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Gypsy Sorcery and Fortune Telling, by Charles Godfrey Leland, [1891], at

p. 79






FROM the earliest ages a drum or tambourine has formed such an indispensable adjunct of Shamanic sorcery among Tartars, Lapps, Samoyedes, Eskimo, and Red Indians, that, taking it with other associations, I can hardly believe that it has not been transmitted from one to the other. In Hungary the gypsies when they wish to know if an invalid will recover, have recourse to the cováçanescro buçlo (chovihanescro bûklo) or "witch-drum." This is a kind of rude tambourine covered with the skin of an animal, and marked with stripes which have a special meaning. On this are placed from nine to twenty-one seeds of the thorn-apple (stramomium).

p. 80

The side of the drum is then gently struck with a little hammer, and according to the position which the seeds take on the marks, the recovery or death of the patient is predicted. The following is a picture of a gypsy drum as given by Dr. WLISLOCKI.



The wood for this is cut on Whitsunday. A is turned towards the fortuneteller; nine seeds are now thrown on the drum, and with the left hand, or with a hammer held in it, the tambourine is tapped. Should all the seeds come within the four lines all will go well, especially if three come within a, d, e, f. If two roll into the space between a, i, it is lucky for a woman, between i and f for a man. But if nearly all fall outside of b, c, g, h, all is unfavourable. The same divination is used to know whether animals will get well, and where stolen property is concealed. All of this corresponds exactly to the use of the same instrument by the Laplanders for the same purposes. The thorn-apple is a very poisonous plant, and the gypsies are said to have first brought it to England. This is not true, but it is extremely possible that they used it in stupefying, killing, and "bewitching." It is very much employed at present by the Voodoo poisoners in America.

The Turks are a Tartar race, and the drum is used among them very generally for magical purposes. I have one of these tambouri which, I was assured when I bought it, was made for incantations. It is of a diamond shape, has parchment on both sides, and is inscribed with the name Allah, in Arabic, and the well-known double triangle of Solomon, with the moon and star.

p. 81

To keep domestic animals from straying or being stolen, or falling ill, they are, when a gypsy first becomes their owner, driven up before a fire by his tent. Then they are struck with a switch, which is half blacked with coal, across the back, while the following is repeated:—

"Ač tu, ač kathe!
Tu hin mange!
Te Nivasa the jiánen
Ná dikh tu ádálen!
Trin lánca bin mánge,
Me pçándáv tute:
Yeká o devlá, ávri
O Kristus, trite Maria!"

"Stay thou, stay here
Thou art mine!
And the Nivasi when they go
Thou shalt not see them!
Three chains I have,
I bind thee:
One is God, the other (beyond)
The Christ, the third, Maria!"

To charm a horse, they draw, with a coal, a ring on the left hoof and on the right a cross, and murmur

"Obles, obles te obles!
Ac tu, ac tù máy sástes
Ná th' ávehás beng tute
Devlá, devlá ač tute!
Gule devlá bishálá
E gráyeskro perá
Miseçescro dád!
Niko mánushenge áč
Káske me dáv, leske áč
Shukáres tu áč,
Voyesá te láčes áč,
Ashunen eftá Pçuvuse:
Eftá láncá hin mánge,
Ferinen ádálá
Táysá, táysá e pedá!"

p. 82

"Round, round, and round
Be thou, be thou very sound
The devil shall not come to thee.
God, God shall be with thee
Sweet God drive away
From the horse's body
The Father of Evil!
Be to (go not to) any other man
To whom I give (sell) unto him
Be beautiful!
Frolicsome and good,
Seven spirits of earth hear
I have seven chains,
Protect this animal
Ever, ever!"

Then a piece of salted bread is given to the horse, and the owner spits seven times into his eyes, by which he is supposed to lose all fear for supernatural beings. According to the gypsies, horses, especially black ones, can see beings which are invisible to human eyes. I have known an old English gypsy who believed that dogs could see ghosts when men could not. The mysterious manner in which dogs and horses betray fear when there is apparently nothing to dread, the howling of the former by night, and the wild rushes of the latter, doubtless led to this opinion. The bread and salt will recall to the reader the fact that the same was given at the ancient mysteries apparently for the purpose of strengthening the neophyte so that he should not fear the supernatural beings whom he was supposed to meet. It is curious to find this peculiar form of the sacrament administered to a horse. Another protective charm is common among the Southern Hungarian gypsies. The dung of a she-goat dried and powdered is sifted on a horse's back and this spell recited:—

"Miseçes prejiá,
Andrál t're perá!
Trádá čik busčákri
Miseçes perákri,— p. 83
Andral punrá, andral dumno,
Andral yákhá, andral kánná!
Nevkerádyi av ákána,
Ač tu, ač to čá mánge:
Ač tu, áč tu, áč kathe!"

"Evil be gone
From thy belly!
Drive away she-goat's dung
Evil from the belly,
From the feet, from the back,
From the eyes, from the ears
New-born be now,
Be thou, be thou only mine
Stay thou, stay thou, stay here!"

There is evidently a relation here between the dung of the she-goat and certain ancient symbols. Whatever was a sign of fruitfulness, generation, or productiveness, whether it was set forth by the generative organs, sexual passion, or even manure which fertilises, was connected with Life which is the good or vital principle opposed to death. As the goat was eminently a type of lechery, so the she-goat, owing to the great proportion of milk which she yielded, set forth abundance; hence the cornucopia of Amalthea, the prototype of the she-goat Heidrun of the Northern mythology, who yielded every day so much milk that all the Einheriar, or dwellers in Valhall, could satisfy themselves therewith. 1 But the forms or deities indicating life were also those which shielded and protected from evil, therefore Here, the mother of life and of birth, had in Sparta a shrine where she-goats were sacrificed to her, while at Canuvium the statue of Juno Sospita (who was also Here), was covered with a she-goat's skin. It is in the ancient sense of fertility identified with protection, that the she-goat's dung is used to exorcise evil from the

p. 84

horse by the gypsies. There is, in fact, in all of these char ms and exorcisms a great deal which evidently connects them with the earliest rites and religions.

In the Hungarian gypsy-tribe of the Kukuya, the following method of protecting horses is used: The animal is placed by the tent-fire and there a little hole is dug before him into which ninefold grass and some hairs from his mane and tail are put. Then his left fore-hoof is traced on the ground, and the earth within it is carefully taken out and shaken into the hole, while these lines are repeated:—

"Yeká čunul yeká bál,
Tute e bokh náñi sál,
Ko tut čorel, the merel
Sar e bálá, čunulá,
Pal e pçuv the yov ável!
Pçuvus, adalen tute,
Sástes gráy ác mánge!"

"A straw, a hair!
May you never be hungry
May he who steals you die
Like the hair and the straw,
May he go to the ground
Earth, these things to thee
May a sound horse be mine!"

If the animal be a mare and it is desired that she shall be with foal, they give her oats to eat out of an apron or a gourd, and say

"Trin kánályá, trin jiuklá,
Jiánen upre pláyá!
Cábá, pçarcs hin perá!
Trin kánályá, trin jiuklá
Jiánen tele pláyá,
É çevá ándrasaváren
Yek čumut ándre çasáren,
Tre perá sik pçáreven!"

"Three asses, three dogs,
Go up the hill! p. 85
Eat, fill thy belly with young!
Three asses, three dogs,
Go down the hill,
They close the holes,
They put the moon in (them)
Thy belly be soon fruitful!"

"The moon has here," remarks WLISLOCKI, "a phallic meaning, the mention of the ass, and the use of the gourd and apron are symbols of fertility. Vide DE GUBERNATIS, 'Animals in Indian Mythology,' in the chapter on the ass."

There is another formula for protecting and aiding cattle, which is practised among other races besides that of the gypsies; as, for instance, among the Slovacks of Northern Hungary. This I shall leave in the original—

"Dieser Verwahrungsmittel besteht darin, dass dem gekauften weiblichen Thiere der Mann den blanken Hintern zeigt, einem mannlichen Thiere aber eine weibliche Person. Hiebei werden die Worte gesagt—

"Sár o kár pál e punrá,
Kiyá mánge ác táysá!

Wie der Schwantz am Bein,
Sollst du stets bei mir sein!"

Or else:—

"Sár e minč pal e per,
Kiyá mánge ác buter!

Wie das Loch im Leib,
Also bei mir bleib!"

To secure swine to their owner a hole is dug in the turf which is filled with salt and charcoal dust, which is covered with earth, and these words uttered:—

"Adá hin tute
Ná ává pál menge
Dáv tute, so kámáv
Pçuvusheyá, áshuná, p. 86
Čores tuna muká
Hin menge trin láncá,
Trin máy láce Urmá,
Ke ferinen men!"

"This is thine,
Come not to us
I give thee what I can
Oh Spirit of earth, hear
Let not the thief go!
We have three chains,
Three very good fairies
Who protect us."

If the swine find the hole and root it up—as they will be tolerably certain to do owing to their fondness for salt and charcoal—they will not be stolen or run away.

The Urmen, or Fairies, are supposed to be very favourable to cattle, therefore children who torment cows are told "Urme tute ná bica somnakune pçábáy"—"The fairies will not send you any golden apples!" If the English gypsies had the word Urme (and it may be that it exists among them even yet), this would be, "I Urme ná bitcher tute sonnakai pábya!"

But the mighty charm of charms to protect cattle from theft is the following: Three drops of blood are made to fall from the finger of a little child on a piece of bread which is given to the animal to eat, with these words

"Dav tute trinen rátá
Ternes te láces ávná!
Ko tut čorel, ádáleske
Hin rát te más shutyárdye!

Káná rátá te rátá
Paltire per ávná,
Yákh te yákh te báre yákh
Sikoves çál te çál
Ko kámel tut te çál!"

p. 87

"I give three (drops of) blood
To become young and good;
Who steals thee to him
Shall be (is) blood and flesh dried up!

When blood and blood
Pass into thy belly,
Fire and fire and great fire
Shall devour and devour all
Who will eat thee!"

This incantation takes us back to grim old heathenism with hints of human sacrifice. When the thief was suspected or privately detected it is probable that a dose of some burning poison made good the prediction. "The word young," remarks Dr. WLISLOCKI, "may be here understood to mean innocent, since, according to ancient belief, there was a powerful magic virtue in the blood of virgins and of little children. Every new tent is therefore sprinkled by the gypsies with a few drops of a child's blood to protect it from magic or any other accident." So in prehistoric times, and through the Middle Ages, a human being was often walled up alive in the foundations of a castle to insure its durability. (Vide P. CASSEL, Die Symbolik des Blutes," p. 157.)

When the wandering, or tent-gypsies, find that cattle are ill and do not know the nature of the disease, they take two birds—if possible quails, called by them bereçto or füryo—one of which is killed, but the other, besprinkled with its blood, is allowed to fly away. With what remains of the blood they sprinkle some fodder, which is put before the animal, with the words:—

"So ándre tu miseç hin
           Avri ává!
Káthe ker ná ávlá,
Káná rátá ná ávná,
Násvályipen ná ávná!
Miseç, tu ávri ává,
Ada ker ná láce;
Dáv rátá me káthe!"

p. 88

"What in thee is evil
          Come forth
Here is no home
          For the evil one!
When (drops of) blood come not,
Sickness comes not,
Thou evil one, come forth!'

"Trin párne, trin kále,
Trin tçule páshlajen káthe,
Ko len hádjinel
Ač kivá mánge!"

"Three white, three black,
Three fat lie together here.
Whoever disturbs them
Remain to me! (Be mine!)"

To insure pigs thriving by a new owner, some charcoal-dust is mingled with their food and these words spoken:—

"Nivaseske ná muká,
The çál t're çábená!
Miseç yákhá tut díkhen,
The yon káthe mudáren,
Tu atunci çábá len!"

"Do not let the Nivasi
Eat thy food,
Evil eyes see thee,
And they here shall perish,
Then do thou eat them!

As a particularly powerful conjuration against thieves, the owner runs thrice, while quite naked, round the animal or object which he wishes to protect, and repeats at every turn:—

"Oh coreyá ná prejiá.
Dureder ná ává!
T're vástá, t're punrá
Avcná kirñodyá
Te ádá pedá láves!"

p. 89

"Oh, thief, do not go,
Further do not come
Thy hands, thy feet
Shall decay
If thou takest this animal!"

Another "thieves' benediction" is as follows: The owner goes at midnight with the animal or object to be protected to a cross-roads, and while letting fall on the ground a few hairs of the beast, or a bit of the thing whatever it be, repeats:—

"Ada hin tute,
Ná ává pál menge,
Dav tute, so kámáv;
Pçuvuseyá áshuná!

"This home is not good,
Here I give (thee) blood!"

The gypsies call the quail the devil's bird (Ciriclo bengeskro), and ascribe diabolic properties to it. (Vide CASSEL, 6 and 162.) The daughters of the Nivasi appear as quails in the fields by day, but during the night they steal the corn. To keep them away it is held good during sowing-time to place in each of the four corners of the field, parts of a quail, or at least some of the feathers of a black hen which has never laid an egg. This superstition is also current among the Roumanian peasants of the Siebenbürgen."

The primitive meaning of the myth may perhaps be found in the Greek tradition which regarded the quail, because it was a bird of passage, as a type of revival of spring or of life. Hercules awakes from his swoon when his companion Iolaus (from the Greek ιουλο?<υ?>σ? {Greek ioulos}, youth), holds a quail to his nose. Hercules suffered from epilepsy, for which disease the ancients thought the brain of a quail was a specific. The placing pieces of a quail, by the gypsies, in the corners of a field when corn is sown, connects the bird with spring. Artemis, a goddess of spring and life, was called by the Romans Ortygyia, from ορτυξ {Greek ortuks}, a quail. Therefore, as signifying new life, the quail became itself a cure

p. 90

for many diseases. And it seems to be like the Wren, also a bird of witchcraft and sorcery, or a kind of witch itself. It is a protector, because, owing to its pugnacity, it was a type of pluck, battle and victory. In Phœnicia it was sacrificed to Hercules, and the Romans were so fanatical in regard to it that AUGUSTUS punished a city-father for serving upon his table a quail which had become celebrated for its prowess. And so it has become a devil's bird among the gypsies because in the old time it was regarded as a devil of a bird for fighting.

The gypsies are hardly to be regarded as Christians, but when they wish to contend against the powers of darkness they occasionally invoke Christian influences. If a cow gives bloody milk it is thought to be caused by her eating Wachtelkraut, or quail weed, which is a poison. In such a case they sprinkle the milk on a field frequented by quails and repeat:—

"Dav rátá tumenge
Adá ná hin láče!
Ráyeskro Kristeskro rátá
Adá hin máy láce
Adá hin ámenge!"

"I give to you blood,
Which is not good!
The Lord Christ's blood
Is truly good,
That is ours!"

If a cow makes water while being milked, she is bewitched, and it is well in such a case to catch some of the urine, mix it with onion-peelings and the egg of a black hen. This is boiled and mixed with the cow's food while these lines are repeated:—

"Ko ándré hin, avriává,
Trin Urma cingárden les,
Trin Urma tráden les
Andre yándengré ker
Beshél yov ándre ker
Hin leske máy yakhá,
Hin leske máy páña!"

p. 91

"Who is within, let him come out!
Three Urme call him,
Three Urme drive him
Into the egg-shell house,
There he lives in the house
He has much fire,
He has much water!"

Then half the shell of the egg of the black hen is thrown into a running stream and the other half into a fire.

Next to the Nivasi and Pçuvuse, or spirits of earth and air, and human sorcerers or witches, the being who is most dreaded as injuring cattle is the Chagrin or Cagrino. These demons have the form of a hedgehog, are of yellowish colour, and are half a yard in length, and a span in breadth. "I am certain," says WLISLOCKI, "that this creature is none other than the equally demoniac being called Harginn, still believed in by the inhabitants of North-western India. (Vide LIEBRECHT, p. 112, and LEITNER, 'Results of a Tour in Dardistan Kashmir,' &c., vol. i. p. 13) The exact identity of the description of the two, as well as that of the name, prove that the gypsies brought the belief from their Indian home." It may here be observed that the Indian name is Harginn, and the true gypsy word is pronounced very nearly like 'Hágrin—the o being an arbitrary addition. The transposition of letters in a word is extremely common among the Hindu gypsies. The Chagrin specially torments horses, by sitting on their backs and making water on their bodies. The next day they appear to be weary, sad, sick, and weak, bathed in sweat, with their manes tangled. When this is seen the following ceremony is resorted to: The horse is tied to a stake which has been rubbed with garlic juice, then a red thread is laid in the form of a cross on the ground, but so far from the heels of the horse that he cannot disturb it. And while laying it down the performer sings:—

"Sáve miseç ač káthe,
Ác ándre lunge táve,
Andre leg páshader páñi. p. 92
De tu tire páñi
Andre çuča Cháriñeyá,
Andre tu sik mudárá!"

"All evil stay here,
Stay in the long thread,
In the next brook (water).
Give thy water,
Jump in Chagrin!
Therein perish quickly!"

Of the widely-spread and ancient belief in the magic virtues of garlic and red wool I have elsewhere spoken. That witches and goblins or imps ride horses by night and then restore them in the morning to their stalls in a wretched condition—trembling, enfeebled, and with tangled manes—is believed all the world over, and it would probably be found that the Chagrin also gallops them.

Another charm against this being consists of taking some of the hair of the animal, a little salt, and the blood of a bat, which is all mixed with meal and cooked to a bread. With this the foot of the horse is smeared, and then the empty pipkin is put into the trunk of a high tree while these words are uttered

"Ac tu čin kathe,
Čin ádá tçutes ávlá!"

"Stay so long here,
Till it shall be full!"

The blood of the bat may be derived from an Oriental belief that the bat being the most perfect of birds, because it has breasts and suckles its young, it is specially adapted to magical uses. In the Tyrol he who bears the left eye of a bat may become invisible, and in Hesse he who wears the heart of a bat bound to his arm with red thread will always win at cards. The manes of the horses which have been tangled and twisted by the Chagrin must not be cut off or disentangled unless these words are spoken:—

p. 93

      "Čin tu jid', cin ádá bálá jiden."

"So long live thou, long as these hairs shall live."

It is an European belief that knots of hair made by witches must not be disentangled. The belief that such knots are made intentionally by some intelligence is very natural. I have often been surprised to find how frequently knots form themselves in the cord of my eye-glass, even when pains are taken at night to lay it down so as to be free of them. Apropos of which I may mention that this teasing personality of the eye-glass and cord seems to have been noted by others. I was once travelling on the Nile in company with a Persian prince, who became convinced that his eye-glass was very unlucky, and therefore threw it into the river.

The Chagrin specially torments mares which have recently foaled; therefore it is held needful, soon after the birth, to put into the water which the mother drinks glowing hot coals, which are thrice taken from the fire. With these are included pieces of iron, such as nails, knives, &c., and the following words are solemnly murmured:—

"Piyá tu te ña ač sovnibnastár!"

"Drink, and do not be sleepy!"

Many readers may here observe that charcoal and iron form a real tonic, or very practical strengthening dose for the enfeebled mare. But here, as in many cases medicine makes a cure and the devil or the doctor gets the credit. The Chagrin is supposed to attack horses only while they are asleep. Its urine often causes swellings or sores. These are covered by day with a patch of red cloth, which is stuck at night into a hole in a tree, which is closed with a cork, while these words are pronounced

"Ač tu káthe
Čin áulá táv pedá
Čin pedá yek ruk
Čin ruk yek mánush
Ko mudarel tut."

p. 94

"Remain thou here
Till the rag become an animal,
Till the animal, a tree,
Till the tree, a man,
Who will destroy thee!"

Dr. WLISLOCKI suggests that "the idea of the tree's becoming a man, is derived from the old gypsy belief that the first human beings were made from the leaves of trees, and refers to what he has elsewhere written on a tradition of the creation of the world, as held by Transylvanian gypsies. The following is a children's song, in which the belief may be traced:—

"Amaro dád jál ándro bes
Čingerel odoy čaves,
Del dáyákri andre pádá
Yek čavoro ádá ávla."

"Our father went into a wood,
There he cut a boy,
Laid it in mother's bed,
So a boy comes."

The Greeks believed that man was made from an ash-tree, and the Norsemen probably derived it from the same source with them. In 1862 I published in The Continental Magazine (New York) a paper on the lore connected with the ash, in which effort was made to show that in early times in India the Banyan was specially worshipped, and that the descendants of men familiar with this cult had, after migrating to the Far West, transferred the worship and traditions of the banyan to the ash. It has been observed that the ash-tree sometimes—like the banyan—sends its shoots down to the ground, where they take root. The Algonkin Indians seem to have taken this belief of man's origin from the ash from the Norsemen, as a very large proportion of their myths correspond closely to those of the Edda. But, in brief, if the Greeks and Norsemen were of Aryan origin, and had ever had a language in common, they probably had common myths.

p. 95

The following is the remedy for the so-called Würmer, or worms, i.e., external sores. Before sunrise wolf's milk (Wolfsmilch, rukeskro tçud) is collected, mixed with salt, garlic, and water, put into a pot, and boiled down to a brew. With a part of this the afflicted spot is rubbed, the rest is thrown into a brook, with the words:—

"Kirmora jánen ándre tçud
Andrál tçud, andré sir
Andrál sir, andré páñi,
Panensá kiyá dádeske,
Kiyá Niváseske
Pçandel tumen shelchá
Eñávárdesh teñá!"

"Worms go in the milk,
From the milk into the garlic,
From the garlic into the water,
With the water to (your) father,
To the Nivasi,
He shall bind you with a rope,
Ninety-nine (yards long)."

A common cure of worms in swine among the Transylvanian tent-gypsies is to stand ere the sun rises before a çadcerli, or nettle, and while pouring on it the urine of the animal to be cured, repeat:—

"Láče, láče detehárá!
Hin mánge máy bute trásha
Kirmora hin [báleceske],
Te me penáv, penáv tute!
Káles hin yon, loles, párnes,
Deisislá hin yon mulánes!"

"Good, good morrow!
I have much sorrow.
Worms are in [my swine to-day]
And I say, to you I say,
Black are they or white or red
By to-morrow be they dead!"

p. 96

The nettle has its own peculiar associations. According to the gypsies it grows chiefly in places where there is a subterranean passage to the dwellings of the Pçuvus or Earth-fairies, therefore it is consecrated to them and called Kásta Pçuvasengré, Pcuvus-wood. Hence the gypsy children while gathering nettles for pigs sing:—

"Čádcerli ná pçábuvá!
André ker me ná jiáv,
Kiyá Pçuvus ná jiáv,
Tráden, tráden kirmorá!"

"Nettle, nettle do not burn,
In your house no one shall go,
No one to the Pcuvus goes,
Drive, drive away the worms!"

"The nettle," says FRIEDRICH ("Symbolik der Natur," p. 324), "because it causes a burning pain is among the Hindoos a demoniac symbol, for, as they say, the great serpent poured out its poison on it. But as evil is an antidote for evil, the nettle held in the hand is q. guard against ghosts, and it is good for beer when laid upon the barrel." "From its employment as an aphrodisiac, and its use in flagellation to restore sexual power, it is regarded as sacred to Nature by the followers of a secret sect or society still existing in several countries, especially Persia" (MS. account of certain Secret Societies). The gypsies believe that. the Earth-fairies are the foes of every kind of worm and creeping insect with the exception of the snail, which they therefore call the "gráy Pçuvusengré," the Pçuvus-horse. Gry-puvusengree would in English gypsy mean the earthy-horse. English gypsies, and the English peasantry, as well as gypsies, call snails "cattle, because they have horns." Snails are a type of voluptuousness, because they are hermaphrodite and exceedingly giving to sexual indulgence, so that as many as half a dozen may be found mutually giving and taking pleasure. Hence in German Schnecke, a snail, is a term applied to the pudendum muliebre. And as anything significant of fertility, generation, and sexual enjoyment was supposed to constitute a charm or amulet against witchcraft, i.e., all evil

p. 97

influences, which are allied to sterility, chastity, and barrenness, a snail's shell forms a powerful fetish for a true believer. The reference to white, black, or red in the foregoing charm, or rather the one before it, refers, says Dr. WLISLOCKI, to the gypsy belief that there are white, black, and red Earth-fairies. A girl can win (illicit) love from a man by inducing him to carry a snail shell which she has had for some time about her person. To present a snail shell is to make a very direct but not very delicate declaration of love to any one. I have heard of a lady who caused an intense excitement in a village by collecting about a hundred large snails, gilding their shells, and then turning them loose in several gardens, where their discovery excited, as may be supposed, great excitement among the finders.

If pigs lose their appetites a brew is made of milk, charcoal dust, and their own dung, which is put before them with the words: "Friss Hexe und verreck!"

"In this place I must remark that the Transylvanian tent-gypsies use for grumus merdæ also the expression Hirte (feris)" (WLISLOCKI). To cure a cough in animals one should take from the hoofs of the first riding horse, dirt or dust, and put it into the mouth of the suffering animal with the words

"Prejiál te náñi yov ável!"

"May he go away and never return!"

To have a horse always in good spirits and lively during the waning moon his spine is rubbed with garlic, while these words are uttered

"Miseç ándre tut,
O beng the çal but!
Lačes ándré tut
Ačel ándre tut!"

"(What is) evil in thee,
May the devil eat it much!
(What is) good in thee,
May it remain in thee!"

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But it is far more effective when the garlic is put on a rag of the clothes of one who has been hanged, and the place rubbed with it: in which we have a remnant of the earliest witchcraft, before Shamanism, which had recourse to the vilest and most vulgar methods of exciting awe and belief. This is in all probability the earliest form in which magic, or the power of controlling invisible or supernatural influences manifested itself, and it is very interesting to observe that it still survives, and that the world still presents every phase of its faiths, ab initio.

There is a very curious belief or principle attached to the use of songs in conjuring witches, or in averting their own sorcery. It is that the witch is obliged, willy nilly, to listen to the end to what is in metre, an idea founded on the attraction of melody, which is much stronger among savages and children than with civilized adults. Nearly allied to this is the belief that if the witch sees interlaced or bewildering and confused patterns she must follow them out, and by means of this her thoughts are diverted or scattered. Hence the serpentine inscriptions of the Norsemen and their intertwining bands which were firmly believed to bring good luck or avert evil influence. A traveller in Persia states that the patterns of the carpets of that country are made as bewildering as possible "to avert the evil eye." And it is with this purpose that in Italian, as in all other witchcraft, so many spells and charms depend on interwoven braided cords.

"Twist ye, twine ye, even so,
Mingle threads of joy and woe."

The basis for this belief is the fascination, or instinct, which many persons, especially children, feel to trace out patterns, to thread the mazes of labryinths or to analyze and disentangle knots and "cat's cradles." Did space permit, nor inclination fail, I could point out some curious proofs that the old belief in the power of long and curling hair to fascinate was derived not only from its beauty but also because of the magic of its curves and entanglements.

The gypsies believe that the Earth-spirits are specially interested in

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animals. They also teach women the secrets of medicine and sorcery. There are indications of this in the negro magic. Miss MARY OWEN, an accomplished Folk-lorist of St. Joseph, Missouri, who has been deeply instructed in Voodooism, informs me that a woman to become a witch must go by night into a field and pull up a weed by the roots. From the quantity of soil which clings to it, is inferred the degree of magic power which the pupil will attain. I am not astonished to learn that when this lady was initiated, the amount of earth collected was unusually great. In such cases the Pchuvus (or Poovus in English gypsy), indicate their good-will by bestowing "earth," which, from meaning luck or good-fortune, has passed in popular parlance to signifying money.




83:1 "Geit suer Heidrun heitr stendr uppi a Valholl. . . . En or spenum hennar rennr moilk. . . tháer cro sva miklar at allir einheria verda fuldrucknir af." ("A ewe named Heidrun stands up in Valhalla. And from her udders runs milk; there is so much that all the heroes may drink their fill of it"). (SNORRO STURLESON'S "Edda," 20th tale).

Next: Chapter VI: Of Pregnancy and Charms