Sacred-Texts The Pacific Index Previous Next
Creation of the Germ of Life in Man—The Pedigree of Man—Hine-nui-te-Pō, goddess of Hades—Whakaru-au-moko, god of voloanic phenomena—Whiro, god of evil—Some Functions of the other Gods.
NOW, when all these things had been finished by Tāne-matua and his elder brethren, they asked one another, "By what means shall we raise up descendants [to ourselves] in the 'world-of-light'?" Their elder brother, Uru-te-ngangana (1) said, "Let us seek a female that may take on our likeness, and raise up offspring [for us] in the 'world-of-light.'" Some suggested they should fetch some of the females [Apas, messengers] of the twelve heavens, that is:—
|6.||Apa-ruhiruhi||12.||(The Apas of the highest|
heaven were too sacred)
The above are the female Apas of the eleven heavens. Uru-te-ngangana replied to this, "If we fetch our females from there, all our descendants will be gods like ourselves. Rather let us take of the Earth, that it may be said they are the descendants of Earth." Hereupon it was agreed to search for such female.
The family of gods now dispersed by two and two to search for the female. All parts of the land and the ocean, the inland waters, and the dense vegetation were searched. Every place was sought out, but not one single thing was found suitable to take on the functions of a female similar to the female Apas of the conjoint heavens. All assembled again—none had found anything. Hence, is this episode known as: 'Tē kitea' (the not-seen), 'Tē rawea' (the not-acquired), 'Tē whiwhia' (the not-possessed).1 And this is the origin of these p. 139 words; so given in that form, that the circumstances may be remembered by the tohungas [priests], i.e., the commencement of the search for the female.
It was then decided by the gods to ascertain whether or no [the female] was to be found in any of the [living] beings that had been appointed to dwell in the world [i.e., the animals, insects, etc.]. For all females of [living] things conceive; and an examination of their offspring was to be made. Some were found [partly] appropriate, some not. The reptiles have their particular issue in the form of eggs; they were not suitable on examination, and so were discarded. . . . . . .2 It was considered better that something which produced after its own kind, or bodily shape, should be adopted—and, hence, offspring by eggs were at this time assigned to birds. It was now obvious that the [kind of] female required from which the iho-tangata3 [the form or likeness and attributes of man] could be born, was not to be found.
So the gods all assembled again in one place at Whare-kura to declare their various ideas. And then spoke Ro-iho (2), Ro-ake (3), and Hae-puru (4). (It was these three who felt a great love towards their common parent, Rangi-nui, when he, their father, was separated from their mother Earth; and they followed, or adhered, to Rangi-nui at that time; that is, shortly after [the separation].) They said to Tāne-matua (68), "O Tāne e! What is it ye are searching for?" Tāne replied, "We are searching out the way to the female! That is our object." The three then said, "Try the earth at Kura-waka, and commence your operations there. For in that place is the female in a state of virginity and potentiality; she is sacred, for she contains the likeness of man."
The gods then went off to seek that earth at Kura-waka.4 Here they formed a body [in the likeness of a woman], and completed the arrangement of the head, the arms, the bust, the legs, the back, and the front; and then the bones. Here ended the work of the elder brethren. Then followed the arrangements of the flesh, the muscles, the blood and the fat. On the completion of these parts, the breath of life was assigned to Tāne-matua (68), to place it in the nostrils, the p. 140 mouth, and the ears—that was done. And then for the first time the breath of man came forth, the eyelids opened, the pupils saw, and the hot breath of the mouth burst forth, the nose sneezed. "Sneeze living heart to the world of light; [thy] offspring [shall be] a man, a female."5 After this the body was taken to the altar at Muri-takina, where all the proceedings were voided [i.e., where an evil influence of earthly origin were removed, and the first woman became a fit recipient for the germ of life.]
Now, it was told by the Rua-nukus [learned teachers] of the Whare-wānanga, the depositories of ancient knowledge, that Hine-hau-one [the first woman, a name which may be translated, 'woman-created-of-earth'] was formed on the mons veneris of the all-mother, of the earth at Kura-waka; her head, her arms, her legs were made there, also the bust. The breath of life, the lungs, the kidneys, and the liver were all begged of Io, by Tu-kapua (40) and Tiwhaia, Punaweko (19) and Hae-matua (5) and others—some parts were [built up] by these, some by others. The parts were [at first] all made separately in different places, but afterwards gathered and joined together, and on completion it was said to be a human body. It was Io [the Supreme God] and Rehua [one of Io's messengers] who implanted the thoughts and the living spirit.
When Hine-hau-one had been completely formed after their own likeness,6 in no part different—except indeed her front alone, which did differ in that she had there the likeness of the female—it was said that an orifice should be made for the urine. This was done, it was open; and then one of the eye-pupils of Tiwhaia was extracted and placed as a door to the meatus urinarius of Hine-hau-one. Some of the hair of Puna-weko (19) was placed as a concealment for the meatus and to adorn it. Such was the origin of the living-spirit of mankind in the 'world-possessed' or ['world-of-being'] and the 'world-of-light.'
When Hine had been completely formed in the likeness of mankind, she was delivered over to Tāne-matua (68) in order that procreation might take place. First the ears were tried, hence the wax in them; then the eyes, hence the rheum; then the nostrils, hence the mucous; then the mouth, hence the saliva and the phlegm; then the armpits, hence the perspiration; then between the thighs, hence the clammy perspiration; then the anus, hence the excreta.
Then said the elder brethren, "Act in the water-way of Hine! for there is the awa-karihi [the vagina] from whence comes forth the living-spirit, from the fountain of Hine, to the world-of-light." Now followed the takutaku [incantation] of Tupai (69) to excite the membrim virile [emblematical name, Tiki-ahua] of Tāne; thus:
|Here am I, a man, a divine one, O Hine, e, i!|
Here is a divine man, for thee, O Hine, e, i!
Here am I, a husband of thine, O Hine, e, i!
Here am I, a lover, a lover embracing, of thine, O Hine, e, i!
Let thy body closely adhere to this male,
Concentrate thy thoughts on this thy lordly husband, O Hine, e, i!
Firmly affixed to the very roots of thy thought.
Adhere to the decreed purpose of woman—
To this husband of thine, O Hine-one e, i!
My and thy purpose of being was decreed of old, O Hine, e, i!
Come close; as this man adheres to this Hine-one, e, i!
The object of our union was decided of old;
It is firmly adhered to by this son, O Hine, e, i!
Adhere, in closest embrace, the woman to this man, O Hine, e, i!
Forget all thoughts of others, think not of nor incline
To the pursusaion of other sons to thee, O Hine-one, e, i!
From the fruitless searching, from the 'Kore-te-whiwhia' [the unacquired]
From the 'Kore-te-rawea' [the unpossessed] have the thoughts of those sons
Been on thee, O Hine-one, e, i!
Nor rest on, nor turn thy looks;
Not a glance of the eye, or a secret thought,
In thy hidden innermost thoughts, be this son's alone, O Hine-one, e, i!
For we are the waters, the clothing; we are spouses,
Bound like a sister and a brother, O Hine e!
We are spouses bound to one another in gladness,
We belong to one another, O Hine-one, e, i!
Who will first annul it, thou! who will be estranged, thou!
Who will lack affection, thou! who will show fear, thou!
Whose will be the evil thoughts and words, thine!
Whose were the searchings, the unacquired, the unpossessed?
'Twas Hine-one, towards those other sons, O Hine-one, e, i!
Be bound by thy eyes, be bound by the mouth,
Bound by thy body, to this man of thine—
A man desired, a man most suitable,
A man embracing—of thine, is this man,
This Tāne-matua of thine, O Hine, e, i!
The above karakia of Tupai's is to cause the two to adhere to one another, to effect a junction in thought and body, so that there might be only one husband [for the woman], none other beyond the one—Tāne, or Tāne-nui-a-rangi, or Tāne-matua. His name in youth was Tāne, then [he acquired the second] at his 'naming' above on p. 142 Maunga-nui by Rehua and Rua-tau. And the third when he was appointed a parent of all things [mankind] by Io at the Uppermost Heaven. This was the end; his becoming permanently joined to Hine as his wife.
After the above, the karakia was taken up by Hae-puru (4) to secure offspring to Hine-hau-one and Tāne-matua; this is it:—
[This karakia cannot be translated because it enters into details of the female anatomy and reproductive powers, the various names of which are given, but cannot now be identified. The Maoris were intimately acquainted with the anatomy of the human body, which arose through experience gained in disecting it for cannibalistic purposes.]
Again, Ro-iho (2) and Ro-ake (2) took up the karakia to strengthen Tāne in implanting the 'spark of life' in Hine-hau-one [which likewise cannot be translated for the reason given above].
. . . . . . . These two karakias are both very tapu, and have remained to the present time in use; the first is used in marriage to cause the man and woman to be faithful to one another. The last one is used to cause barren women to conceive and bear offspring—hence are they tapu.
After the above two karakias, Hine was taken to the ahu-rewa, or altar, within the sacred house of Whare-kura and there purified—and after that to the Wai-o-Tahu-rangi [the sacred waters from Heaven] and there bathed.7 At this time she received her [full] name, Hine-hau-one.8 Then she was taken to the turuma [latrine] of Whare-kura [the first earthly temple] where by biting the rail all the effects of the tapu were removed. After this she was taken to the house that had been specially made for the female before the gods started out on their quest known as 'Te Kore-te-whiwhia,' etc. [see p. 138 ante]. It was for this purpose that house was built by Tāne-matua (68) and Tangaroa-a-mua (8),9 and named Hui-te-ana-nui. It was a carved p. 143 house; the pillars, the ends of the rafters, the purlins, the ridge-pole, and battens at the end, the barge boards, the sill of the porch and all such other parts that should properly be so ornamented, were done.
And then Hine-hau-one became the permanent wife of Tāne-matua. She became pregnant, and gave birth to a daughter, who was named Hine-titama; she was followed by Hine-manuhiri [and others].
|1. Hine-titama10||2. Hine-manuhiri||3. Hine-wai-rangi.||4. Hine-wai-ariki.|
Those are the descendants of Hine-hau-one that came forth to the world.
[Athough it is not considered necessary in this part of the work to print the large number of genealogical tables recited by the two Sages, the following is introduced as a specimen, illustrating the descent of man from Tāne-matua (68) down to Nga-Toro-i-rangi, the tohunga or priest of 'Te Arawa' canoe that came to New Zealand about 1350, and the descendants of whose crew are now to be found scattered all over the Bay of Plenty, Lake Rotorua, and Lake Taupo. It is no doubt the case that vast numbers of ancestors are omitted in the early part of the table following, and only a few are inserted in the tatai or recitation, but probably the correct descent from father to son (or daughter) begins between the forty-fifth and fiftieth generation back from the year 1900, as shewn by the figures, This would carry the table back to about the seventh century, when, as all things seem to indicate, the Polynesians were on the move from Indonesia into the Pacific. The table is from Te Matorohanga's teaching.]
[Te Matorohanga says:—] Hine-titama was the daughter of Tāne-nui-a-rangi (68) and Hine-hau-one, and Tāne took her [his daughter] unto him as a wife. After a certain time had passed Hine-titama said unto Tāne, "O Sir! Who is my father?" Tāne replied, "Ask that question of the pillars of the house!"—of Hui-te-ana-nui [which was the name of their house. Tāne said this to put off his wife's question]. Hine-titama well knew that the house had been built by Tāne and Tupai (69), and she further now understood that Tāne was her father as well as her husband. At this she felt a great pain and intense horror. When dawn was near she uttered a spell (tupe) over her children that they might sleep heavily, and another over Tāne so that he might have no strength to follow her, and then she fled.
Hine-titama fled over the plain of Whiti-naunau11 towards the direction of Pou-tere-rangi [the guard-house to Hades]. When she reached the door she found there Te Ku-watawata (23) [the guardian of the entrance], who asked her, "Where art thou going?" She p. 145 replied, "Let me pass on to the descent" [into Hades]. Te Ku-watawata answered, "Thou art leaving behind thee the world of light and life!" Hine-titama then said, "Let me proceed to the descent to Muri-wai-hou in order that I may ever catch the living spirits of my children12 now in the 'everlasting light' [a name for this world]."
Now, hence arises the fact that the spirits return to this world [as explained below]. So Te Ku-watawata allowed Hine-titama to pass on to Hades, and as she did so she turned round and beheld her husband, Tāne, approaching, shedding tears as he came along. Hine called out to him, "Tāne e! Return to our family, for I have cut off the aho o te ao [the cord of the world] to you [and your descendants], whilst the cord of Hades remains with me [for ever]." And then [by enchantment] Hine-titama caused the Adam's apple to grow in Tāne's throat, and said, "Let that remain as a distinction between me [woman] and thee [man]."13 And then Hine turned away into Pou-tere-rangi and descended into Rarohenga [Hades].
Let me explain this part: Hine-titama was her name in this world, but changed to Hine-nui-to-po [Great-lady-of-the-night, goddess of Hades]. Afterwards she descended to Hades—to the dwelling place of her relative, Whakuru-au-moko (70) [god of volcanic forces]. And now from this time onward the flow of the 'current of death' of mankind to the 'everlasting night' became permanent. This was the second; the deaths at Te Paerangi [the wars of the gods, see p. 134] being the first [institution of the descent of spirits to Hades],
Now, when Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga14 learnt of this law of death, he declared that he would end it [and that man should live for ever]. His brethren said, "It cannot be done; for Tāne has appointed the Pou-tiri-ao [guardian spirits] each to its separate sphere, its separate duties, as is known by the demarkation in the service of the altar."15 p. 146 But Māui would not listen. He then chose as companions the birds Tatahore, Miro, and Ti-waiwaka, saying, "Come! be my companions." They then took on the likeness of the sparrow-hawk, and all descended by Taheke-roa [the descent into Hades] until they came to the place named Kohurau, where they were seen by the family of Paketua [see p. 128 the mosquitoes and other stinging insects], who at once went off to communicate the news to Hine-nui-te-po [goddess of Hades], to whom they said, "Here are some from the world-of-light [the earth], they are at Kohurau." Hine-nui-te-po at once understood that this was a party antagonistic to her [and her self-imposed duty of destroying everlasting life in mankind]. So she said to Pekerau, "Go! Fetch me the blood of the party." When the Peketua family reached Māui, he discovered their presence by the noise they made, so he and his companions struck them with their wings, and the family of Pekerau were thus defeated, the survivors fleeing to Hine-nui-te-po to inform her that they had been defeated and many of them killed. This defeat has always been known as 'Paihau-ka-roha' [the wings-spread-out. The continuation of this story will be found at page three, Chapter VI., as it does not belong to this part].
Let me explain here: The words used by Hine to Tāne, i.e., 'the cord of the world remains with you, the cord of Hades with me'; its meaning is, the life of everything in the world is with Tāne, but the death of all things in the world remain with her. That is all about that. The other words of Hine to Tāne, "Return to our family and retain the 'living-spirit' of our children in the world, until emaciation and failure of health bring them to me, I will catch the 'living-spirit'"—which means the spirit, soul, of man, will be withheld [from extinction] by her and live again; and, hence it is we see the spirits [ghosts] of men passing along, talking and declaring the signs of death to the world. Enough of that. The Adam's apple which Hine 'knotted' in the throat of Tāne, was on account of his sin to her [in making her, his daughter, his wife]; it has descended to all his [male] offspring alone. Her side [the woman's] has not got it, and that is the reason there is no Adam's apple in women, only in men.16
[Pohuhu adds to the above:] On the arrival of Hine-titama at Hades, she found Whakaru-au-moko [god of volcanic action] at his home, and eventually became his wife, and they had twenty-one children [whose names are given, but they are of no particular interest; they are emblematical for all kinds of volcanic phenomena, earthquakes, etc., etc.]. They are the pou-mataki of their ancestress Papa-tua-nuku [the Earth-mother].
[Te Matorohanga says:] The youngest child of the Sky-father and Earth-mother was Whakaru-au-moko (70) who, when the Earth was turned over was a child at the breast; it was their last child. After the separation of Rangi and Papa, Tāne and Paia saw the great love the Earth-mother bore to the Sky-father; she could not rest in quiet; she continually turned from side to side. So Tāne, Paia and some other gods, thought it best to turn the face of their mother downwards to Te Muriwai-hou, to Raro-henga (Hades), so she might no longer see Rangi-nui, her Heavenly husband. Paia said unto Tāne, "I am consumed with love for our younger brother, Whakaru-au-moko (70), let us take him from the breast of his mother and retain him with us." Tāne replied, "We cannot do that; leave him to warm and comfort the breast of our Mother-Earth." It was then agreed by all the gods that Papa should be turned over with her front or face downwards. Paia, seeing this agreement in opinion of the other gods, said, "If such is your determination, let us [at least] give unto our younger brother some fire." To this Tama-kaka (63) consented, and gave some ahi-komau (volcanic-fire—see infra) to their youngest brother; it was placed in the houama [otherwise called the lohau, or cork-wood, Entelea arborescens] and then their mother and young brother were turned over to Raro-henga (Hades).
Now, let me explain about the ahi-komau: This is so called when fire is placed in the houama. If anyone is departing from his home for some months, as on a war-party, he will obtain (the stem) of the ti (Cordyline australis), and a piece of tokitoki (titoki) wood, both quite dry, or a short piece of matai wood; they are cut in lengths as long as a man, and are taken to the side of a hillock, down the face of which a ditch is dug. The titoki leg is then placed in the ditch at the bottom, and the ti above it. The ditch at the upper end is as deep as a man's knee, the lower end as deep as the waist. A hole must be arranged with the mouth slanting downward so water cannot enter. A piece of lighted charcoal is placed on the upper end of the ti, and then gravel is p. 148 filled into the ditch over the wood, and over that a coating of clay to cover the whole. This is what is called an ahi-komau. Notwithstanding that one goes away with a war or other party, on return the fire will be found to be alight.17
So Papa and her youngest child were capsized over to Rarohenga; hence, is the broken up appearance of the Earth at the present time—the thighs, the arms, the body, the head, all lie in different places. Whakaru-au-moko (70) grew up to manhood, that is, a god—for it has already been said the god-side combined with the earth-side when Rangi and Papa dwelt together, and all their offspring were gods, there was no human germ at that time. It was only after Tāne cohabited with Hine-hau-one and Hine-ti-tama was born that the germ of man became man. Io-mata-ngaro (Io-the-hidden-face) supplied the blood and fat, Tawhiri-matea (7) gave the lungs to Paia; the Apa-whatu-kuras the memory. The names given to these operations are, Rua-i-te-hiringa, Rua-i-te-pukenga, Rua-i-te-mahara, and Rua-i-te-wānanga18; of these three, one was from the Toi-o-nga-rangi (the Uppermost Heaven), and one from the eleven Apas, which has been explained as those that are dwelling in the eleven Heavens. One [side] was from the Earth, and the three portions were combined in one, placed in the water, and so arose the germ of man. Papa-tua-nuku [the Earth-mother] was merely the support [the vehicle], and hence was Hine-hau-one formed at Kura-waka, as a recepticle for the water, the blood, the flesh and the breath. On the accomplishment of this, it was said, the female form became permanent.
The dwelling places of Whakaru-au-moko (70) and his offspring [in Rarohenga] were as follows:—
|2.||Wai-kapuka||6.||Te Oiroa||10.||Te Pupuha-o-te-rangi|
|4.||Te-Ngaiere-i-waho||8.||Te Puha-o-Rarohenga||12.||Te Momi-nuku|
These were the places of Whakaru-au-moko in which were permanently placed the fire given by Tupai (69) to him in the houama, and then this fire received the name of 'The Ancient Fire' (Te Ahi-tawhio.)
[Te Matorohenga continued:] When Whiro-te-tipua (6) was defeated in the series of battles known as Te Paerangi (see ante), he departed [from the presence of the other gods] and descended by way of Taheke-roa19 to Muri-wai-hou, to Rarohenga (Hades), and then arrived at the dwelling place of Whakaru-au-moko (70) and his wife Hine-nui-te-po [former name Hine-titama], to the places mentioned above. Now the thought grew in Whiro and Whakaru-au-moko, that they should have but one object in common to avenge the illtreatment of their mother (the Earth) and their father (the Sky). Whakaru-au-moko consented to this proposition, and then Whiro proposed they should operate above in the Ao-tu-roa [the world of light, this ordinary world] and make war on Tāne (68) and his elder brethren. Whakaru-au-moko replied to him, "Ye are all from above; carry on your warfare above. I am from below, and here I will engender my warfare." Whiro asked, "Where will you find weapons?" The other replied, "I will make use of Puna-te-waro [volcanic forces, earthquakes, eruptions, hot-springs]; for in it is contained the ahi komau [volcanic fires]."
Hence is the origin of the eruptions, the earthquakes, of Hine-tuoi [emblematical for hot-springs], which agitate both land and sea—even from those times of ancient strife down to the present. And, now was given the third name to the 'Ahi-komau' (first), the 'Ahi-tawhito' (second), the 'Ahi-tipua' (third) of Whakaru-au-moko, which cause the landslips, and the fall of rocks and trees, of man, of all things, which Tāne and his brethren had made.
And thus it is that the illtreatment at Rangi-tau-ngawha [the name for the separation of Heaven and Earth] when Rangi was separated from Papa, is constantly avenged. Whiro and his companion gods ever continue the strife of Tahua-roa [emblematical for the continual warfare of Whiro towards mankind and all things], and there he appointed 'Maiki-nui' and 'Maiki-roa' [misfortunes, catastrophies] to utterly destroy all things—the water, the blood, the flesh, and the breath.
From within the temple of Hawaiki-nui,20 direct flows forth the current of death, by the way of Taheke-roa; and then is renewed the warfare of Whiro against his enemies, which has existed even from that ancient time down to this day; the peace has never been made in the wars of Whakaru-au-moko (70) and Whiro [against mankind].
[To continue Nepia Pohuhu's teaching; after repeating a great many geneological tables and other matter not pertaining to the 'Celestial Plane,' he returns to the doings of the gods, as follow:—]
Let our story now return to certain other origins, and work them out, which will allow me time to think of some other genealogies relating to these 'slaves.'21 Let us commence with the following:—
Uru-te-ngangana (1) married Hine-tu-rama [first wife, daughter of Tāne by Hine-hau-one] and they had:—
|1. Kopu (Venus)||6. Whanui (? Vega)|
|2. Puanga (Rigel)||7. Pare-a-rau (? Saturn22)|
|3. Tautoru (Orion)||8. Ika-roa (The Milky Way)|
|4. Autahi (Aldebaran)||9. Kaitahi|
|5. Matariki (Pleiades)|
All of these were distributed by Tāne to the front of their parent Rangi-nui [the Sky-father]. Now, the son of Tongatonga (42) Matariki [the Pleiades] was taken to the Paeroa-o-Whanui [one of the names for the Milky Way] to guard the whanau-punga [those little stars in the Milky Way that are just distinguishable as such by the naked eye], lest they be cast out by their elder brethren [the principal stars—stars of first magnitude] and fall down below.
Uru-te-ngangana (1) married a second wife named Iriiri-pua. This woman was abducted by Whiro (6). She was a most beautiful woman. When the power of directing the affairs of the gods was obtained by Tāne and Tupai—who were both younger brothers of Uru-te-ngangana (1), Tu-mata-uenga (11), Tama-kaka (? 63), Kiwa (52), Tangaroa (8), and Rongo-marae-rua (14)—there was instituted the following proverb [as applicable to the deeds of Whiro, who was supreme in all evil], "A depreciating younger brother, a self-extoller, a cunning child."
Whiro-te-tipua made the mistake of thinking that Iriiri-pua was an entire stranger to him. It was not so—she was his own daughter, but he did not know her. Now, here, in consequence of this deadly sin of Whiro, Uru-te-ngangana finally separated himself from Whiro; and peace was proclaimed between the former and Tāne and his elder and younger brethren. It was subsequent to this that the wars of the gods at Te Paerangi [see ante Chapter III.] took place, and Whiro and his p. 151 faction fell; and his god-like power became vested in Tāne and the others. His powers over all things in this world ceased,23 when he and his companions descended to Raro-henga (Hades), in which place his marae24 is lost; it is there he occupied his time in devising contention amongst and against the descendants of all people and things in this world, and even up to the realm of the Sky-father, where it ends in Rangi-tamaku [next Heaven above the visible one].
It is now clear that the wife of Uru-te-ngangana (1) was abducted by Whiro-te-tipua (6). This was the first occasion on which a wife was ever taken from her husband and appropriated by another. Out of this occurrence arises the proverb: "A woman that leaves her husband is a woman who commits adultery." All desires towards contention are due entirely to Whiro; he was the perpetrator of all evil between his brethren and himself.
[There are eleven principal causes of trouble between Whiro and his brethren, of which seven have been mentioned in Chapter III., pp. 124, 125. The Sage now numerates the others. He says:]
After all the foregoing events the hatred of Whiro towards his brethren became permanent; these were the causes of it [for one to seven see pp. 124, 125]:—
|8.||The persistence of Tāne in ascending to the Uppermost Heaven to fetch the wānanga [see p. 126].|
|9.||The destruction of his (Whiro's) [familiar spirits] pets, and because some were made prisoners, as Tāne descended from highest Heaven [see p. 127].|
|10.||Because Tāne would not consent that the direction of matters in connection with the three 'baskets' [of knowledge] and the two stones should be given to Uru-te-ngangana (1) and him, after these things had been given by Io to Tāne within his pa of Rau-roha, when taken from the treasure house Rangiatea—the house of the Whatukuras and Marei-kuras [who guarded them].|
|11.||The overturning of their Mother-Earth so that she faced Raro-henga (Hades), together with their youngest brother, Whakaru-au-moko (70); he was the one at that time feeding at the breast of their mother.|
These were the causes that induced Whiro-te-tipua (6) to fight against Tāne (68) and his friends; and Te Pae-rangi was the general name of that series of battles. In these battles, there were two—Whiro (6) and Tu-mata-uenga (11)—who were eminently brave, and showed great ability in generalship. But Tu-mata-uenga was the superior of the two; and hence is the proverb, "A warrior, descendant of Tu-mata-uenga." Another proverb is, "Thy weapons are those of Tu-mata-uenga." [Applied to anyone who distinguishes himself in war.] Tu-mata-kaka was also a great warrior, and it was he who assisted Tu-mata-uenga in directing the fighting. Tupai (69) Tu-mata-huki (67), and Tu-kapua (40), were the principal tohungas, or priests on the side of Tāne-nui-a-rangi (68) [during the war], and they had charge of the sacred fire, and recited the karakias [or spells], which caused the fall of Whiro and his faction.
When Whiro reached Hades he there continued his war against his brethren [and mankind] by afflicting them with diseases, such as fevers by which man is destroyed; whilst Whakaru-au-moko continued his work by causing earthquakes and volcanic eruptions by aid of the ahi-komau [volcanic fires].
At the time of the fall of Whiro at Te Paerangi [see p. 134], when he descended to Hades, he left his house named Tu-te-aniwaniwa [where-stands-the-rainbow]; and from it Tupai (69), Tangaroa (8), and Tu-mata-uenga (11) carried off the two axes named 'Te Awhio-rangi' and' Te Whiro-nui' and the two whatu-kuras [sacred stones brought down from Heaven by Tāne] which had there been deposited [see ante p. 130], and suspended them in Whare-kura [the first earthly temple]. Whiro returned from Hades to fetch these things, but found them gone.
Ro-iho (2), Ro-ake (3) and Hae-puru (4), are the gods who made peace with Tāne-nui-a-rangi (68) and his faction; and hence were they appointed [as god-guardians] to the plane most suited to them, at Tara-puhi of Matangi-nui, of Matangi-naonao, of Matangi-puhi—hence are they to be found at Tiritiri-o-Mahurangi.25
Tawhiri-matea (7), Tu-kapua (40), Te Iho-rangi (10), and Tawhiri-rangi (15); to them was given the plane of Tauru-rangi [seventh Heaven from the summit], where they are to be seen arched over, heaped up, as cumulus clouds, in their own marae [court] at Tarapuhi of Pakau-rangi-roharoha [the-wing-spread-over-the-heavens], p. 153 hence are they tarahuru [equally spread all over—not in single clouds, i.e., overcast] on the bounds of the sky.
Te Mamaru (37) and Mawake-nui (28) were separated off to the extreme confines of the Heavens, with Iho-rangi (10) also who has been mentioned before. Their duties were to rule the clouds of the Heavens, and place them between Heaven and Earth to shield and shade their Mother-Earth. They call on Hine-moana [Lady-Ocean] Hine-wai [Lady of the Watersl to send Hine-makohu-rangi [Lady of the Mists of Heaven] to act as clothing for their father the Sky, and to shade Mother-Earth [from the rays of the Sun]. These are the clouds that stand above; they are due to the warmth of Hine-moana, Hine-wai, and Papa-tua-nuku [the Earth]; hence the fogs and mists, the clonds and the rain.26
Te Ku-watawata (23), Te Akaaka-matua (34) and others were appointed to the Taheke-roa [the descent to Hades] there to watch the family of Rangi and Papa [Sky-father and Earth-mother] and their grandchildren who descend to Rarohenga, and Te Muri-wai-hou [names for Hades]. They were stationed at Pou-tere-rangi [the site of the watch-house of Hades], the name of the house being Te Rake-pohutu-kawa—that is its minor name, but the principal name is Hawaiki-nui. There were four doors to this house, each directed to the cardinal points. It is so, it is said, because, if anyone dies in the south the spirit enters by the southern door, and so on for each direction. On entering, those spirits who have an affection for Rangi-nui [the Sky-father], or to the conjoint Heavens, go forth by the eastern door, and ascend by the Ara-tiatia [way of steps] to the conjoint Heavens. Those spirits that show love to their mother-earth proceed to the bounds of Hine-moana [Lady-ocean] and there remain. Those that go to the summits of the mountains remain there, whilst those who show love to Whiro (6) are separated off to Te Muri-wai-hou and Raro-henga [Hades] that is, to the Reinga, ['jumping off place,' of which there is one in each home of the Polynesians]. It is the bad and wicked spirits that are separated off to the Reinga;27 the good ones are those who go by the Ara-tiatia to the conjoint Heavens.
Now, before ailing mankind expires, as they lie on their death-beds the fat of the body, the brains of the head, the [marrow] of the bones, all gather at the heart, and there await dissolution; the water of the p. 154 body, of the kidneys, of the lungs dries up. At this point the spirit (wairua) goes away to visit its relatives; and after that proceeds to Hawaiki.28
Now, if Te Ku-watawata [guardian of the entrance to Hades] allows the spirit to proceed to the place assigned to it, the dying body will die right out. If he does not consent, the spirit is sent back to its body, and it will live again in this world until it has fulfilled the remainder of its time, and then it finally dies in reality. That is the meaning of Hawaiki when the name is mentioned; it is the place meant when it is said man goes to the Pō [everlasting night]—that is Hawaiki [i.e., when it is mentioned in connection with death; for there are plenty of other places in the Polynesian world bearing that name. See "Hawaiki," 3rd Edition, p. 53].
Now, Tama-te-uira (44), Tu-mata-kaka (63), and several other gods are the guardians of the following family:—
|3.||Te Hiko-tara-pae||8.||Te Hiko-puaho|
|4.||Te Hiko-puawhe||9.||Te Hiko-waineha|
|5.||Te Hiko-tara-wanawana||10.||Te Hiko-tarewa|
|[These are all the various kinds of lightning.]|
There are also others. [The duty of the gods above named] is to moderate the action [of the lightning] lest damage is done to the Earth; that is why they have to be guarded; for they are a dangerous, mischievous family, ever striving with their elder and younger brethren.
Puna-weko (19), Tāne-te-hokahoka (45), and Huru-manu (21) are the source of all birds, whether of the sky or the land—they are the guardians of the birds. But there is no reason why I should enumerate all the birds, suffice it to say, the birds of every species [come under their charge].
We will now return to Tawhiri-matea (7) and his family that all went to escort Tāne-nui-a-rangi [to the upper Heavens, see p. 128]. These are that family, i.e., their pedigree:—
|Huru-te-ārangi||married||Te Iho-rangi (10)|
These last two had the following offspring [see p. 49 of original. They are all names for various descriptions of snow, twelve in number]. These are all the children of Huru-te-ārangi and the god Te Iho-rangi (10); they are all various kinds of snow, and are the origin of the snow in this world. They dwell on the summits of Mahu-tonga,31 and frequently are driven up by the fierce south winds, but it is only their semblances that are sent here by the 'gale-family' of Tawhiri-matea (7), so that the hail-storms of winter may alight in the month of Marua-roa [July—the winter solstice], when Tai-ranga, Popo, Toro-huhu, Tara-pokaka, Pawhati, and Tuke-rangaranga32 work their evil on trees, etc., leaving the forest clear.
The following is the family of Tawhiri-matea (7) who dwelt with Para-wera-nui [the fierce-south-wind]:—
|Huru-te-ārangi||=||Tonga-nui-ka-ea (second husband)|
[Their offspring are the twenty-three individual names shown on page 49 of the original Maori, which are the different kinds of winds, whirlwinds, squalls, tempests, etc.] They are the family who conveyed Tāne-nui-a-rangi (68) by way of the Ara-tiatia, that is, the direct way, to Te Toi-o-nga-rangi [the highest heaven].
There are other grandchildren of Iho-rangi (10) [says Pohuhu] as follows:—
1. Pāra 2. Koiro (or Ngoiro) 3. Tuna
These descended down below from the Rangi-tuhaha [conjoint Heavens]; they are not descended from nor were created from Papa-tua-nuku [the Earth-mother]. The following are the hapus [sub-tribes] of Tuna [the eel-fawily, they are seven in number, and the names will be seen in the original at page 47.] Pohuhu continues:—
At the period that the Sun and its younger brethren [the Moon and Stars] were assigned to the sky above us, to there move [in their courses], the waters in Rangi-tamaku [the Heaven above the visible one] became heated by the Sun; they passed off in watery mists, and then became retoretotia [i.e., overgrown with the oval-leafed water-plant called retoreto]. It was then the following [heavenly] fish descended to Earth:—Tuna, the eel; Pāra, the barracuta; Ngoiro, the sea-eel; Tuere;33 Mangō, the shark; Piharau, the lamprey; and Inanga, the white-bait. Those are the names of the families that came down to Earth to search for cold water. After dwelling a long time here, Pāra, Mangō and Ngoiro turned upon the offspring of Tuna and the others, and began to eat them. And now arose great disturbances: Tuna went down into the swamp to hide himself; Piharau burrowed under the shingle banks; Inanga went to the shallows so that he might not be eaten by Pāra, Ngoiro and Mangō. These latter then were starving, and so went forth to the ocean to dwell, where they are now to be found. Pāra was the first to depart, followed by Ngoiro and Mangō, the latter on account of its quarrel with Tua-tara [spiny-back, the great lizard]. Mangō said unto Tua-tara, "Welcome! Let us both go to the ocean and dwell." Tua-tara replied, "Rather let us both dwell ashore." Mangō said, "No! Let us go to the ocean." And their argument continued until at last Mangō said, "Enough! Remain you ashore as an object for man to be disgusted at." Tua-tara replied, "That is alright. That is my măna [power, prestige, etc., here means power of preserving his own life]; that will be my salvation. As for thee, thou wilt be hauled up and thy mouth torn with a hook, be thrown into the bottom of a canoe, and thy head broken with a fern-root beater. After that thou wilt be hung up to dry in the sun, like a menstruous-cloth." After this the fellows separated. Both their words have come true as they predicted.
[No doubt the above will appear as a mere fable—as indeed it is. But there is something behind it which connects the fable with old-world stories. The rivers in the Heaven above that which we see, is no doubt the river in the constellation of Erydanus of the Greek and other mythologies—called by the Maoris Waihau. Tuna, the eel, is probably 'Indra, the eel-god parent of the sons of the river'—or it may be that Iho-rangi (10) represents Indra of Hindu mythology. But we shall learn more on this subject when we come to the story of Tawhaki.]
The Moko-kakariki, the green lizard; the Kumukumu [the fish p. 157 Trigla-kumu34]; the Tua-tara, great lizard [Sphenodon punctatus]; Tu-tangata-kino, a lizard [or lizard-god, invoked in witchcraft]; Moko-titi-a-toa, black and grey spider; Moko-papa, a lizard; and Moka-moka, an insect; the Whē, the catterpillar; the Pepe, the butterfly; Pu-rehurehu, a moth; and other insects of that sort, are all descendants of Peketua [see story of Māui ante p. 145]. This is the pedigree:—
Peketua = Mihamiha
and they had the family mentioned above.
Rangi-tamaku35 = Whanui (? the star Vega)
Their family were all [minor] gods; they are:—
|3.||Moko-tuarangi||8.||Tapuhi-kura the second|
I cannot gather all this family in my thoughts, for there are very many of them. They are distributed in the inter-celestial spaces of the conjoint Heavens, in free companionship. None of their descendants came down to Earth.
Rangi-parauri36 married Hine-kohurau [Lady of the many mists] and they had:—
|3.||Tapuhi-kura the 1st||4.||Te Aho-riki|
It is said there is a very numerous family of these gods; they are like the previous ones, are scattered throughout the inter-celestial spaces.
Whakarongo-i-ata [list-to-the-morn] married Haeata [the dawn], and had Marama-ki-te-rangi [clearness-in-the-sky], who married Tipu-tipu [growing], and they had Wahi-rangi. Their descendants came down to this earth as gods. [Wahi-rangi was the child of the last couple mentioned, and he was probably a human being. The descent from him is given as twenty-five generations to Ruarangi, who married Rongoue-roa, daughter of Toi-te-hua-tahi, who flourished thirty-one generations ago, and was an early migrant from Tahiti Island to New Zealand. Another line of descent from Wahi-rangi gives three generations to the Māui family of great fame, and then, six p. 158 more to the hero Tawhaki, nineteen more to Tamatea-ariki-nui, captain of the 'Takitimu' canoe that brought the ancestors of the two Sages to New Zealand twenty-two generations ago, or about the year 1350; or fifty-five generations by one line, fifty-one by the other. It may be noticed that the name Wahi-rangi (Wahi-lani) is known to the Hawaiian genealogies, but at not such an ancient date as the one known to the Maoris.]
[One of the high priests dwelling in the Uppermost Heavens was Oho-mai-rangi. He was a god also. His immediate ancestors are as shown below by Pohuhu:—]
|1. Manono||=||Warea||2. Awarua||3. Pua-uri|
These were the gods who purified Tāne-nui-a-rangi at Te Awa-o-Rongo [the River-of-Rongo] within Tikitiki-o-rangi [the Highest Heaven] when he went there to secure the wānanga [knowledge] from the house named Rangi-atea, within the pa of Io-matua [Io-the-all-father] at Rauroha. It was they and some of the Whatu-kuras and Marei-kuras who were there. Some of the descendants of Oho-mai rangi descended to this Earth, and were gods and arikis [high-chiefs] in this world.
[It is said Huiarei, the wife of the celebrated Toi-te-huatahi, who flourished thirty-one generations ago, and was the first migrant from eastern Polynesia to New Zealand, had a child by the god Oho-mai-rangi, and whose descendants now live in New Zealand.]
|1. Putoto||=||Taka-aho (24)38||2. Tua-matua39||3. Para-whenua-mea|
|1. Tua-rangaranga||=||Tu-te-hurutea-a-Kopuwai||2. Tu-te-ahuru||3. Takoto-wai|
Tua-rangaranga was the ancestor of the taniwhas [monsters] and things of that kind in the waters, or inland, or in the trees, or stones, or p. 159 within the earth, or in the space [above]. That is their origin, and hence it is that they rise up against man, because they dwell as gods on the Earth.
Tu-te-ahunga [? Tu-te-ahuru above] married Hine-peke and had the following offspring [see p. 42 of original Maori. There are twenty-two of them altogether]. This family are extremely numerous and cannot be gathered together here. They are the origin of all insects that can be seen.
Aho-rangi married Mata-kupenga and had ten children [see the names, p. 43 of original]. These are all kinds of spiders; there are many more than named here.
Takoto-wai40 married Tua-matua [? the god No. 59] and they had the following offspring, ten in number [see p. 43 of original], besides others; they are the origin of all the rocks and stones.
Raka-hore [one of the above family] married Hine-maukuuku, and they were the origin of the stony reefs and flat rocks [of the sea]; and by his second wife Hine-waipipi, he had all the flat rocks in the rivers, or in the earth.
Makatiti [another of the above family] married Hine-waipipi, and his offspring were the sands, gravel, and the Powhatu-one-kokopu, or gravel used in making the little heaps in which the kumara [Batatas] is grown, the fine gravel, white, black, red and all other colors that are pretty to look at.
Makatata [one of Takoto-wai's family] had other kind of stone offspring [as shown p. 43 of original], seven in number.
Rangahua [one of the same family] married Tu-maunga and they had the family of stones for grinding axes, etc., seven in number.
Para-whenua-mea41 married Kiwa (52), the ruler of the water. This was the first wife of Kiwa, and they made the waters which flow forth and make the ocean. His friend was Huru-te-arangi, who married Iho-rangi (10) [see p. 40], whose offspring were various sorts of snow. Those two were the friends of Kiwa (52), who aided in making the waters, and the ocean was named Hine-moana [Lady-ocean], who was a wife of Kiwa's—hence is the name Te Moana-nui-a Kiwa [the South Pacific Ocean].
Now, these works were undertaken before the time when their Sky-father and Earth-mother were separated; but some were finished afterwards, and others subsequent to the war at Te Pae-rangi—that of Whiro (6) and Tu-mata-uenga (11); and when each work had been completed, then the Pou-tiri-ao [guardian spirits] were appointed each to its own division [of nature], and to the Kauhangas [Planes] of both Rangi [Sky-father] and Papa-tu-a-nuku [Earth-mother].
Now, enough, O people! You know all that everything about the Whare-wānanga is extremely tapu—its teachings, its priests, everything about it. In these days of the white-man, everything has become void of tapu; and, hence it is that the learning of old is gradually becoming lost. We never wished that these [sacred] things should fall into the white-man's hands, lest our ancestors become a source of pecuniary benefit. All that the white-man thinks of is money; and for these reasons this ancient knowledge of ours was never communicated to the Mininsters and Bishops.
1. These expressions are frequently to be found in their karakias (prayer spells, etc.)
2. The sentence omitted is so obscure it cannot be translated.
3. The Scribe says, this means the 'form' of man; and embodies the idea of his descent partly from the gods, or Heaven, and partly from woman, or the Earth. Iho = umbilical cord, tangata = man.
4. It is said that this earth was red in colour. Adam was supposed to have been formed of red earth. Te Matorohanga says Kura-waka was in that part of the Earth between the legs—for, as already pointed out, the Earth was supposed to be shaped like a woman.
5. This is said to a child when it sneezes—we do somewhat the same on like occasions. The words are usually abreviated into Tihe mauri ora, Sneeze-living-heart.
6. This statement is one of the few from which we may gather that the Maori idea of their gods, took the exact human form.
7. These sacred waters, in this case, were, according to tradition specially prayed for, when they descended from Heaven, and were thus quite pure—earthly water was not considered pure enough for the purpose of the purification of Hine-ahu-one.
8. Hine-hau-one (or Hine-ahu-one) means, 'woman-created-from-earth.'
9. Tangaroa-a-mua (number eight in list of gods, Chapter III.) was his original name as a god dwelling with his brethren after the separation of Heaven and Earth. But when he was appointed guardian of the ocean, with Kiwa, his name was changed to Tangaro-a-tai, or Tangaroa-whakamau-tai. Te Matorohanga taught that he was one of the greatest of the gods, only exceeded in power and position by Tāne. After these two came Tu, and after him Tama-kaka—all offspring of the Sky-father and Earth-mother. In Samoa, Tahiti, Rarotonga and some other islands Tangaroa was the principal god of all.
10. Hine-titama, the daughter of the god Tāne and the Earth-formed woman, Hine-ahu-one, was looked upon as the first human being, born of woman. Her mother was completed as a woman through the work of the gods—all but the spirit and life, which was given her by the Supreme God Io, acting through Tāne. The Ti-Tama seems to express to the old Maori the idea that she was the first of mankind (though her father was a god). We shall see later on in this chapter the end of Hine-titama.
11. A name which is emblematical for wandering aimlessly about in a confused state of mind. It was in after generations applied to an island which is probably one of the Fiji group, and is well-known in Rarotongan and Maori traditions.
12. Including all her descendants down to this day—she refers to the spirits returned to earth, as in the case of trances or fainting.
13. See the explanation infra.
14. This Māui is the famous hero whose miraculous deeds have furnished after generations with abundant stories, a summary of which, or at least some of them, have been gathered into a volume—"Māui, the demi-god"—by W. D, Westervelt, of Honolulu. We have to be careful to distinguish between this Māui—the Sun hero, the hero who attempted to secure everlasting life to mankind, from the historical family of that name who flourished about fifty generations ago, when the Polynesians were dwelling in Indonesia. Māui is not a god.
15. This is not at all clear, but no doubt means that it was impossible for Māui to alter the decrees of the gods; for he was not a god, but a hero, a semi-divine hero gifted with miraculous powers. One proof of this is—as the Scribe tells p. 146 me—that the genealogies of beings prior to Māui, were never recited to the common people—they were too sacred, for they dwell with the gods and their more immediate descendants, the first of mankind.
16. This incident of Māui's attempt to end death, and thereby allow mankind to live for ever does not properly belong to this part, but is introduced merely to illustrate Hine-nui-te-po's character—we shall come across Māui later on.
17. This description is of the modern permanent fire (which is the meaning of the word), and used in ante-European days. But the original Ahi-komau is supposed to be the source of the volcanic fires. I am assured that such a fire will smoulder for at least three months.
18. These names beginning with Rua seem to mean the progressive stages of knowledge, thought, etc.
19. The 'long descent' leading to Hades.
20. The great temple with four doors at the meeting of spirits. See note 18, p. 89.
21. Only used in a facetious vain, referring to those on the many lines he had repeated.
22. Pare-a-rau is said to be Saturn, but it is most unlikely that such astute observers as were the Maoris, and with the knowledge they had of the stars and their motions, should confound a planet with a fixed star—probably, Pare-a-rau was in reality one of the fixed stars.
23. This requires explanation, for Whiro's powers of evil and dragging men down to death existed until Christianity was believed in.
24. Marae, the open place in a pa, where all matters of importance were discussed, many ceremonies held, speeches made, etc., etc.
25. These are names of places in the second Heaven from the summit, the home of the Heavenly winds.
26. Thie statement illustrates the knowledge, due to a close study of nature, of the old time Maori.
27. It is the treacherous people and murderers that go to Whiro, says the Scribe.
28. Physiologists may object to this theory; but it is that of the old-time Maori, who, in his experience of death seems to have been acquainted with the premonition conveyed to distant relatives, of which we have heard of so many instances.
29. The first Heaven above the visible Heavens.
30. Means great space, a name for the star Vega.
31. Mahu-tonga, emblematical for the south, wherein the cold winds eminate.
32. All these names are emblematical for rot, worm-eating and other affections of the forest trees.
33. Tuere is a mythical fish, of the eel species.
34. See the argument between him and Tua-tara. Journal Polynesian Society, Vol. XX., p. 40.
35. First heaven above the lowest.
36. Tenth heaven from the summit.
37. Eleventh heaven from the summit.
38. Brother of Tāne, see offspring of Rangi and Papa, Chapter III.
39. There is a god of that name, see above list, No. 59, but he was a brother not a son of Tāne.
40. Grandchild of Tāne, see above.
41. Para-whenua-mea, is emblematical for the traditional Deluge, and for the destruction of the face of nature caused thereby. She is also identical with the Hawaiian goddess Pele (which, through known letter changes, is the same as Para), goddess of volcanic fires. Kiwa is one of the gods of the ocean, after him the Pacific Ocean is named—Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa—(the-great-ocean-of-Kiwa).