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A Theologico-Political Treatise, by Benedict de Spinoza, [1883], at


Part III—Chapters XI to XV

CHAPTER XI—An Inquiry whether the Apostles wrote their

Epistles as Apostles and Prophets, or merely as Teachers, and an Explanation of what is meant by Apostle.

The epistles not in the prophetic style.

The Apostles not commanded to write or preach in particular places.

Different methods of teaching adopted by the Apostles.

CHAPTER XII—Of the true Original of the Divine Law,

and wherefore Scripture is called Sacred, and the Word of God. How that, in so far as it contains the Word of God, it has come down to us uncorrupted.

CHAPTER XIII—It is shown, that Scripture teaches only very Simple Doctrines,

such as suffice for right conduct.

Error in speculative doctrine not impious—nor knowledge pious. Piety consists in obedience.

CHAPTER XIV—Definitions of Faith, the True Faith, and the Foundations of Faith, which is once for all separated from Philosophy.

Danger resulting from the vulgar idea of faith.

The only test of faith obedience and good works.

As different men are disposed to obedience by different opinions, universal faith can contain only the simplest doctrines.

Fundamental distinction between faith and philosophy—the key-stone of the present treatise.

CHAPTER XV—Theology is shown not to be subservient to

Reason, nor Reason to Theology: a Definition of the reason which enables us to accept the Authority of the Bible.

Theory that Scripture must be accommodated to Reason—maintained by Maimonides—already refuted in Chapter vii.

Theory that Reason must be accommodated to Scripture—maintained by Alpakhar—examined.

And refuted.

Scripture and Reason independent of one another.

Certainty, of fundamental faith not mathematical but moral.

Great utility of Revelation.

Authors Endnotes to the Treatise.

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