Apocalypse Revealed, by Emanuel Swedenborg, , tr. by John Whitehead , at sacred-texts.com
Verse 15. I know thy works, signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once, as above (n. 76).202.
That thou art neither cold nor hot, signifies that they who are such, sometimes deny that the Word is Divine and holy, and at other times acknowledge it. At one time to deny the holiness of the Word, and at another time to acknowledge it, is "to be neither cold nor hot," for they are against the Word and also for the Word. They are also such concerning God, at one time they deny, and at another time acknowledge Him; in like manner as to all things of the church; for which reason they are sometimes with those who are in hell, and at other times with those who are in heaven. They fly as it were between both, up and down, and wherever they fly, thither they turn the face. They become such who have confirmed with themselves the belief in the existence of God, of heaven and hell, and of life eternal, and afterwards recede from it. When the first confirmation returns, they acknowledge, but when it does not return, they deny. They recede because they afterwards think only of themselves and the world, continually aspiring to preeminence, and thereby they immerse themselves in their proprium; thus hell swallows them up.203.
I would thou wert cold or hot, signifies that it is better for them either from the heart to deny the holy things of the Word and of the church, or from the heart to acknowledge them. The reason will be explained in the next article.204.
Verse 16. Therefore because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will vomit thee out of My mouth, signifies profanation and consequent separation from the Lord. "To vomit out of My mouth," signifies to be separated from the Lord, and to be so separated from the Lord is to be neither in heaven nor in hell, but in a place apart, deprived of human life, where there are mere phantasies. The reason is, because they have mixed truths with falsities, and goods with evils, thus holy things with profane, even so that they cannot be separated. And since man cannot then be prepared, either to be in heaven or in hell, the whole of his rational life is destroyed, and the ultimates of life alone remain, which, when separated from the interiors of life, are mere phantasies. Concerning their state and lot more may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Providence (n. 226-228, 231), which will suffice to give a knowledge of them. It is said of them that "they are vomited out," because the world of spirits, which is in the midst between heaven and hell, and into which every man first comes after death, and is there prepared, corresponds to the stomach, in which all the things put in are prepared either to become blood and flesh, or to become excrement and urine, the latter having a correspondence with hell, but the former with heaven. But the things that are vomited out of the stomach are those that have not been separated, but remain commixed. By reason of this correspondence, the expression "to vomit" and "vomit" are used in the following passages: Drink and be drunken, and let thy foreskin be uncovered; and the cup of Jehovah shall go around unto thee, and the shameful vomiting shall be upon the glory (Hab. 2:15-16). Make Moab drunken, that he may clap the hands in his vomit (Jer. 48:26). All tables are full of the vomit of emptying; what one shall he teach knowledge? (Isa. 28:8-9). Besides other places (as Jer. 25:27; Lev. 18:24, 25, 28). That warm water excites vomiting, is also from correspondence.206.
206-1 Verse 17. Because thou sayest, I am rich and increased in goods, signifies that they think they possess in all abundance the knowledges of truth and good which are of the church and heaven. "To be rich and increased in goods," here signifies nothing else than to know and understand fully such things as are of the church and heaven which are called spiritual and theological, because these are here treated of; spiritual riches and abundance are nothing else. They who believe from themselves, and not from the Lord through the Word, also believe that they know and understand all things. The reason is, that their spiritual mind is shut, and their natural mind alone open; and this mind, without spiritual light, sees no otherwise. That by "riches" and "wealth" in the Word are signified spiritual riches and wealth, which are the knowledges of truth and good, is manifest from the following passages: In thy wisdom and in thy understanding thou hast gotten thee wealth, gold and silver in thy treasures; by the multiplication of thy wisdom thou hast multiplied thy wealth (Ezek. 28:4-5). This is spoken of Tyre, by which is signified the church as to the knowledges of truth and good. In like manner: The daughter of Tyre shall bring thee a gift; O daughter of the king, the rich peoples shall entreat thy faces (Ps. 45:12). Jehovah will impoverish Tyre; He will shake off her wealth into the sea (Zech. 9:4). O Tyre, they shall plunder thy wealth (Ezek. 26:12). Assyria said, By the strength of my hand I have done it, and by my wisdom, because I am intelligent; whence I will plunder the treasures of the peoples, my hand shall find the wealth of the peoples (Isa. 10:13-14). By Assyria the rational is signified; here that it perverts the goods and truths of the church, which here are the "treasures and wealth of the peoples," which he will plunder. I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and the hidden wealth of the lurking-places (Isa. 45:3). Happy is the man that feareth Jehovah; wealth and riches are in his house, and his justice standeth forever (Ps. 112:1, 3). God hath filled the hungry with good things, and the rich He hath sent away empty (Luke 1:53). Woe unto you that are rich, for ye have received your joy; woe unto you that are filled, for ye shall hunger (Luke 6:24-25). By the "rich" here are meant those who were in possession of the knowledges of truth and good because they had the Word, who were the Jews: the same is meant by the rich man, who was clothed in purple and fine linen (Luke 16:19); and in like manner by the "rich" and "riches" in other places (as in Isa. 30:6; Jer. 17:11; Micah 4:13; 6:12; Zech. 14:14; Matt. 12:35; 13:44; Luke 12:21).207.
And have need of nothing, signifies that they have no need of more knowledge and wisdom, and from any other source, is evident from what has been said above, because it is a consequence.208.
And knowest not that thou art wretched, signifies that they do not know that all they know and think concerning the truths and goods of the church, do not at all cohere, and are uncemented walls. By "being wretched" is here signified no coherence, thus by "the wretched," those who think incoherently concerning the things of the church; the reason is, because they of whom this is said, at one time deny God, heaven, eternal life, and the sanctity of the Word, and at another time acknowledge them; therefore what they build with one hand they destroy with the other. Thus they are like those that build a house, and presently pull it down; or that clothe themselves in becoming garments, and presently tear them off. Their houses are therefore rubbish, and their garments rags. Such are all things which they think concerning the church and heaven, but they do not know this. These things are also meant by "wretchedness" in the following passages: Thy wisdom and thy knowledge hath seduced thee, when thou saidst in thine heart, I am, and none besides; therefore shall wretchedness fall upon thee (Isa. 47:10-11). Wretchedness shall come upon wretchedness, the king shall mourn, and the prince shall be clothed with astonishment (Ezek. 7:26-27). "The king who shall mourn," and "the prince who shall be clothed with astonishment," are they who are in the truths of the church. The right is not in their mouth, wretchedness is in the midst of them (Ps. 5:9). Such also is the signification of "uncemented walls" (in Jer. 49:3; Ezek. 13:10, 11; Hos. 2:6).209.
And miserable and poor, signifies that they are without truths and goods. By "miserable and poor," in the spiritual sense of the Word, are meant they who are without the knowledges of truth and good, for they are spiritually miserable and poor; the same are meant hereby in the following passages: I am miserable and poor, O Lord; remember me (Ps. 40:17; 70:5). O Jehovah, incline Thine ear, and answer; for I am miserable and poor (Ps. 86:1). The wicked draw the sword, and bend their bow, to cast down the miserable and poor (Ps. 37:14). The wicked persecuteth the miserable and the poor, and to slay the dejected in heart (Ps. 109:16). God will judge the miserable of the people; He will keep the sons of the poor; He will deliver the poor that crieth and the miserable (Ps. 72:4, 12-13). Jehovah rescueth the miserable from him that is stronger than he, and the poor from them that spoil him (Ps. 35:10). The wicked deviseth crimes to destroy the miserable by the words of a lie, even when the poor speaketh judgment (Isa. 32:7). The miserable shall have joy in Jehovah, and the poor among men shall exult in the Holy One of Israel (Isa. 29:19). Happy are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens (Matt. 5:3; besides other places, as Isa. 10:2; Jer. 22:16; Ezek. 16:49; 18:12; 22:29; Amos 8:4; Ps. 9:18; Ps. 69:32-33; Ps. 74:21; Ps. 109:22; Ps. 140:12; Deut. 15:11; 24:14; Luke 14:13, 21, 23). By the "miserable and poor" are chiefly meant those who are not in the knowledges of truth and good and yet desire them, since by the "rich" are meant those who possess the knowledges of truth and good (n. 206).210.
And blind and naked, signifies that they are without the understanding of truth, and the will of good. By "the blind," in the Word, are meant those who are without truths, either from a defect thereof in the church and so from ignorance, or from not understanding them; and by "the naked" are meant those who thence are without goods; for all spiritual good is acquired by truths. No others are meant by "the blind" in the following passages: Then in that day shall the deaf hear the words of the book, and the eyes of the blind shall see out of thick darkness (Isa. 29:18). Behold, your God will come; then the eyes of the blind shall be opened (Isa. 35:4-5). I will give thee for a light of the Gentiles, to open the blind eyes (Isa. 42:6-7). I will lead the blind in a way that they knew not, I will make their darkness light (Isa. 42:16). Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears (Isa. 43:8). His watchmen are all blind, and do not know to understand (Isa. 56:10-11). He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart, that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart (John 12:40). Jesus said, For judgment am I come into the world, that they which see not might see, and that they which see, might be made blind (John 9:39-41). Blind, foolish, infatuated guides (Matt. 23:16, 17, 19, 24). Blind, leaders of the blind (Matt. 15:14; Luke 6:39). By reason of the signification of "blind" and "blindness," it was forbidden to offer for sacrifice anything that was blind (Lev. 21:18; Deut. 15:21). That they should not cast a stumbling-block before the blind (Lev. 19:14). That he was cursed who made the blind to wander (Deut. 27:18). Concerning the signification of "naked" and "nakedness," see below (n. 213).211.
Verse 18. I counsel thee to buy of Me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich, signifies an admonition to acquire to themselves the good of love from the Lord through the Word, that they may become wise. For "to buy" signifies to acquire to oneself; "of Me," signifies of the Lord through the Word; "gold" signifies good, and "gold tried in the fire," the good of celestial love; and "to be enriched" thereby, signifies to understand and be wise. "Gold" signifies good, because metals in their order signify such things as are of good and truth, gold celestial and spiritual good, silver the truth of those loves, brass natural good, and iron natural truth. These are signified by the metals of which the statue of Nebuchadnezzar consisted: The head of which was of gold, the breast and arms of silver, the belly and thighs of brass, the legs iron, the feet part iron and part clay (Dan. 2:32-33). By which are represented the successive states of the church as to the good of love and the truth of wisdom. From this succession of the states of the church, the ancients gave similar names to times, calling them ages of gold, silver, brass, and iron; and by the golden age they understood the first time, when the good of celestial love reigned; celestial love is love to the Lord from the Lord; from this love they at that time had wisdom. That "gold" signifies the good of love may be seen below (n. 913).212.
And white garments, that thou mayest be clothed, signifies that they should acquire to themselves genuine truths of wisdom. That "garments" signify truths clothing good, may be seen above (n. 166), and that "white" is spoken of truths (n. 167), therefore "white garments" signify the genuine truths of wisdom, and this, because "gold purified in the fire" signifies the good of celestial love, the truths of this love being genuine truths of wisdom.213.
That the shame of thy nakedness may not appear, signifies lest the good of celestial love should be profaned and adulterated. No one can know what "the shame of nakedness" signifies, unless he knows that the members of generation in both sexes, which are also called the genitals, correspond to celestial love. That there is a correspondence of man and all his members with the heavens, may be seen in the work concerning Heaven and Hell, published in London in the year 1758 (n. 87-102); and that the genital members correspond to celestial love, in The Arcana Coelestia, also published in London (n. 5050-5062). As those members correspond to celestial love, which is the love of the third or inmost heaven, and man is born from his parents in loves which are opposite to that love, it is evident, that if he does not acquire to himself the good of love and the truth of wisdom from the Lord, signified by "gold tried in the fire," and by "white garments," he will appear in the opposite love, which is profane.  This is signified by "uncovering nakedness" and "revealing shame," in the following passages: Happy is he that watcheth and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame (Rev. 16:15) Daughter of Babylon and of Chaldea, sit on the earth; uncover thy locks, uncover the thigh, pass over the stream; let thy nakedness be uncovered, and let thy reproach also be seen (Isa. 47:1-3). Woe to the city of bloods, because of the multitude of her whoredoms: I will uncover the skirts upon thy face, and will show the nations thy nakedness, and the kingdoms thy disgrace (Nahum 3:1, 4-5). Contend with your mother, lest perchance I set her naked (Hos. 2:2-3). When I passed by thee, I covered thy nakedness, and washed thee, and clothed thee; but thou committedst whoredom; not recollecting thy youth, when thou wast naked and stripped bare; therefore thou hast revealed thy nakedness (Ezek. 16:6 seq.). Jerusalem hath grievously sinned; therefore all speak ill of her, because they saw her nakedness (Lam. 1:8). By "Jerusalem," of which these things are said, the church is meant; and by "committing whoredom" is signified to adulterate and falsify the Word (n. 134). Woe to him that maketh his companion drink, making him drunk, that thou mayest look upon his nakedness: drink also thyself, that thy foreskin may be uncovered (Hab. 2:15-16).  He who knows what "nakedness" signifies can understand what is signified by: Noah, when drunken with wine lay naked in the midst of his tent, and Ham saw and laughed at his nakedness, and Shem and Japheth covered his nakedness, turning away their faces lest they should see it (Gen. 9:21-23). Also why it was ordained that: Aaron and his sons should not go up by steps upon the altar, lest their nakedness should be uncovered (Exod. 20:26). As also that: They should make for them breeches of linen to cover the flesh of nakedness, and that they should be upon them when they approached to the altar, and that otherwise they should carry their iniquity, and should die (Exod. 28:42-43). By "nakedness" in these passages are signified the evils into which a man is born, which, because they are opposite to the good of celestial love, are in themselves profane; which are not removed except by truths, and by a life according to them: "linen" also signifies truth (n. 671).  By "nakedness" is also signified innocence, and likewise ignorance of good and truth; innocence in the passage: They were both naked, the man and his wife, and had no cause for shame (Gen. 2:25). Ignorance of good and truth by these: This is the fast which I choose; to break bread to the hungry; and when thou seest the naked, to cover him (Isa. 58:6-7). Let him give his bread to the hungry, and cover the naked with a garment (Ezek. 18:7). I hungered, and ye gave Me to eat; I was naked, and ye clothed Me (Matt. 25:35-36).214.
And anoint thine eyes with eye salve, that thou mayest see, signifies that their understanding may be healed, lest the genuine truths of wisdom should be profaned and falsified. That by "the eyes" is signified the understanding, and by "the eye-sight" intelligence and wisdom, may be seen (n. 48). And since by "eye-salve" a medicine for the same is signified, it follows that by "anoint thine eyes with eye-salve," is signified to heal the understanding, that it may see truths and be wise; for unless this is the case, the genuine truths of the Word are profaned and adulterated.215.
Verse 19. As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten, signifies that those of them who do so are loved by the Lord, and that then they cannot but be admitted to temptations that they may fight against themselves. That this is the sense of these words, is evident, for it is said, "As many as I love," by whom are meant they who "buy of the Lord gold purified in the fire," and who "anoint their eyes with eye-salve that they may see." It is said, "I rebuke and chasten" them, by which is meant temptation as to falsities and as to evils; by "rebuking" temptation as to falsities, and by "chastening" temptation as to evils. Such as are here treated of, could not but be admitted into temptations, because, without them, negations and confirmations against Divine truth could not be extirpated. Temptations are spiritual combats against the falsities and evils in one's self, thus against one's self. What temptations are, whence they proceed, and what good they produce, see the work concerning The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, published at London in the year 1758 (n. 187-201).216.
Be zealous, therefore, and repent, signifies that this should be done from the affection of truth, and aversion from what is false. It is here said, "Be zealous," because it was said above (verse 15), "I would thou wert either cold or hot," here hot, for "zeal" is spiritual heat, and spiritual heat is the affection of love, here the affection of the love of truth, and he who acts from the affection of the love of truth acts also from aversion to what is false; therefore this is signified by "repent." "Zeal" in the Word, when it treats of the Lord, signifies love, and wrath; love in John 2:17; Psalm 69:9; Isaiah 37:32; 63:15; Ezekiel 39:25; Zechariah 1:14; 8:2. Wrath in Deuteronomy 32:16, 21; Psalm 79:5-6; Ezekiel 8:3, 5; 16:42; 23:25; Zephaniah 1:18; 3:8. But "zeal" in the Lord is not wrath, it only appears so in externals, interiorly it is love. It appears so in externals, because the Lord seems to be angry when He rebukes man, especially when man's own evil punishes him. It is so permitted from love, that his evil may be removed; just like a parent, who, if he loves his children, suffers them to be chastised for the sake of removing their evils. Hence it is evident, why Jehovah calls Himself "zealous" (Deuteronomy 4:24; 5:9, 10; 6:14-15).217.
Verse 20. Behold, I stand at the door, and knock, signifies that the Lord is present to everyone in the Word, and is there pressing to be received, and teaches how. Something similar to this is said by the Lord in Luke: Be ye like unto men that wait for their lord, when he will return from the wedding; that when he cometh and knocketh, they may open unto him immediately (Luke 12:36). That "door" signifies admission and entrance, may be seen above (n. 176).218.
If anyone hear my voice, and open the door, signifies he who believes in the Word and lives according to it. "To hear His voice," is to believe in the Word, for the Divine truth of the Word is "the voice of Jehovah" (n. 37, 50); and "to open the door" is to live according to it, because the door is not opened, and the Lord received, by merely hearing the voice, but by living according to it, for the Lord says: He that hath My commandments, and doeth them, I will manifest Myself to him, and I will come unto him and make an abode with him (John 14:21-24). That man ought to open the door as from himself, by shunning evils as sins, and doing goods, is shown in The Doctrine of Life for the New Jerusalem; and that this is the case, is also evident from the Lord's words here, "If anyone open"; as also from His words in Luke 12:36.219.
I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with Me, signifies that the Lord joins Himself with them and them with Himself. "To come in and sup with him," signifies to join Himself to him, and, since there must be a reciprocal that there may be conjunction, it is also said, "and he with Me." That to be conjoined is signified by "coming in and supping," appears from the Holy Supper instituted by the Lord, by means of which the Lord's presence is effected with those who hear His voice, that is, who believe in the Word, but there is conjunction with those who live according to the Word; to live according to the Word is to do the work of repentance, and to believe in the Lord. "To sup," and "the Lord's Supper," are mentioned, because supper takes place in the evening, and by "the evening" is signified the last time of the church; therefore when the Lord departed out of the world, the last time of the church being then arrived, He supped with His disciples, and instituted the Sacrament of the Supper. That "evening" signifies the last time of the old church and "morning" the first of the New Church may be seen above (n. 151).220.
Verse 21. To him that overcometh, signifies such as are in conjunction with the Lord by a life according to His precepts in the Word, is evident from what has been said above.221.
Will I give to sit with Me in My throne, signifies that they will have conjunction with the Lord in heaven. That "the Lord's throne" is heaven, may be seen above (n. 14), therefore "to sit with the Lord in His throne," signifies conjunction with Him in heaven.222.
As I overcame, and sit with the Father in His throne, signifies as He and the Father are one, and are heaven. That the Father and the Lord are one is fully shown in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, and elsewhere. That heaven is not heaven from anything proper to the angels, but from the Divine of the Lord, which is in the angels and with them; therefore by these words, "as I sit with the Father in His throne," is signified as He and the Father are one, and are heaven; "throne" is heaven (n. 14, 221). "As I also overcame" signifies that by temptations admitted into His Human, and by the last of them, which was the passion of the cross, as also by the fulfilling of all things of the Word, He overcame the hells and glorified His Human, that is, he united it to his Divine which was in Him from conception, and is called Jehovah the Father, on which subject see the above-mentioned Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 8-11, 12-14, 29-36), and also above (n. 67).  The reason why the Lord says, "To him that overcometh will I give to sit with Me in my throne, as I overcame and sit with the Father in His throne," is because the union of the Lord with the Father, that is, with His Divine within Himself, took place, to the end that it might be possible for man to be conjoined to the Divine which is called the Father in the Lord; because it is impossible for man to be conjoined with the Divine of the Father immediately, but mediately through His Divine Human, which is the Divine natural; therefore the Lord says: No one hath seen God at any time; the Only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath manifested Him (John 1:18). I am the way, the truth, and the life, no one cometh to the Father, but by Me (John 14:6).  The Lord's conjunction with man is by His Divine truth, and this in man is of the Lord, thus the Lord, and by no means man's, consequently is not man. Man, indeed, feels it as his own, but still it is not his, for it is not united to him, but adjoined; not so the Divine of the Father, this is not adjoined but united to the Lord's Human, as the soul to its body. He who understands these things may understand the following words of the Lord: He that abideth in Me and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit, for without Me ye can do nothing (John 15:5). In that day ye shall know that I am in My Father, and you in Me, and I in you (John 14:20). Sanctify them in Thy truth; Thy Word is truth; for their sakes I sanctify Myself, that they also might be sanctified in the truth: that they all may be one, as Thou, Father, art in Me, and I in Thee, that they also may be one in Us; I in them and thou in me (John 17:17, 19, 21, 23).223.
Verse 22. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches, signifies that he who understands, ought to obey what the Divine truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, as above (n. 87).224.
To this I will add this Relation. I saw an assembly of spirits, all upon their knees, praying to God to send angels to them, that they might converse with them face to face, and open to them the thoughts of their hearts. And when they arose, there appeared three angels in fine linen, standing before them, and they said, "The Lord Jesus Christ has heard your prayers, and has therefore sent us to you; open unto us the thoughts of your hearts."  And they answered, "We have been told by our priests, that in matters of a theological nature the understanding avails nothing, but only faith, and that in such things intellectual faith is of no service to anyone, because it is derived from man. We are Englishmen, and have heard many things from our sacred ministry, which we believed; but when we have conversed with others, who also called themselves the Reformed, and with others who called themselves the Roman Catholics, and likewise with sectaries, they all appeared to us learned, and yet, in many things, one did not agree with another, and still they all said, `Believe us;' and some of them, `We are God's ministers, and know.' But as we know that the Divine truths, which are called truths of faith, and which appertain to the church, are not derived to anyone from his native soil, nor by inheritance, but out of heaven from God; and as these show the way to heaven, and enter into the life together with the good of charity, and so lead to eternal life, we became anxious, and prayed to God upon our knees."  Then the angels answered, "Read the Word, and believe in the Lord, and you will see the truths which should constitute your faith and life; for all in the Christian world draw their doctrinals from the Word as from the only fountain." But two of the company said, "We have read, but did not understand."  And the angels replied, "You did not approach the Lord, and you have also confirmed yourselves in falsities"; and the angels said further, "What is faith without light, and what signifies thinking without understanding? This is not human; even magpies and ravens can learn to speak without understanding. We can affirm to you, that every man whose soul desires it is capable of seeing the truths of the Word in the light; there does not exist an animal that does not know the food proper to its life when it sees it, and man is a rational and spiritual animal, who sees the food of his life, not that of his body, but of his soul, which is the truth of faith, provided indeed he hungers after it, and seeks it from the Lord; whatsoever is not received also in the understanding is not fixed in the memory in reality, but only verbally; therefore, when we have looked down out of heaven into the world, we have not seen anything, but have only heard sounds, that are for the most part dissonant.  "But we will enumerate some things which the learned among the clergy have removed from the understanding, not knowing that there are two ways to the understanding, one from the world, and the other from heaven, and that the Lord withdraws the understanding from the world when He enlightens it; but if the understanding be closed by religion, the way into it from heaven is closed, and then man sees no more in the Word than a blind person. We have seen many such fall into pits, out of which they have never risen again. Examples must serve for illustration: are you not able to understand what charity is, and what faith is; that charity consists in doing well by your neighbor, and that faith consists in thinking well of God and of the essentials of the church, and therefore that he who does well and thinks well, that is, who lives well and believes well, is saved?" They replied, that they understood these things.  The angels said further, "Do you not understand, that repentance from sins is to be performed, in order that man may be saved, and that, unless a man actually repents, he abides in the sins into which he was born, and that the work of repentance consists in not willing evils because they are against God, and in examining himself once or twice a year, in seeing his evils, in confessing them before the Lord, imploring assistance, desisting from them, and leading a new life, and as far as he does this, and believes in the Lord, so far his sins are remitted?" Then some of the company replied, "This we understand, and thence also what remission of sins is."  And then they solicited the angels to give them further information, and especially concerning God, the immortality of the soul, regeneration and baptism. To this the angels replied, "We will not say anything but what you can understand, otherwise our discourse will fall like rain upon sand, and upon seeds therein, which although watered from heaven, still wither and perish." Concerning God they said, "All who come into heaven have their place allotted them there, and thence eternal joy, according to their idea of God, because this idea reigns universally in every particular of worship. The idea of an invisible God is not determined to anyone, nor does it terminate in any, therefore it ceases and perishes. The idea of God as Spirit, when a spirit is believed to be like ether or wind, is an empty idea; but the idea of God as Man is a just idea, for God is the Divine love and the Divine wisdom, with every quality belonging thereto, and the subject of these is man, and not ether or wind. The idea of God in heaven is the idea of the Lord. He is the God of heaven and earth, as He Himself taught. Let your idea of God be like unto ours, and we shall be consociated together." On saying these words, their faces became resplendent.  Concerning the Immortality of the Soul, they said, "Man lives to eternity, because he can be conjoined with God by love and faith, this indeed is possible with everyone. That this possibility constitutes the immortality of the soul you may understand, if you think of it a little more deeply."  Concerning Regeneration;" "Who does not see that everyone is at liberty to think of God, or not to think of Him, provided he be instructed that there is a God; so that everyone has liberty in spiritual things, equally as in things civil and moral; the Lord gives this liberty to all continually; for which reason he becomes guilty, if he does not think of God. Man is man from this ability; but a beast is a beast from not having this ability; therefore man can reform and regenerate himself as from himself, provided he acknowledges in heart that it is from the Lord. Everyone who does the work of repentance, and believes in the Lord, is reformed and regenerated. Man must do both as from himself, but this 'as from himself' is from the Lord. It is true that man cannot contribute anything thereto, no not in the least, nevertheless you were not created statues, but you were created men, that you might do that from the Lord as from yourselves. This is the only reciprocal of love and faith, that it is altogether the Lord's will that it should be done by man unto Him. In a word, do it from yourselves, and believe that you do it from the Lord, thus do it as from yourselves."  But then the Englishmen inquired, Whether to act as from oneself, is a faculty implanted in man from creation? The angel answered, "It is not implanted, because to act from Himself is the Lord's alone, but it is communicated continually, that is, adjoined continually, and then so far as man does good and believes what is true, as from himself, so far he is an angel of heaven; but so far as he does evil and thence believes what is false, which is done also as from himself, so far he is an angel of hell. That this also is as from himself surprises you, but still you see that it is so, when you pray that you may be preserved from the devil, lest he should seduce you, and enter into you, as he did into Judas, fill you with all iniquity, and destroy you, soul and body. But everyone incurs guilt who believes that he acts from himself, whether it be good, or whether it be evil; but he does not incur guilt, who believes that he acts as from himself."  Concerning Baptism, they said, "That it is spiritual washing, which is reformation and regeneration; and that an infant is reformed and regenerated, when, on becoming an adult, he does the things which his sponsors promised for him, which are two, repentance and faith in God; for they promise first that he shall renounce the devil and all his works; and second, that he shall believe in God. All infants in heaven are initiated into these two, but to them the devil is hell, and God is the Lord. Moreover baptism is a sign before the angels that a man is of the church.  On hearing these things, some of the assembly said, "This we understand." But a voice was heard from one side, exclaiming, "We do not understand;" and another voice, "We will not understand;" and inquiry was made from whence these voices proceeded, and it was found that they came from those who had confirmed themselves in falsities of faith, and who wished to be believed as oracles, and thus to be adored. The angels said, "Be not surprised: there are very many such at this day; they appear to us from heaven like graven images, made with such art as to be able to move the lips, and utter sounds like organs, but without knowing whether the breath, by means of which they utter these sounds, comes from hell or from heaven, because they do not know whether a thing be false or true. They reason and reason; they confirm and confirm, nor do they ever see whether it is so. But know, that human ingenuity can confirm whatsoever one wishes, even until it appears to be so; therefore heretics and impious persons, yea atheists can confirm that there is no God, but nature only."  Afterwards the assembly of Englishmen, enkindled with the desire of being wise, said to the angels, "So many various opinions are spoken of the Holy Supper, tell us what is the truth." The angels replied, "The truth is that the man who looks to the Lord and performs repentance, is conjoined with the Lord by means of that most holy sacrament, and is introduced into heaven." But some of the company said, "This is a mystery." To which the angels replied, "It is a mystery, but still such that it can be understood. The bread and wine do not produce this effect, for there is nothing holy in them, but material bread and heavenly bread correspond mutually to each other, and so do material wine and heavenly wine; and heavenly bread is the holy of love, and heavenly wine is the holy of faith, both from the Lord, and both the Lord. Thence there is a conjunction of the Lord with man, and of man with the Lord, not with the bread and wine, but with the love and faith of the man who had done the work of repentance; and conjunction with the Lord is also introduction into heaven." And after the angels had taught them something concerning correspondence and its effect, some of the company said, "Now for the first time we understand." And when they said, "We understand," behold a flame with light descending from heaven, consociated them with the angels, and they loved one another.225.
Revelation 4 1. After these things I saw, and behold a door opened in heaven. And the first voice, which I heard, as of a trumpet speaking with me, said, Come up hither, and I will show thee the things which must be hereafter. 2. And immediately I was in the spirit. And, behold, a throne was set in heaven, and One sitting on the throne. 3. And He that sat was in appearance like a jasper and a sardius stone; and there was a rainbow round about the throne in appearance like an emerald. 4. And round about the throne were four-and-twenty thrones; and upon the thrones I saw four-and-twenty elders sitting, clothed in white garments; and they had on their heads golden crowns. 5. And out of the throne proceeded lightnings, and thunders, and voices; and there were seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God. 6. And before the throne there was a sea of glass like unto crystal. And in the midst of the throne and round about the throne, were four animals full of eyes before and behind. 7. And the first animal was like a lion, and the second animal like a calf, and the third animal having a face like a man, and the fourth animal was like a flying eagle. 8. And the four animals each by himself had six wings about him; and they were full of eyes within; and they had no rest day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, who was, and who is, and who is to come. 9. And when the animals gave glory, and honor, and thanks to Him that sat upon the throne, who liveth for ages of ages, 10. The four-and-twenty elders fell down before Him that sat on the throne, and adored Him that liveth for ages of ages, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying, 11. Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory, and honor and power, for Thou hast created all things, and by Thy will they are and were created. THE SPIRITUAL SENSE The contents of the whole chapter It treats of the arrangement and preparation of all things in heaven for the judgment, to be executed from the Word, and according to it; likewise concerning the acknowledgment that the Lord is the only judge. The contents of each verse Verse 1. "After these things, I saw and behold a door opened in heaven," signifies a manifestation concerning the arrangement of the heavens preparatory to the Last Judgment from the Lord, about to be performed according to His Divine truths in the Word (n. 225). "And the first voice which I heard, as of a trumpet, speaking with me, said, Come up hither," signifies Divine influx, and thence an elevation of the mind, followed by manifest perception (n. 226). "And I will show thee the things which must be hereafter," signifies revelations of things to come before the Last Judgment, and concerning it, and after it (n. 227). Verse 2. "And immediately I was in the spirit," signifies that he was let into a spiritual state, in which the things which exist in heaven manifestly appear (n. 228). "And, behold, a throne was set in heaven," signifies the Judgment in a representative form. "And One sitting on the throne," signifies the Lord (n. 230). Verse 3. "And He that sat was in appearance like a jasper and a sardine stone," signifies the appearance of the Lord's Divine wisdom and Divine love in ultimates (n. 231). "And there was a rainbow round about the throne in appearance like an emerald," signifies the appearance of the same also round about the Lord (n. 232). Verse 4. "And round about the throne were four-and-twenty thrones, and upon the thrones I saw four-and-twenty elders sitting," signifies the arrangement of all things in heaven preparatory to the Judgment (n. 233). "Clothed in white garments," signifies from the Divine truths of the Word (n. 234). "And they had on their heads golden crowns," signifies the things which are of wisdom from love (n. 235). Verse 5. "And out of the throne proceeded lightnings, and thunders, and voices," signifies enlightenment, perception, and instruction from the Lord (n. 236). "And there were seven lamps of fire before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God," 225-1 signifies the New Heaven from among Christians (n. 237-238). Verse 6. "And in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, there were four animals," signifies the Word of the Lord from first to ultimates, and its guards (n. 239). "Full of eyes before and behind," signifies the Divine wisdom therein (n. 240). Verse 7. "And the first animal was like a lion," signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to power (n. 241). "And the second animal like a calf," signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to affection (n. 242). "And the third animal having a face like a man," signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to wisdom (n. 243). "And the fourth animal was like a flying eagle," signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to knowledges and thence understanding (n. 244). Verse 8. "And the four animals each by himself had six wings about him," signifies the Word as to its powers and as to its guards (n. 245). "And they were full of eyes within," signifies the Divine Wisdom in the Word in its natural sense from its spiritual and celestial sense (n. 246). "And they had no rest day and night, saying, `Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty,'" signifies that the Word continually teaches the Lord, and that He alone is God, and thence that He alone is to be worshiped (n. 247). "Who was, and who is, and who is to come," signifies the Lord (n. 248). Verse 9. "And when the animals gave glory, and honor, and thanks to Him that sat upon the throne," signifies that the Word ascribes all truth, and all good, and all worship to the Lord Who is to judge (n. 249). "Who liveth for ages of ages," signifies that the Lord alone is life, and that life eternal is from Him alone (n. 250). Verse 10. "The four-and-twenty elders fell down before Him that sat on the throne, and adored Him that liveth for ages of ages," signifies the humiliation of all in heaven before the Lord (it. 251). "And cast their crowns before the throne," signifies the acknowledgment that their wisdom is from Him alone (n. 252). Verse 11. " Saying, Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory, and honor, and power," signifies that the kingdom is the Lord's by merit and justice, because He is the Divine truth and the Divine good (n. 253). "For Thou hast created all things, and by Thy will they are, and were created," signifies that all things of heaven and the church were made and formed, and men reformed and regenerated from the Lord's Divine love by His Divine wisdom, or from His Divine good by His Divine truth, which also is the Word. THE EXPLANATION Verse 1. After these things I saw, and behold a door opened in heaven, signifies the manifestation of the arrangement of the heavens preparatory to the Last Judgment from the Lord, about to be performed according to His Divine truths in the Word. By "an open door," when it relates to heaven, is signified admission, as above (n. 176); here, also, manifestation, because he says, "I saw and behold;" and because then were seen the things which are recorded in this chapter, which refer to the arrangement of the heavens for the Last Judgment by the Lord, to be executed according to His Divine truths in the Word, therefore by "I saw, and behold a door opened in heaven," is signified a manifestation concerning them.226.
And the first voice which I heard, as of a trumpet speaking with me, said, Come up hither, signifies Divine influx, and thence an elevation of the mind, and then manifest perception. That "a voice," when heard from heaven, is the inflowing Divine truth may be seen above (n. 37, 50), thus Divine influx; and that by "a voice as of a trumpet," is signified manifest perception, may also be seen above (n. 37); and by "Come up hither," is signified elevation of the mind; for in the spiritual world, the higher anyone ascends, so much the more does he come into purer light, by which the understanding is by degrees opened, that is, the mind is elevated. Therefore it also follows, that he was then in the spirit, by which is meant that he was let into a spiritual state, in which the things which are in the heavens manifestly appear. The voice was heard "as of a trumpet," because it treats of the arrangement of the heavens for the Last Judgment; and voices as of a trumpet are heard in heaven when convocations and arrangements are made. Therefore also among the sons of Israel with whom all things were representative of heaven and the church, it was also commanded: That they should make trumpets of silver, and that the sons of Aaron should sound them for the calling of assemblies, and for the journeyings, in days of rejoicing, in festivals, in the beginnings of months, over burnt offerings, for a memorial, and for war (Num. 10:1-10). But we shall speak of "trumpets," and of "sounding" them, in the explanation of chap. 8, where the seven angels are mentioned, to whom were given seven trumpets.227.
And I will show thee things which must be hereafter, signifies revelations of things to come before the Last Judgment, and concerning it, and after it. These things are signified, because in Revelation nothing else is treated of but the state of the church at its end, thus the things that are to be before the Last Judgment, and concerning it, and after it, as above (n. 2).228.
Verse 2. And immediately I was in the spirit, signifies that he was let into a spiritual state, in which the things which exist in heaven manifestly appear. That "to be in the spirit" is to be let into a spiritual state from Divine influx, as also what a spiritual state is and its quality, and that a man in that state sees as manifestly the things which are in the spiritual world, as in the natural state of the body he sees the things which are in this world, may be seen above (n. 36).229.
And, behold, a throne was set, signifies a representation of the Judgment. That "a throne" signifies heaven may be seen (n. 14); that a throne also signifies judgment, is evident from the following passages: When the Son of man shall come in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory (Matt. 25:31 seq.). The Last Judgment is here treated of: O Jehovah, Thou hast done my judgment, Thou sattest upon the throne a Judge of justice. Jehovah will prepare His throne for judgment (Ps. 9:4-5, 7). I saw when the Ancient of Days did sit; His throne was as a flame of fire; a thousand and thousands ministered unto Him, and a myriad of myriads stood before Him, the judgment was set and the books were opened (Dan. 7:9-10). Jerusalem is built; thither the tribes go up; and there are set thrones for judgment (Ps. 122:3-5). I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them (Rev. 20:4). "The throne" built by Solomon, mentioned (1 Kings 10:18-20) signifies both kingdom and judgment; since kings, when they executed judgment, sat upon thrones. It is said that "the throne" signifies judgment in a representative form, because the things which John saw were visions which represented. They were seen as he has described; but they were forms representative of future things, as may be evident from what follows; as that there were seen animals, a dragon, beasts, a temple, a tabernacle, the ark, and many other things. Similar were the things which were seen by the prophets, spoken of above (n. 36).230.
And one sitting on the throne, signifies the Lord, as appears manifestly from what follows, and from passages in the Word where it is said that the Lord will execute judgment (as in Matt. 25:32, 33; and following verses; John 5:22, 27; and elsewhere).231.
Verse 3. And He that sat was in appearance like a jasper and sardius stone signifies the appearance of the Lord's Divine wisdom and Divine love in ultimates. "A stone," in the Word, signifies truth in ultimates, and "a precious stone," truth transparent from good (n. 915). There are two colors fundamental of the rest in the spiritual world, the color white and the color red, the color white derives its origin from the light of the sun in heaven, thus from spiritual light, which is shining white; and the color red derives its origin from the fire of the sun there, thus from celestial light, which is flaming. The spiritual angels, because they are in truths of wisdom from the Lord, are in that shining white light, therefore they are clothed in white; and the celestial angels, because they are in the good of love from the Lord, are in that flaming light, therefore they are clothed in red; thence those two colors also are in the precious stones in heaven, where they are in great abundance. This is the reason why precious stones, in the Word, signify such things as are of the truth of wisdom, or of the good of love, and that "the jasper," because it is shining white, signifies the things which are of the truth of wisdom; and "the sardius," because it is red, the things which are of the good of love. These stones signify the appearance of the Divine wisdom and the Divine love in ultimates, because all precious stones in heaven derive their origin from the ultimates of the Word, and their transparency from the spiritual sense of the ultimates. That this is the case, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 44, 45). The ultimates of the Word are the truths and goods of the sense of the letter. That this is the origin of precious stones in heaven can scarcely be believed by anyone in our world, because he does not know that all the things which exist in the spiritual world are correspondences, and that from thence all the things which exist in the natural world derive their spiritual origin. That this is the origin of precious stones in heaven has been granted me to know from speech with angels, and also to see it with my eyes, but the formation of them is from the Lord alone. But black colors, which are also two in number, derive their origin from hell; one in opposition to white, this blackness being with those who have falsified the truths of the Word; the other in opposition to red, this blackness being with those who have adulterated the goods of the Word; the latter blackness is diabolical, but the former satanic. The signification of "the jasper" and "the sardius" may be seen in the explanation of chap. 21:11, 18-20.232.
And there was a rainbow round about the throne in appearance like an emerald, signifies the appearance of the same also round about the Lord. In the spiritual world there appear rainbows of many kinds, they appear of various colors as upon the earth, and they appear of one color; here of one color, because it is said "like unto an emerald." This appearance was round about the Lord, because it is said "round about the throne;" round about Him is also in the angelic heaven. The Divine sphere which surrounds the Lord is from His Divine love, and at the same time from His Divine wisdom, which, when it is represented in the heavens, appears in the celestial kingdom red like a ruby, in the spiritual kingdom blue like the lapis lazuli, in the natural kingdom green like the emerald; everywhere with ineffable splendor and radiance.233.
Verse 4. And round about the throne were four-and-twenty thrones, and upon the thrones I saw four-and-twenty elders sitting, signifies the arrangement of all things in heaven preparatory to the Last Judgment. He who does not know the spiritual sense of the Word, and at the same time the genuine truths of the church, may believe, that when the Last Judgment shall come, the Lord will sit upon a throne, and that there will be other judges also upon thrones around Him. But he who knows the spiritual sense of the Word, and at the same time the genuine truths of the church, knows that the Lord will not then sit upon a throne, and that neither will there be other judges about Him; and further, that neither will the Lord judge anyone to hell, but that the Word will judge everyone, the Lord moderating that all things may be done according to justice. The Lord says, indeed: The Father judgeth no one, but hath committed all judgment to the Son, and hath given Him authority to execute judgment, because He is the Son of man (John 5:22, 27). But in another place he says: I came not to judge the world, but to save the world; the Word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day (John 12:47-48). These two passages agree, when it is known that "the Son of man" is the Lord as to the Word (see above, n. 44); therefore the Word will judge, the Lord moderating.  That by the twelve tribes of Israel and their elders are signified all who are of the Lord's church in the heavens and on earth, and, abstractly, all the truths and goods therein, may be seen (n. 251, 349, 369, 808); and the same by the apostles (n. 79, 790, 903); hence it is plain what is signified by these words of the Lord: Jesus said unto the disciples, Ye which have followed Me, when the Son of man shall sit upon the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Matt. 19:28; Luke 22:30). "Twelve" signifies all, and is predicated of the truths and goods of heaven and the church (n. 348); the same is signified by "twenty-four"; therefore "the twelve apostles" and the "twenty-four elders" signify all things of the church; and "twelve," as also "twenty-four thrones," signify the all of judgment. Who cannot understand, that the apostles and elders will not judge; and that they cannot? From these considerations it may appear why "thrones" and "elders" are mentioned when the Judgment is treated of; as also in Isaiah: Jehovah will enter into judgment with the elders of His people (Isa. 3:14). In David: Jerusalem is builded, whither the tribes go up; and there are set thrones for judgment (Ps. 122:3, 5). And in Revelation: And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them (Rev. 20:4).234.
Clothed in white garments, signifies from the Divine truths of the Word. That "white garments" signify genuine truths of the Word, may be seen above (n. 166, 212).235.
And they had on their heads golden crowns, signifies such things as are of wisdom from love. That "a crown" signifies wisdom, may be seen above (n. 189); and that "gold" signifies the good of love (n. 211, 913); hence "a golden crown" signifies wisdom from love. As from this wisdom are derived all the things of heaven and the church, which are signified by the four-and-twenty elders (n. 233); therefore golden crowns were seen upon their heads. It is to be known, that the spiritual sense is abstracted from persons, as above (n. 78, 79, 96), so also here.236.
Verse 5. And out of the throne proceeded lightnings, and thunders, and voices, signifies enlightenment, perception, and instruction from the Lord. "Lightnings," by reason of the flash which strikes the eyes signify enlightenment, and "thunders," by reason of the noise which strikes the ears signify perception, and when these two signify enlightenment and perception, then "voices" signify instruction. These were seen to proceed "from the throne," because they proceed from the Son of man, or from the Lord as to the Word, and from the Lord through the Word come all enlightenment, perception, and instruction. "Lightnings, thunders, and voices," have a similar signification in other parts of the Word, as in these passages: Thou hast with Thine arm redeemed Thy people: the skies gave forth a voice; the voice of thunder went into the world; the lightnings enlightened the world (Ps. 77:15, 17-18). The lightnings of Jehovah shall enlighten the world (Ps. 97:4). Thou didst call upon Me in straitness, and I rescued thee: I answered thee in the secret place of the thunder (Ps. 81:7). I heard the sound of a great multitude, as the sound of mighty thunders, saying, Hallelujah, because the Lord, our God, the Almighty, hath taken the kingdom (Rev. 19:6).  Because enlightenment, perception, and instruction are signified by "lightnings, thunders, and voices," therefore: When Jehovah descended upon Mount Sinai, and promulgated the Law, there were thunders and voices (Exod. 19:16). And when: A voice was sent down from heaven to the Lord, it was heard as thunder (John 12:28-29). And as James and John represented charity and its works, and all perception of truth and good is from these: They were called by the Lord, Boanerges, that is, sons of thunder (Mark 3:17). From these things it is manifest that similar things are signified by "lightnings, thunders, and voices," in the following passages in Revelation: I heard a voice from the four animals, as it were a voice of thunder (Rev. 6:1). I heard a voice out of heaven as a voice of great thunder (Rev. 14:2). When the angel cast the censer unto the earth, there were thunders, voices, and lightnings (Rev. 8:5). When the angel cried out, seven thunders uttered their voices (Rev. 10:3-4). When the temple of God was opened in heaven, there were lightnings, and voices, and thunders (Rev. 11:19; in like manner elsewhere).237.
And there where seven lamps of fire before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God signifies the New Church in heaven and on earth from the Lord through the Divine truth proceeding from Him. Here by "seven lamps" the same is signified as by "the seven lamp stands;" and also by "the seven stars" above. That by "the seven lamp stands" is meant the New Church upon earth, which will be in enlightenment from the Lord, may be seen above (n. 43), and by "the seven stars," the New Church in the heavens (n. 65); and because the church is a church from the Divine which proceeds from the Lord, which is the Divine truth, and is called the Holy Spirit, therefore it is said, "which are the seven spirits of God." That by "the seven spirits of God" is signified that proceeding Divine, may be seen above (n. 14, 155).238.
Verse 6. And before the throne there was a sea of glass like unto crystal, signifies the New Heaven from Christians who are in general truths from the literal sense of the Word. In the spiritual world there appear atmospheres, and also waters, like as in our world; the atmospheres, in which the angels of the highest heaven dwell, are as it were ethereal; the atmospheres, in which the angels of the middle heaven dwell, are as it were aerial; and the atmospheres, in which the angels of the lowest heaven dwell, are as it were aqueous; and these last appear as seas at the boundaries of heaven, where they dwell who are in general truths from the literal sense of the Word. That "waters" signify truths, may be seen above (n. 50); hence "the sea," in which waters terminate and are collected, signifies the Divine truth in its boundaries. Since, therefore, by "One sitting on the throne" is meant the Lord (n. 230), and by "the seven lamps," which are "the seven spirits of God before the throne," is meant the New Church, which will be in Divine truth from the Lord (n. 237), it is evident that, by "the sea of glass" which was before the throne, is meant the church among those who are at the boundaries.  It has also been granted me to see the seas which are at the boundaries of the heavens, and to converse with those who were therein, and thus to know the truth of this matter from experience. They seemed to me to be in the sea, but they said that they are not in the sea, but in an atmosphere; from which it was manifest to me, that the sea is an appearance of the Divine proceeding from the Lord in its boundaries. That there are seas in the spiritual world, is fully evident from their having been seen by John frequently (as also here, in chap. 5:13; 7:1-3; 8:8, 9; 10:2, 8; 12:12; 13:1; 14:7; 15:2; 16:3; 18:17, 19, 21; 20:13). It is called "a sea of glass like unto crystal," from the pellucidity of the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord.  Because Divine truth at its boundaries causes the appearance of a sea in the spiritual world, therefore "sea," in other parts of the Word, has a similar signification, as in these passages: In that day living waters shall go forth from Jerusalem, part of them toward the eastern sea, and part of them toward the hinder sea (Zech. 14:8). "Living waters from Jerusalem," are the Divine truths of the church from the Lord, therefore "the sea" is where they terminate: Thy way, O Jehovah, is in the sea, and Thy highway in many waters (Ps. 77:19). Thus saith Jehovah, which maketh a way in the sea, and a highway in many waters (Isa. 43:16). Jehovah hath founded the world upon the seas, and established it upon the floods (Ps. 24:2). Jehovah hath founded the earth upon its bases that it should not be removed to eternity. Thou coveredst it with the deep [or sea] as with a garment (Ps. 104:5, 6). "The earth is founded upon the sea," is the church, which is meant by "the earth," is founded upon general truths; for these are its bases and foundations.  And I will dry up the sea of Babylon and make her springs dry; He shall make the sea to ascend over Babylon, she shall be covered with the multitude of the waves (Jer. 51:36, 42). "Drying up the sea of Babylon and making her springs dry," signifies to extinguish every truth of its church from firsts to lasts. They shall walk after Jehovah, then the sons shall approach with honor from the sea (Hos. 11:10). "Sons from the sea" are they who are in general or ultimate truths. Jehovah who buildeth His steps in the heavens, and calleth for the waters of the sea, and poureth them out upon the faces of the earth (Amos 9:6). By the word of Jehovah were the heavens made, He gathereth the waters of the sea together as a heap, giving the abysses in treasuries (Ps. 33:6-7). At My rebuke I dry up the sea, I make the rivers a wilderness (Isa. 50:2: besides in other places).  As by "sea" is signified the Divine truth with those who are in the borders of heaven, therefore by "Tyre and Zidon," from their being near the sea, is signified the church as to the knowledges of good and truth; and also by the "islands of the sea" are signified those who are in more remote Divine worship (n. 34): and therefore "the sea," in the Hebrew language, is called "the west," that is, where the light of the sun declines towards its evening, or truth into obscurity. That "sea" also signifies the natural of man separated from the spiritual, thus also hell, will be seen in what follows.239.
And in the midst of the throne and round about the throne, there were four animals, signifies the Word of the Lord from first to ultimates, and its guards. I know they will wonder that it should be said, "the four animals" signify the Word; that this is their signification, will however be seen in what follows. These "animals" are the same as "the cherubim" in Ezekiel, where they are also called "animals" in chapter 1, but "cherubim" in chapter 10, and were, in like manner as here, a lion, an ox, a man, and an eagle. In the Hebrew language they are there called "chajoth," a word which indeed signifies animals, but is derived from "chaja," which is life, whence also the wife of Adam was called "Chaja" (Genesis 3:20). "Animal" in the singular number is also called "chaja" in Ezekiel, therefore those animals may also be called living things. Neither is it anything extraordinary that the Word is described by animals, since the Lord Himself in many parts of the Word is called "a lion," and often "Lamb," and they who are in charity from the Lord are called "sheep"; and the understanding also of the Word, in what follows, is called "a horse." That the Word is signified by these "animals" or "cherubim," is evident from this, that they were seen "in the midst of the throne and round about the throne," and in the midst of the throne was the Lord, and, as the Lord is the Word, they could not be seen anywhere else. That they were round about the throne also, was, because they were in the angelic heaven, where also the Word is.  That by "cherubim" is signified the Word, and its guards, is shown in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 97), where are the following words: The sense of the letter of the Word serves as a guard for the genuine truths which lie within; and the guard consists in this, that the literal sense can be turned hither and thither, that is, can be explained according to everyone's apprehension, without its internal being hurt or violated; for no harm ensues from the literal sense being understood differently by different people; but it does harm when the Divine truths which are within are perverted, for it is by this that the Word suffers violence. To prevent this, the literal sense guards, and it guards with those who are in falsities from religion, but yet do not confirm them, for from these the Word suffers no violence. This guard is signified by "cherubim," and is also described by them in the Word. This guard is signified by "the cherubim," which after the expulsion of Adam and his wife from the garden of Eden, were placed at its entrance; concerning which we read: When Jehovah God had driven out the man, He made to dwell from the east to the garden of Eden cherubim, and a flame of a sword, which turned every way, to guard the way of the tree of life (Gen. 3:23-24). By "cherubim" is signified a guard; by "the way of the tree of life" is signified admission to the Lord, which is given to men through the Word; by "a flame of a sword which turned every way," is signified the Divine truth in ultimates, which is as the Word in the sense of the letter, that allows of being turned this way and that.  The same is meant by: The cherubim made of gold over the two extremities of the mercy-seat, which was above the ark in the Tabernacle (Exod. 25:18-21). Because this was signified by "cherubim," therefore: Jehovah spoke from between them with Moses (Exod. 25:22; 30:6; Num. 7:89). Nor was anything else understood by: The cherubim over the curtains of the tabernacle and over the veil there (Exod. 26:31). For the curtains and veil of the tabernacle represented the ultimates of heaven, and the church, thus also the ultimates of the Word. Nothing else is signified by the cherubim in the middle of the temple of Jerusalem (1 Kings 6:23-28); and by the cherubim carved upon the walls and doors of the temple (1 Kings 6:29, 32, 35); and also by the cherubim in the new temple (Ezek. 41:18-20).  Since by "cherubim" was signified a guard that the Lord, heaven, and the Divine truth such as it is interiorly in the Word, be not approached immediately, but mediately by ultimates, therefore it is said of the king of Tyre: Thou sealest up the measure, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. Thou hast been in the garden of Eden; every precious stone was thy covering; thou O spreading cherub that covereth; I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, in the midst of the stones of fire (Ezek. 28:12-14, 16). By "Tyre" is signified the church as to the knowledges of truth and good, and thence, by its "king," the Word where and whence those knowledges are. That the Word in its ultimate, which is the sense of the letter, is here signified by him, and a guard, by "the cherub," is evident, for it is said, "Thou sealest up the measure, every precious stone was thy covering," and, "thou O spreading cherub that covereth;" by "the precious stones" which are also mentioned there, are signified the truths of the sense of the letter of the Word (n. 231).  Because by "cherubim" is signified the Divine truth in ultimates as a guard, therefore it is said in David: O Shepherd of Israel, that sitteth upon the cherubim, shine forth (Ps. 80:1). Jehovah sitteth upon the cherubim (Ps. 99:1). Jehovah bowed the heavens and came down, and rode upon the cherubim (Ps. 18:10-11). "To ride upon cherubim," "to sit" and "to be seated upon them," means upon the ultimate sense of the Word. The Divine truth in the Word, and its quality, is described by the cherubim in Ezekiel, in chapters 1, 9, 10, but because no one can know what the particulars by which they are described signify, unless the spiritual sense has been opened to him, therefore, as it has been disclosed to me, I will explain, in a summary way, the signification of those things which are related concerning the four animals or cherubim in the first chapter of Ezekiel, which is as follows:  The Divine external sphere of the Word is described (Ezek. 1:4). It is represented as a man (Ezek. 1:5). Its conjunction with things spiritual and celestial (Ezek. 1:6). The natural of the Word, its quality (Ezek. 1:7). The conjunction of the spiritual and celestial senses of the Word with the natural, its quality (Ezek. 1:8-9). The Divine love of celestial, spiritual, and natural good and truth therein, jointly and severally (Ezek. 1:10-11). That they regard one end (Ezek. 1:12). The sphere of the Word from the Lord's Divine good and Divine truth, from which the Word lives (Ezek. 1:13-14). The doctrine of good and truth in the Word and from the Word (Ezek. 1:15-21). The Divine of the Lord above it and in it (Ezek. 1:22-23). And out of it (Ezek. 1:24-25). That the Lord is above the heavens (Ezek. 1:26). That the Divine love and the Divine wisdom are His (Ezek. 1:27-28). These are summaries.240.
Full of eyes before and behind, signifies the Divine wisdom, therein. By "eyes," when spoken of man, is signified the understanding, and when of the Lord, the Divine wisdom (n. 48, 125); the same when said of the Word, as here, because the Word is from the Lord, and concerning the Lord, and thus is the Lord. The like is said of the cherubim in Ezekiel, that "they were full of eyes" (10:12). "Before and behind," when it relates to the Word from the Lord, signifies the Divine wisdom and Divine love therein.241.
Verse 7. And the first animal was like a lion, signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to power. That "a lion" signifies truth in its power, here the Divine truth of the Word as to power, may appear from the power of the lion above every animal of the earth, as also from lions in the spiritual world, where they are images representative of the power of Divine truth; and likewise from the Word, where they signify the Divine truth in its power. What the power of the Divine truth in the Word is, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture, n. 49, and in the work on Heaven and Hell, (n. 228-233). Hence it is that Jehovah, or the Lord is compared to "a lion," and is also called "a lion"; as in the following passages: The lion roareth, who will not fear? the Lord Jehovah hath spoken, who will not prophesy? (Amos 3:8). I will not return to destroy Ephraim, they shall walk after Jehovah. He roareth as a lion (Hos. 11:9-10). As the lion roareth and the young lion, so shall Jehovah come down to fight upon Mount Zion (Isa. 31:4). Behold the Lion which is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David hath conquered (Rev. 5:5). Judah is a lion's whelp, he coucheth, he lay down, as an old lion, who shall rouse him up? (Gen. 49:9).  In these passages the power of Divine truth which is from the Lord, is described by "the lion." "To roar" signifies to speak and act from power against the hells which wish to carry man away, but from which the Lord rescues him as a lion his prey; to "couch himself," is to put himself in power; "Judah," in the highest sense, signifies the Lord (n. 96, 266). The angel cried with a great voice as a lion roareth (Rev. 10:3). He couched, he lay down as an old lion, who shall stir him up? (Num. 24:9). Behold, the people shall rise up as an old lion, and lift up himself as a young lion (Num. 23:24) This is concerning Israel, by whom is signified the church, whose power, which is in Divine truths, is thus described. In like manner: The remnant of Jacob shall be in the midst of the people, as a lion among the beasts of the forests, as a young lion among the flocks of sheep (Micah 5:7-8; besides many other places; as Isa. 11:6; 21:6-9; 35:9; Jer. 2:15; 4:7; 5:6; 12:8; 50:17; 51:38; Ezek. 19:3, 5-6; Hos. 13:7-8; Joel 1:6-7; Nahum 2:12; Ps. 17:12; 22:13; 57:4; 58:6; 91:13; 104:21-22; Deut. 33:20).242.
And the second animal like a calf signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to affection. By the beasts of the earth are signified the various natural affections, for such indeed they are; and by "a calf," is signified the affection of knowing; in the spiritual world this affection is represented by a calf, therefore it is also signified by "a calf" in the Word, as in Hosea: We will render unto Jehovah the calves of our lips (Hos. 14:2). "Calves of the lips" are confessions from the affection of truth. In Malachi: But unto you that fear My name, shall the sun of justice arise, and healing in his wings, that ye may grow up as fatted calves (Mal. 4:2). They are compared to "fatted calves" because by them are signified those who are filled with the knowledges of truth and good from the affection of knowing them. In David: The voice of Jehovah maketh the cedars of Lebanon to skip like a calf (Ps. 29:6). By "the cedars of Lebanon" are signified the knowledges of truth; hence it is said that "the voice of Jehovah maketh them to skip like a calf." "The voice of Jehovah" is the Divine truth, here affecting.  Since the Egyptians loved the sciences, they made to themselves calves as a sign of their affection for them; but afterwards they began to worship the calves as gods, then by them, in the Word, are signified the affections of knowing falsities as in Jeremiah (46:20, 21; Psalm 68:30); and in other places; therefore the same is signified by the calf which the sons of Israel made for themselves in the wilderness (Exodus 32); as also by the calves of Samaria (1 Kings 12:28-32; Hosea 8:5; 10:5). Therefore it is said in Hosea: They make for themselves a molten image of silver, sacrificing a man, they kiss the calves (Hos. 13:2). To "make for themselves a molten image of silver," signifies to falsify truth, "to sacrifice a man" signifies to destroy wisdom, and "to kiss calves" signifies to acknowledge falsities from affection. In Isaiah: There shall the calf feed, and there shall he lie down and consume the branches thereof (Isa. 27:10). The same is signified by calf in Jeremiah 34:18-20.  Since all Divine worship is from the affections of truth and good, and thence from the knowledge of them, therefore sacrifices, in which the worship of the church with the sons of Israel chiefly consisted, were made of various beasts, such as lambs, goats, kids, sheep, he-goats, calves, oxen; they were from calves, because they signified the affection of knowing truths and goods, which is the first natural affection. This is what was signified by "sacrifices of calves" (Exodus 29:11, 12; Leviticus 4:3, 13 and following verses; 8:14 and following verses; 9:2; 16:3; 23:18; Numbers 8:8 and following verses; 15:24; 28:19, 20; Judges 6:25-29; 1 Samuel 1:25; 16:2; 1 Kings 18:23-26, 33). The second animal appeared like a calf, because the Divine truth of the Word, which is signified by it, affects minds and thus instructs and imbues.243.
And the third animal having a face like a man, signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to wisdom. By "a man," in the Word, is signified wisdom, because he is born that he may receive wisdom from the Lord, and become an angel; therefore in proportion as anyone is wise, in the same proportion he is a man. Wisdom truly human consists in knowing that there is a God, what God is, and what is of God; this the Divine truth of the Word teaches. That by "a man" is signified wisdom, is plain from the following places: I will make a man [vir] more rare than pure gold; even a man [homo] than the gold of Ophir (Isa. 13:12). Man [vir homo] is intelligence, and man [homo] is wisdom: The inhabitants of the earth shall be burned, and rare shall be the man that is left (Isa. 24:6). I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man and with the seed of beast (Jer. 31:27). And ye, my flock, are man, I am your God (Ezek. 34:31). The devastated cities shall be filled with the flocks of man (Ezek. 36:38). I beheld the earth, and lo, it was vacant and empty; and the heavens, and they had no light; I beheld, and lo, there was no man (Jer. 4:23, 25). They sacrifice a man, they kiss calves (Hos. 13:2). He measured the wall of the holy Jerusalem a hundred and forty-four cubits, the measure of a man, that is of an angel (Rev. 21:17). Besides many other places in which by man is signified one that is wise, and, in the abstract sense, wisdom.244.
And the fourth animal was like a flying eagle, signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to knowledges, and thence understanding. By "eagles" various things are signified, and by "flying eagles" are signified knowledges from which understanding is derived, because when they fly they both know and see; for they have sharp eyes that they may see clearly, and by "eyes" are signified the understanding (n. 48, 214): by "flying" is signified to receive and instruct, and, in the highest sense, in which it has relation to the Lord, it signifies to foresee and provide. That "eagles" in the Word have such a signification, appears from these passages: They that wait for Jehovah shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles (Isa. 40:31). "To mount up with wings as eagles," is to be elevated into the knowledges of truth and good, and thence into intelligence: Is it by thy intelligence and according to thy mouth that the eagle lifteth himself and searcheth out his food; his eyes see clearly afar (Job. 39:26-27, 29). The faculty of knowing, understanding, and seeing clearly, is here described by "the eagle," and that this is not from man's own intelligence. Jehovah who satisfieth thy mouth with good so that thy youth is renewed like the eagle (Ps. 103:5). "To satisfy the mouth with good," is to give understanding by knowledges; hence a comparison is made with the eagle. A great eagle, great in wings, long in feathers, came upon Lebanon, and took a twig of a cedar, and placed it in a field of seed, and it grew. And there was also another great eagle, to which the vine applied its roots (Ezek. 17:1-8). Here by "the two eagles" is described the Jewish and Israelitish churches, both as to the knowledges of truth and consequent intelligence. But "eagles" in the opposite sense signify the knowledges of what is false, from which the understanding is perverted (as in Matt. 24:28; Jer. 4:13; Hab. 1:8, 9; and other places).245.
Verse 8. And the four animals each by himself had six wings about him, signifies the Word as to its powers and as to its guards. That by "the four animals" the Word is signified, was shown above; that by wings are signified powers, and also guards, will be seen below. By "six" is signified all as to truth and good, for six is composed of "three" and "two" multiplied together, and by "three" is signified all as to truth (n. 505), and by "two" all as to good (n. 762). By "wings" are signified powers, because by them birds lift themselves up, and wings with birds are in the place of arms with men, and by "arms" are signified powers. Since by "wings" are signified powers, and each animal had six wings, it is evident, from what has been said above, what kind of power is signified by the wings of each, namely, that by "the wings of the lion" is signified the power of fighting against evils and falsities from hell; which power is of the Divine truth of the Word from the Lord. That by "the wings of the calf" is signified the power of affecting minds, for the Divine truth of the Word affects those who read it as holy. That by "the six wings of the man" is signified the power of being wise as to what God is, and what is of God, for this is properly man's in reading the Word: and that by "the wings of the eagle" is signified the power of knowing truth and good, and thereby acquiring intelligence for oneself.  Concerning the wings of the cherubim we read in Ezekiel that: The wings kissed each other, and that they also covered their bodies, and that under them there was the likeness of hands (Ezek. 1:23-24; 3:13; 10:5, 21). By "kissing each other," is signified to act in conjunction and unanimously; by "covering their bodies," is signified to guard lest the interior truths which belong to the spiritual sense of the Word be violated; and by "the hands under the wings" are signified powers. Concerning "the seraphim," it is also said, that: They had six wings; with two of which they covered the face, and with two the feet, and with two they flew (Isa. 6:2). By "seraphim" in like manner is signified the Word, properly doctrine from the Word, and by "the wings with which they covered the faces and feet," in like manner are signified guards, and by "the wings with which they flew," powers, as above. That by "flying" is signified to perceive and instruct, and in the highest sense to look out for and provide, is also evident from these passages: God rode upon a cherub, He did fly, and was carried upon the wings of the wind (Ps. 18:10; 2 Sam. 22:11). I saw an angel flying through the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel (Rev. 14:6).  That by wings are signified guards, is plain from the following passages: Jehovah shall cover thee under His wings (Ps. 91:4). To be hid under the shadow of God's wings (Ps. 17:8). To confide in the shadow of His wings (Ps. 36:7; 57:1; 63:7). I stretched out a wing over thee, and covered thy nakedness (Ezek. 16:8). Unto you shall be healing in His wings (Mal. 4:2). As an eagle stirreth up her nest, fluttereth over her young, spreadeth abroad her wings, beareth them on her wings, so Jehovah leadeth him (Deut. 32:11-12). Jesus said, O Jerusalem, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings (Matt. 23:37; Luke 13:34).246.
And they were full of eyes within, signifies the Divine wisdom in the Word, in its natural sense from its spiritual and celestial senses. That by "the animals were full of eyes before and behind" is signified the Divine wisdom in the Word, may be seen above (n. 240); in like manner here, by "their wings were full of eyes." And because the Divine wisdom of the Word in its natural sense is from its spiritual and celestial senses, which are concealed within, it is therefore said, that "within they were full of eyes." Concerning the spiritual and celestial senses, which are contained in every particular of the Word, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 5-26).247.
And they had no rest day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, signifies that the Word continually teaches of the Lord, and that He alone is God, and thence that He alone is to be worshiped. "The animals had no rest day and night," signifies that the Word continually, and without intermission, teaches; and that it teaches what the animals say, namely, "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty," that is, that the Lord alone is God, and thence that He alone is to be worshiped. This is what is signified by holy three times repeated, for the triplication involves all holiness in Him alone. That the Divine Trinity is in the Lord, is fully shown in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord; as also that the Word treats of the Lord alone, and that thence is its sanctity. That the Lord alone is holy, may be seen above (n. 173).248.
Who was, and who is, and who is to come, signifies the Lord. That it is the Lord is plain from chap. 1:4, 8, 11, 17, where it treats of the Son of man who is the Lord as to the Word, and there it is expressly said that: He is the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last, who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty (Rev. 1:8). But what is signified by these words, is explained (n. 13, 29-31, 38, 57); here that the Lord is meant by "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, who was, and who is, and who is to come."249.
Verse 9. And when these animals gave glory, and honor, and thanks to Him that sat upon the throne, signifies that the Word ascribes all truth, and all good, and all worship to the Lord, who is to judge. "The animals" are the Word, as has been shown; "glory and honor," when ascribed to the Lord, mean, that all truth and all good are His and from Him; "thanks" signify the all of worship; "He that sat on the throne" signifies the Lord as to judgment, as above. Hence it is evident, that by "when the animals gave glory, and honor, and thanks to Him that sat on the throne," is signified that the Word ascribes all truth, and all good, and all worship, to the Lord who is to judge. By "giving the Lord glory and honor," nothing else is meant in the Word than to acknowledge and confess that all truth and all good is from Him, thus that He alone is God, for He has glory from the Divine truth, and honor from the Divine good.  This is signified by "glory and honor" in the following passages: Jehovah made the heavens, glory and honor are before Him (Ps. 96:5-6). O Jehovah, O God, Thou art very great, Thou art clothed with glory and honor (Ps. 104:1). The works of Jehovah are great, glory and honor are His work (Ps. 111:2-3). Glory and honor Thou layest upon Him, blessings for ever (Ps. 21:5-6). Concerning the Lord: Gird Thy sword upon the thigh, O mighty, in glory and honor; in Thy honor mount up, ride upon the Word of truth (Ps. 45:3-4). Thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, Thou hast crowned him with glory and honor (Ps. 8:5). The glory of Lebanon is given unto it, the honor of Carmel and Sharon; they shall see the glory of Jehovah and the honor of our God (Isa. 35:2). These things refer to the Lord (besides other places, as Psalms 145:4-5, 12; Revelation 21:24, 26). Moreover, when the Divine truth is treated of in the Word, it is called "glory" (n. 629); and when the Divine good is treated of it is called "honor."250.
Who liveth for ages of ages, signifies the Lord that He alone is life, and from Him alone is life eternal, as seen above (n. 58, 60).
206-1 There is no number 205 in the original Latin.
225-1 The original Latin omits "burning."