Lord is their Savior (n. 368). Verse 11. "And all the angels stood round about the throne, and the elders, and the four animals," signifies all in the whole heaven 342-3 (n. 369). Verse 12. "Saying, Amen" signifies Divine verity and confirmation therefrom (n. 371). "Blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving," signifies the Divine spiritual things of the Lord (n. 372). "And honor, and power, and might," signifies the Divine celestial things of the Lord (n. 373). "Be unto our God for ages of ages," signifies these things in the Lord, and from the Lord to eternity (n. 374). "Amen," signifies the consent of all (n. 375). Verse 13. "And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, Who are these that are arrayed in white robes? and whence came they?" Verse 14. "And I said unto him, Lord, thou knowest," signifies the desire of knowing and the will of interrogating, and the answer and information (n. 376). "And he said unto me, These are they that come out of great affliction," signifies that they are those who have been in temptations, and have fought against evils and falsities (n. 377). "And have washed their robes," signifies who have cleansed their religious principles from the evils of falsity (n. 378). "And made their robes white in the blood of the Lamb," signifies, and purified them from the falsities of evil by truths, and thus have been reformed by the Lord (n. 379). Verse 15. "Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve Him day and night in His temple; and He that sitteth on the throne shall dwell among them," signifies that they are in the presence of the Lord, and constantly and faithfully live according to the truths which they receive from Him in His church (n. 380). Verse 16. "They shall not hunger any more, neither thirst anymore" signifies that hereafter there shall be no lack of goods and truths with them (n. 381). "Neither shall the sun fall upon them, nor any heat," signifies that hereafter they shall have no lusts to evil nor to falsity of evil (n. 382). Verse 17. "For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them," signifies that the Lord alone will teach them (n. 383). "And shall lead them to living fountains of waters," signifies, and shall lead by truths of the Word to conjunction with Himself (n. 384). "And God shall wipe away every tear from their eyes" signifies that they shall no longer be in combats against evils and their falsities, and thereby in grief, but in goods and truths, and thence in heavenly joys from the Lord. THE EXPLANATION Verse 1. Afterwards I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, signifies the entire heaven now in the effort to execute the Last Judgment on those who were in the world of spirits. Many things now follow concerning the state of the spiritual world just before the Last Judgment, which no one could know but by revelation from the Lord. And since it has been granted me to see in what manner the Last Judgment was executed, and also the changes which preceded it, and the arrangements which followed; I am thereby enabled to relate the signification of all the particulars contained in this and the following chapters.  By "the four angels" is here signified the entire heaven; by "the four corners of the earth" is signified the entire world of spirits, which is in the midst between heaven and hell; for the Last Judgment was executed on those who were in the world of spirits, but not on anyone in heaven, nor anyone in hell. The reason why "the angels" signify heaven is because "an angel," in the highest sense, means the Lord as to the Divine Human (n. 344); and as heaven is heaven from the Lord, by "the angels" is also signified heaven.  "The four angels" here signify the entire heaven, because they were seen "standing on the four corners of the earth," and by the "four corners" are signified the four quarters. The reason why the above words signify the effort of the entire heaven to execute the Last Judgment is because the Lord, when the judgment was at hand, caused the heavens to draw near over the world of spirits, and by this approach of the heavens, such a change of state in the interiors of the minds of those who were below, was effected, that they saw nothing but terrors before their eyes.  That "corners" signify quarters, and thence "the four corners" all quarters, may appear from the following passages: Ye shall measure without the city, the corner towards the east, the corner towards the south, the corner towards the west, and the corner towards the north (Num. 35:5). Thou shalt make the boards for the habitation for the corner of the south, and for the corner of the north (Exod. 26:18, 20, 23). And a court for the corner of the south, for the corner of the north, for the corner of the west, and for the corner of the east (Exod. 27:9, 11-13). The four quarters are also called "the four corners" frequently in Ezekiel, as in chapter 47:8-20; 48.  Because "corners" signify quarters, therefore they also signify all things, as all things relating to heaven or hell, or of good or truth, as is plain from these passages: Satan shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth (Rev. 20:8). I have cut off the nations, and their corners are devastated (Zeph. 3:6). Israel was gathered together as one man, and the corners of all the people stood up (Judg. 20:1-2). A scepter shall rise out of Israel, and shall break in pieces the corners of Moab (Num. 24:17). A day of trumpet and alarm and upon the high corners (Zeph. 1:16). I will cast them out into the farthest corners (Deut. 32:26).  That "a corner" signifies the ultimate which sustains things higher, as the foundation does a house, and thus also all things, appears from these passages: He will found in Zion a cornerstone, a precious established foundation (Isa. 28:16). And they shall not take of that stone for a corner (Jer. 51:26). From Judah shall be a cornerstone (Zech. 10:4). The stone which they rejected is become the head of the corner (Ps. 118:22; Matt. 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17-18).343.
Holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree, signifies a withholding and restraining by the Lord of a nearer and thence more powerful influx into the lower parts, where the good were conjoined with the evil. It is to be known that the Last Judgment takes place when the evil are multiplied below the heavens in the world of spirits, to such a degree that the angels in the heavens cannot subsist in their state of love and wisdom; for in this case they have no support and no foundation. And as this is caused by the multiplication of the evil below, therefore the Lord, in order to preserve their state, flows in with His Divine more and more strongly, and this continues until they can no longer be preserved by any influx, without a separation of the evil below from the good. This is effected by the letting down and drawing near of the heavens, and thence by a stronger influx, until at length the evil cannot endure it; and then the evil flee away, and cast themselves into hell. This is also what is signified in the foregoing chapter by these words: They said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of Him that sitteth upon the throne, and from the anger of the Lamb; for the great day of His anger is come; and who shall be able to stand (Rev. 6:16-17).  But to proceed to the explanation. By "the four winds" is signified the influx of the heavens; by "the earth, the sea, and every tree" are signified all lower things and the things that are there; by "the earth and sea," all lower things; and by "every tree," all things there. That "wind" signifies influx, properly the influx of truth into the understanding, may appear from the following passages: Thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Come from the four winds, O spirit, and breathe into these slain, that they may live (Ezek. 37:9-10). There were seen four chariots, to which there were four horses, these are the four winds of the heavens (Zech. 6:1, 5). Ye must be born again. The wind bloweth where it willeth, and thou knowest not whence it cometh, and whither it goeth (John 3:7-8). The Maker of the earth prepareth the world by His wisdom, He bringeth forth the wind out of His treasures (Jer. 10:12-13; 51:15-16; Ps.135:7). Jehovah causeth His wind to blow, and the waters flow. He announceth His word, His statutes and judgments (Ps. 147:17-19). Jehovah praiseth the stormy wind doing His Word (Ps. 148:8). Jehovah maketh His angels winds (Ps. 104:3-4). Jehovah was carried upon the wings of the wind (Ps. 18:10; 104:3). The wings of the wind are Divine truths which flow in; therefore the Lord is called: The breath of the nostrils (Lam. 4:20). And it is written: He breathed into the nostrils of Adam the soul of lives (Gen. 2:7). Also that: He breathed on His disciples, and said, Receive ye the Holy Spirit (John 20:21-22).  "The Holy Spirit" is the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, the influx of which into the disciples was represented, and thus signified by "He breathed upon them." That "wind" and respiration signify the influx of Divine truth into the understanding, is from the correspondence of the lungs with the understanding, on which subject see The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom (n. 371-429). As, therefore, a nearer and stronger Divine influx through the heavens disperses the truths with the evil, therefore "wind" signifies the dispersion of the truth with them; and thence their conjunction with hell, and destruction; as may be seen from these passages: And upon Elam I will bring the four winds from the four ends of the heavens, and will disperse them (Jer. 49:36). Thou shalt disperse them, that the wind may carry them away, and the storm dissipate them (Isa. 41:16). The breath of Jehovah, like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle them (Isa. 30:33). The contrivers of iniquity perish by the blast of God, and by the breath of His nostrils are they consumed (Job 4:8-9). The foundations of the world were revealed by the rebuke of Jehovah, by the blast of the breath of Thy nostrils (Ps. 18:15). I saw in vision, and behold, the four winds of the heavens strove upon the great sea. And four beasts came up (Dan. 7:2-3 seq.). From the storm of Jehovah, anger is gone forth, it shall rush upon the head of the wicked (Jer. 23:19; 30:23). O my God, pursue them by Thy storm, terrify them by Thy tempest (Ps. 83:15). The way of Jehovah is in the storm and tempest (Nahum 1:3; besides other places; as Jer. 25:32; Ezek. 13:13; Hos. 8:7; Amos 1:14; Zech. 9:14; Ps. 11:6; 50:3; 55:8). He saith that the wind of the storm shall blow. God maketh the storm to be calm, that its waves might be still (Ps. 107:25, 29).  Hence it may appear what is the signification of these words in their spiritual sense: Jesus in the ship rebuked the wind, and said unto the sea, Be still, and it was quiet (Mark 4:39-40; Luke 8:23-24). By "the sea" is here signified hell, and by "the wind" influx thence. Nor is anything but strong influx signified by "the east wind" (Ezek. 17:10; Jer. 18:17; Ezek. 19:12; Hosea 13:15; Psalm 48:7). Nor by the same "wind which dried up the Red Sea" (Exod. 14:21); concerning which it is thus written by Moses: And with the blast of thy nostrils the waters were heaped up, thou didst blow with thy wind, the sea covered them (Exod. 15:8, 10). From what has been said, it may now be seen, that by "holding the four winds that the wind should not blow on the earth" is signified to withhold and prevent a nearer and stronger influx into the lower parts.344.
Verse 2. And I saw another angel ascending from the rising of the sun, signifies the Lord providing and regulating. "An angel" here means the Lord as to the Divine love, because He ascended "from the rising of the sun," and "from the rising of the sun" or from the east is from the Divine love, for in the spiritual world the Lord is the sun and the east, and is so called as to that love. That He was providing and moderating is evident from His command to the four angels, "not to hurt the earth and the sea, till the servants of God were sealed on their foreheads." That the Lord's Divine Human is meant by "an angel," in the highest sense is manifest from these passages: The angel of the faces of Jehovah delivered them; on account of His love and His pity, He redeemed them, and He bare them, and carried them all the days of eternity (Isa. 63:9). The angel who redeemed me from all evil bless them (Gen. 48:16). The Lord whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to His temple, and the angel of the covenant, whom ye desire (Mal. 3:1). Behold, I send an angel before thee to keep thee in the way, beware of his face, for My name is in the midst of him (Exod. 23:20-23). "Angel" and "sent" in the Hebrew language, are expressed by one word; hence it is that the Lord so often calls himself "sent by the Father," by which is meant the Divine Human. But "an angel," in a relative sense is everyone who receives the Lord, both in heaven and in the world.345.
Having the seal of the living God, signifies who alone knows all and each, and can distinguish and separate them one from another. Since they were sealed on their foreheads with a seal, therefore by "having the seal of the living God," as spoken of the Lord is meant to know all and each, and to be able to distinguish and separate the servants of God from those who are not servants of God.346.
And he cried with a great voice to the four angels, to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea, (verse 3) saying, Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, signifies the preventing and withholding by the Lord of a nearer and stronger influx into the lower parts. That this is the signification of these words is evident from the explanation above (n. 343). In the sense of the letter it was the four angels that withheld influx, but, in the spiritual sense, it was the Lord. "Not to hurt the earth, the sea, nor the trees," signifies that they should not operate by a vehement, but by a moderate, influx. For the Lord, by various degrees of influx into the heavens, disposes, regulates, tempers, and moderates all things there and in the hells, and, through the heavens and the hells, all things in the world.347.
Till we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads, signifies before they are separated who are in truths from good from the Lord, thus who are interiorly good. By "sealing them in their foreheads," is not meant to seal them there, but to distinguish and separate those who are in the good of love from the Lord; for "the forehead" signifies the good of love. That they who are in truths from good from the Lord are meant, because these are signified by "the servants of God" (n. 3). The reason why "the forehead" signifies the good of love, is, because the face is the image of man's affections, and the forehead is the highest part of the face; the cerebrum, from which is the origin of all things of man's life, being immediately under the forehead. As "the forehead" signifies the love, good love in the good, and evil love in the evil, therefore by "sealing them on their foreheads," is signified to distinguish and separate one from another according to the love. Similar is the signification of this passage in Ezekiel: Go through the midst of Jerusalem, and seal a seal upon the foreheads of the men that sigh over the abominations (Ezek. 9:4-6).  As "the forehead" signifies love, therefore concerning the plate of gold on the mitre of Aaron, on which was engraven Holiness to Jehovah, it is written: That it should be over against the face of his mitre, that it might be over the forehead of Aaron, and that it should be upon the forehead of Aaron continually, that they may be in good favor before Jehovah (Exod. 28:36-38). And moreover it was commanded: That these words, Thou shalt love God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, were to be upon the hand and upon the forehead (Deut. 6:5, 8; 11:18). That they should have the name of the Father written on their foreheads (Rev. 14:1). And the name of God and of the Lamb in their foreheads (Rev. 22:4). It should be known, that the Lord looks at the angels in the forehead, whilst they look at the Lord through the eyes; by reason that the Lord looks at all from the good of love, and wills that they, on their part, should look at Him from the truths of wisdom; in this manner conjunction is effected.  "The forehead," in the opposite sense, signifies evil love in these passages: Who have the mark of the beast on their forehead (Rev. 13:16; 14:9; 20:4). And also the name of Babylon upon their foreheads (Rev. 17:5). The forehead of a woman a harlot (Jer. 3:3). Obdurate of forehead, and hard of heart (Ezek. 3:7-8). Thou art hard, and thy forehead is brass (Isa. 48:4).348.
Verse 4. And I heard the number of them which were sealed, a hundred and forty and four thousand, signifies all who acknowledge the Lord to be the God of heaven and earth, and are in truths of doctrine from the good of love from Him through the Word. That these are signified by "a hundred and forty and four thousand out of the twelve tribes of Israel," is, because "the twelve tribes of Israel" signify the church from those who are in good and truth from the Lord, and acknowledge Him as the God of heaven and earth. By the number "one hundred and forty-four thousand," all these are meant; for by this number the same is signified as by twelve, since it arises by multiplying "twelve" into "twelve," and then by multiplying it by "one hundred" and by "one thousand"; and any number whatever multiplied into itself, and then by "ten," "one hundred," or "one thousand," has a like signification as the original number; therefore the number "one hundred and forty-four thousand" signifies the same as "one hundred and forty-four," and this the same as "twelve," because "twelve" multiplied by "twelve" make "one hundred and forty-four"; so likewise "the twelve thousand sealed out of each tribe," being multiplied by "twelve," make "one hundred and forty-four thousand." The number "twelve" signifies all, and is predicated of truths from good, because "twelve" is the product of "three" and "four" multiplied by each other, and the number "three" signifies everything as to truth, and the number "four" everything as to good; hence "twelve," in this instance, signifies everything as to truth from the good of love.  That all numbers signify the adjuncts of things, determining their quality or quantity, may appear manifest from numbers in Revelation, which, were they without some specific signification, would yield no sense whatever in many places. From what has been said it may be seen, that by "one hundred and forty-four thousand sealed," and by "twelve thousand out of each tribe," is not to be understood that so many were sealed and elected out of the tribes of Israel, but all who are in the truths of doctrine from the good of love from the Lord. This is what is signified in general by "the twelve tribes of Israel," and also by "the Lord's twelve apostles"; but, in particular, some truth from good is signified by each tribe, and by each apostle. But the signification of each particular tribe shall be explained presently. Since the twelve tribes signify all the truths of doctrine from the good of love from the Lord, they also signify all things of the church; on which account the twelve tribes of Israel represented the church, as did also the twelve apostles.  As "twelve" is predicated of the truths and goods of the church, therefore the New Jerusalem, by which is meant the Lord's New Church, is described by the number twelve in every particular, as that: The length and breath of the city was twelve thousand furlongs; that the wall thereof was one hundred and forty-four cubits (Rev. 21:16). One hundred and forty-four is twelve multiplied by twelve. That there were twelve gates; and the gates were of twelve pearls; that over the gates there were twelve angels; and the names written of the twelve tribes of Israel; that the wall had twelve foundations; and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb; and they consisted of twelve precious stones; as also that the tree of life was there, bearing twelve fruits according to the twelve months. (Rev.12-13, 21). Concerning all these particulars, see chapters 21 and 22. From such as are here treated of the New Heaven is formed, and the New Church is forming by the Lord; for they are the same who are mentioned in chapter 14, where it is written of them: And I saw, and, behold, the Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with Him one hundred and forty-four thousand. And they sung a new song before the throne, and no one could learn that song but the hundred and forty-four thousand, which were redeemed from the earth, for they are virgins, and follow the Lamb whithersoever He goeth (Rev. 14:1, 3-4).  Because "the twelve tribes" signify the Lord's church as to all its truths and goods, therefore the number "twelve" became a number of the church, and was used in its holy ceremonies and solemnities, as: In the breastplate of judgment, in which were the Urim and Thummim, there were twelve precious stones (Exod. 28:21). That twelve loaves of faces were put upon the table in the tabernacle (Lev. 24:5-6). That Moses built an altar below Mount Sinai, and erected twelve pillars (Exod. 24:4). That twelve men were sent to explore the land of Canaan (Deut. 1:23). That twelve men brought twelve stones out of the midst of Jordan (Josh. 4:1-9, 20). That twelve princes at the dedication of the altar brought twelve chargers of silver, twelve bowls of silver, twelve censers of gold, twelve oxen, twelve rams, twelve lambs, and twelve he-goats (Num. 7:84, 87). That Elijah took twelve stones, and built an altar (1 Kings 18:31-32). That Elijah found Elisha ploughing with twelve yoke of oxen, and himself among the twelve, and that then he cast his mantle upon him (1 Kings 19:19). That Solomon placed twelve oxen under the brazen sea (1 Kings 7:25, 44). That he made a throne, and twelve lions standing at the steps of it (1 Kings 10:19-20). That on the head of the woman who was clothed with the sun there was a crown of twelve stars (Rev. 12:1). From what has been said it may now be evident, that by "one hundred and forty-four thousand sealed, twelve thousand out of each tribe," are not meant so many in number of the Jews and Israelites, but all who are of the New Christian Heaven, and the New Church, who will be in truths of doctrine from the good of love through the word from the Lord.349.
Sealed out of every tribe 349-1 of Israel signifies the Lord's heaven and church from them. By a "tribe" is signified religion as to the good of life, and by "every tribe" is signified the church as to every good of love and as to every truth from that good, from which is the good of life; for there are two things which make the church, the good of love and the truth of doctrine; the marriage of these is the church. The twelve tribes of Israel represented, and thence signified the church as to that marriage, and each tribe some universal truth of good or good of truth therein. But what each tribe signifies has not hitherto been revealed to anyone, nor could it be revealed, lest, by an ill-connected explanation, the sanctity which lies concealed in their several conjunctions into one, should be profaned, for their signification is determined by their conjunction.  They have one signification in the series in which they are named according to their nativities (Genesis 29; 30; 35:18); where the series of them is as follows: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulon, Joseph, Benjamin (Gen.35:23-26). They have another signification in the series in which they are mentioned when they came to Egypt, which is as follows: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulon, Gad, Asher, Joseph, Benjamin, Dan, Naphtali (Gen. 46:8-24). Another, in the series in which they are blessed by their father Israel, which is this: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Zebulon Issachar, Dan, Gad, Asher, Naphtali, Joseph, Benjamin (Gen. 49). Another, in the series in which they are blessed by Moses, which is: Reuben, Judah, Levi, Benjamin, Joseph, Ephraim, Manasseh, Zebulon, Gad, Dan, Naphtali, Asher (Deut. 33). Here Ephraim and Manasseh are mentioned, and not Simeon and Issachar.  Another, in the series in which they encamped and journeyed, which was this: The tribe of Judah, Issachar, and Zebulon to the east; the tribe of Reuben, Simeon, and Gad to the south; the tribe of Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin to the west; the tribe of Dan, Asher, and Naphtali to the north; and the tribe of Levi in the middle (Num. 2:1 to the end). Another, in the series in which they are mentioned in other places; as Genesis 35:23-26; Num. 1:5-16; 7:1 to the end; 13:4-15; 26:5-57; 34:17-28; Deut. 27:2, 13; Josh. 15-19; Ezekiel 48:1 to the end. So, therefore, when "Balaam saw Israel dwelling according to their tribes," he said: How good are thy tabernacles, O Jacob, and thy habitations, O Israel (Num. 24:1-4 seq.).  In the breastplate of judgment, which was the Urim and Thummim, wherein were twelve precious stones, according to the names of the sons of Israel (Exod. 28:15-21), the signification of the tribes in their series was determined by the interrogation, to which they returned an answer. But what they signify in the series in which they are here mentioned in Revelation, this being different also, shall be explained presently. That "tribes" signify religion, and "the twelve tribes" the church as to all things relating to it, is, because "tribe" and "scepter," in the Hebrew language, are one word, and "the scepter" is the kingdom, and the Lord's kingdom is heaven and the church.350.
Verse 5. Of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand, signifies celestial love, which is love to the Lord, and this with all who will be in the Lord's New Heaven and New Church By "Judah," in the highest sense, is signified the Lord as to celestial love; in the spiritual sense, the Lord's celestial kingdom and the Word; and in the natural sense, the doctrine of the celestial church from the Word. But here by "Judah" is signified celestial love, which is love to the Lord; and because it is mentioned first in the series, it signifies that love with all who will be of the Lord's New Heaven and New Church; for the tribe first named is the all in the rest, it is as their head, and as a universal entering into all things that follow, collecting, qualifying, and affecting them. Such is love to the Lord. That "twelve thousand" signify all who are in that love, may be seen above (n. 348).  It is known that the twelve tribes of Israel, after Solomon's time, were divided into two kingdoms, the Jewish and Israelitish. The Jewish kingdom represented the Lord's celestial or priestly kingdom; and the Israelitish kingdom, the Lord's spiritual kingdom or royalty; the latter, however, was destroyed when there was nothing spiritual left among them; but the Jewish kingdom was preserved, on account of the Word, and because the Lord was to be born there. But when they had wholly adulterated the Word, and thus they could not know the Lord, then their kingdom was destroyed. From hence it may appear, that by "the tribe of Judah" is signified celestial love, which is love to the Lord; but because they were such as to the Word, and as to the Lord, therefore by "the tribe of Judah" is also signified the opposite love, which is the love of self, properly the love of dominion from the love of self, which love is called diabolical love.  That by "Judah" and his tribe is signified the celestial kingdom and its love, which is love to the Lord is evident from these passages: Judah, thy brethren shall praise thee, the scepter shall not be removed from Judah until Shiloh come, and unto him is the adherence of the people; he bindeth his foal to the vine, and his ass's colt unto the choice vine; he washeth his garment in wine; his eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk (Gen. 49:8-12). David shall be their prince forever; and I will make a covenant of peace with them; it shall be a covenant of eternity with them; and I will set My sanctuary in the midst of them for ever (Ezek. 37:26-27). Shout and be glad, O daughter of Zion; Jehovah will make Judah an inheritance to Himself, His portion upon the land of holiness (Zech. 2:10-12). O Judah, keep thy festivals, perform thy vows, because Belial shall no more pass through thee; everyone shall be cut off (Nah. 1:15). The Lord shall suddenly come to His temple; then shall the offering of Judah and Jerusalem be pleasant unto Jehovah as in the days of old (Matt. 3:1-4). Judah shall sit to eternity, and Jerusalem unto generation and generation (Joel 3:20). Behold, the days shall come, when I will raise up unto David a just offshoot; in His days Judah shall be saved (Jer. 23:5-6). I will bring forth a seed from Jacob, and from Judah an inheritor of my mountains, that the elect may possess it (Isa. 65:9). Judah was His sanctuary, and Israel His dominions (Ps. 114:2). Behold, the days shall come, in which I will make a new covenant with the house of Judah; this shall be the covenant, I will give My law in the midst of them, and write it upon their heart (Jer. 31:31, 33). In those days shall ten men take hold of the skirt of a man, a Jew, saying, we will go with you, for we have heard that God is with you (Zech. 8:23). As the new heavens and the new earth which I will make shall stand before Me, so shall stand your seed and your name; the kings of the nations shall be thy nursing fathers, their queens thy nursing mothers; they shall bow themselves down to thee with their faces upon the earth, and lick up the dust of thy feet (Isa. 66:22; 49:23).  From these and many other passages, too numerous to be adduced, it is very evident that by "Judah" is not meant Judah, but the church; as that the Lord would enter into a new and eternal covenant with that nation, and make them His inheritance and His sanctuary to eternity; and that the "kings of the Gentiles and their princes would bow themselves down to them, licking the dust of their feet," and such like.  That by "the tribe of Judah," regarded in itself is meant the diabolical kingdom which is of the love of dominion from the love of self, may appear from these passages: I will hide My face from them, I will see what their latter end will be; it is a generation of perverseness, sons in whom there is no fidelity; a nation void of counsel are they; their vine is of the vine of Sodom, and of the fields of Gomorrah; its grapes are grapes of gall, clusters of bitterness are theirs; their wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel venom of asps; is this not 350-1 hidden with me, sealed up in my treasures (Deut. 32:20-34)? Know that not for thy justice and the uprightness of thy heart doth Jehovah give the land of Canaan, for thou art a people of stiff neck (Deut. 9:5-6). According to the number of thy cities were thy gods, O Judah; according to the number of the streets of Jerusalem hast thou set altars for burning incense to Baal (Jer. 2:28; 11:13). Ye are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father ye will do (John 8:44). They are said to be full of hypocrisy, iniquity, and uncleanness (Matt. 23:27-28). An adulterous generation (Matt. 12:39; Mark 8:38). And Jerusalem, their dwelling place, is called "Sodom" (Isa. 3:9; Jer. 23:14; Ezek. 16:46, 48; Rev. 11:8). Besides other places, where it is said that that nation is utterly ruined, and Jerusalem to be destroyed; as in Jer. 5:1; 6:6, 7; 7:17, 18, and following verses; 8:6-8, and following verses; 9:10, 11, 13, and following verses; 13:9, 10, 14; 14:16; Lam. 1:8, 9, 17; Ezek. 4:1 to the end; 5:5 to the end; 12:18, 19; 15:6-8; 16:1-63; 23:1-49.
306-1 The original Hebrew has "God."
327-1 The original Latin omits "Who are holy and true."
329-1 The original Latin omits "to them."
329-2 The original Latin omits "and their brethren"
341-1 This was written in the reign of George III., who was grandson to George II.
342-1 The original Latin omits "of the sons."
342-2 The original Latin omits "of the sons."
342-3 The original Latin omits "And they fell down before the throne upon their faces, and adored God." It is explained in the chapter (n. 370).
349-1 The original Latin omits "of the sons."
350-1 The original Latin has "omne" for "nonne;" "all" for "is this not."