Sacred Texts  Pacific  Index  Chant Index  Previous  Next 


Textual Notes

Since Hawaiians were not precise in the use of such technical elements as punctuation and capitalization, I have referred their use to each particular case without strictly following the printed text. The small initial k in the manuscript, moreover, is often indistinguishable from the capital. Lists of names, even those of plants and animals, I have regularly capitalized for emphasis. The difficult question of the compounds with po I have met by referring each to its probable meaning as a personified generative agent or as a time element and have capitalized or not accordingly. Punctuation within the line, occasionally noted in the text, has depended upon the meaning of the passage. Since in Hawaiian chants each line is, in general, complete in itself, I follow the usage of the text in omitting altogether end stops.

The insertion of the apostrophe or hamsa to indicate the catch in the voice, by no means lost in Hawaiian speech, where an original voiced glottal or nasal has become soundless, remained unmarked by the missionaries who reduced the language to written form and was indicated, and that unevenly and only when occurring within the word, by Parker's 1922 revision of Andrew's dictionary of 1865 Yet it is of first importance in distinguishing two unrelated words otherwise spelled alike but derived from different roots and carrying different meanings. No Hawaiian today can be an infallible guide for the exact voicing of a chant no longer to be heard in oral recitation. I have, however, depended upon native authority, especially upon Mrs. Mary Pukui, for correction of this omission, with occasional help from Dr. Buck and Dr. Emory, and with generous assistance in verification by Dr. Elbert, philologist in charge, with Mrs. Pukui and Dr. Emory, of a new revision of the Hawaiian dictionary.

Corrections from the Kalakaua text have, on the whole, been inconsiderable, and variations in this text from the manuscript seldom occur. Certain passages, such as the star names and the Maui

{p. 242}

name song, are, however, exceptions. They seem to have come from a different source and to have been set down by an illiterate. Changes from the text have been made only after careful comparison with variant texts or on the advice or with the approval of native interpreters. Important variations in meaning have been based upon the interpretation of the whole passage. All changes from the Kalakaua text are here noted. Reference is made to Kukahi's printed version, cited as "Ku"; to the manuscript source, cited as "MS"; and, for the genealogies, to the Kamokuiki book, cited as "Kms." In a few cases comparisons are quoted from the reprint of Kukahi in Aloha, from Bastian, and from Poepoe's rough manuscript, all cited by name. Star names are checked from Mrs. Makemson's list.


Text writes -amamao, prose note has -i-mamao.


3. Ku writes kukai-aka.

6. Capitalization of the Prologue follows manuscript. Text capitalizes walewale, the first lipolipo in line 9, la and po in line 10.

7, 8. Text is without commas; Ku is here followed.

8. Aloha writes welawela.

12. The line is connected with 11 in text; I follow Aloha in text and translation.

15. Ku omits the final puka throughout.

15-17. Ku writes Hanau ka Ukukoakoa, he Akoakoa kana Hanau ke koe enuhe eli hoopuu honua, he koe kana. Aloha translates:

"The Ukukoakoa [coral insect] gave birth to the Akoakoa [coral]
The earth-raising insect gave birth to the angle worm."

24. Misprinted Pioo in text.

27. Written Makaiaulu in MS and text.

30. Omitted in Ku.

32. Poepoe writes Pipi.

33, 34. Lines inverted in text; text capitalizes kane.

35. Akaha in text and MS.

37. MS reads He pou hee i ka wawa.

38. Comma after nuku irregularly in both text and MS.

{p. 243}

39. Text writes a oe as two words.

42, 48. No hyphen in text.

60. Text writes ko Punapuna koeleele.

65, 66. Text reads Puaiki and Lau aki.

71. Text has Kikalamoa.

72. Ku writes momoa.

83. Text reads Limukala.

107, 108. Text reads Hulu-waena and Huluhulu Ieie.

112. Kukahi prefers hue-wai.

114. Text has kahuli, capitalizes Honua.

115. All texts read O paia.

116. Text capitalizes Hee, writes ka po.

118, 119. Ku follows English alphabetical order, a, e, o, u.

120. Text has koohonua.


Ku omits lines 141-43, 145-47, 153-55, 157, 158, 161, 164, 166, 173, 174, 191, 192, 197, 198, 209, 210, 215, 216, 221, 222, 251, 252, 262-67, and all refrains after the first.

124. Poleliuli in MS; text writes kalana.

127. Text and MS write haipu aalamea.

129, 130. All four words capitalized in MS.

131. Ku capitalizes Ehiku.

132. Text and MS write without, Ku with, commas. Ku proposes a hilo, a holo.

134, 135. Text and MS write kau ana (see 1. 174); Ku writes kaulana and Kuemiemi.

138. Ku precedes holo with a comma throughout: "it swims."

139. Text has moana.

146. Text omits the first ke.

149. Ku writes Ka ao.

159. Text omits the first ke.

162. Text misprints Nuku Moni.

164. Text has Pakukui.

173. Text writes Haha.

179. Text has ke Pahau.

197. Written Puhi kauwila in text.

209. Text writes Pakukui.

210. Written Laukukui as one word.

221. Written Kapoou in text.

{p. 244}

265. Text writes Pulehulehu.

166. Text and MS write a ahu.

168. Ku has comma after moana.


Ku omits lines 280, 299, 300, 311-14, 330, 331, 342, 343, 360, 361, and all refrains but the first.

278. Text writes a poniu au aeaea; Ku as here.

279. Text writes haha; Ku capitalizes,

280. Omitted in text; MS as here.

284. Text has Hanuu kupua; Ku as here. No capital for haha.

285, 286. Text writes haha and hahalele.

303. Text has alai.

304. Text has apapani.

311. Text has moha.

317. Text reads ke kaiwa.

371. Text has unauna.

323. Text reads a nei.

324. Text has kakakai.

331. Text writes lupe aloke; MS has lupe alake.

336. Text has naio.

340. Text has ao.

347. Text and MS write amoku.

360. Text has noeo.

368. Text has pokaha; Ku capitalizes.

370. Ku writes hehu.


Kukahi omits lines 403-12, 426, 427, 438, 439, 462, 463, 469-77, 476, and repeats the refrain but once.

378. Text reads ke ahia a laa la; Ku has ke ahi a Laa la, and the queen so translates: "the fire of Laa there."

379. Text reads kahiwauli; Ku has hiwauli and apeaumoa.

381. Text has a kolo mai; Ku capitalizes Kolo.

383. Ku writes kolokua and koloale, hyphenated in Aloha.

384. Text reads O pane ke alo.

387. Text and MS have Kaneaka Papanopano; Ku writes kane a ka po panopano.

388. MS has po panopano.

390. Text reads hooluahua; Ku has hoolua.

391. Text and MS have aa nei; Ku has po laa nei.

{p. 245}

392, 393. Ku writes in one line.

394. Text has pue one.

395. Text reads po panopano; Ku has Popanopano.

397, 398. Ku has Milinanea and Kiinaanaa.

399, 400. Text reads puananaka; Ku writes in one line.

401,402. Text reads kaula makue and kaulalii.

409. Text has kaihukunini.

412. Text has mehemehe.

414. Text has honua for honu.

436. Text and MS read Wawa.

456. Okeope in text; O keope in MS.

467. The termination na is a contraction for the progressive form of the verb, as also in ki'ona (l. 470); 'aina (ll. 473, 474). Kukahi writes nee ana, but aina.

468. Ku has lo-loloa.

473, 474. Text has kauwa-hewahewa; MS capitalizes; Ku writes ka ua hewahewa.

475, 476. Ku renders this: O kele a hano, hano mai ulu kunewanewa.


Ku omits lines 490-94, 497, 498, 505, 510-15, 516-27, 531-33, 535.

486. Ku writes kano.

487. Ku writes a kupu.

490. Text capitalizes Kama.

491. Text has uku.

492. Text reads Loi loa.

493, 494. Text capitalizes Umi.

496. Text writes O Liuliu.

515. Text has Meleuli ... melemele, perhaps referring to the brown-haired 'ehu people.

516. Text has haupo ... haupo; Bastian writes haupe.

520. Text has pii Awaawa.

521. Text has Aliilii.

525. Text has Huelo Maewa.

57.6. Text has Hulu Liba.

535. Text has Mele.


539. Text writes Kupukapu and Kuakamano.

541. Text has holonaa and linolino; Ku has holo ana.

{p. 246}

542. Text has Hoolino; Ku has Holino.

543,544. Ku writes in one line.

545. Ku writes a-lualua.

546. Text has popoo; Ku has poopoo.

548. Text has huluai; Ku has hulu ai.

549,550. Ku writes in one line.

551. Text capitalizes Mehe and writes a nei haula; Ku. has kaula.

552, 553. Text capitalizes Lihilihi and Peepee; Ku writes in one line.

556, 557. Text without, Ku with, capitals.

558, 559. Ku writes iole uka, iole kai.

562, 563. Text writes pohiolo, but po nee aku; Ku with capitals.

564. Text writes auli; Ku. has a Uli.


567-69. Ku runs together and capitalizes Kapohaneeaku and Kapohaneemai.

572. Ku writes ka ai aole koe koena.

574. Ku writes ilihia.

575,576. Ku omits; text writes iliililio, po nee aku.

577. Text without comma; Ku writes loa for aa.

579. Ku writes no ka kalua.

580. Text has kehai; Ku writes He manu ke kai opulepule.

581. Text without comma.

582. Text reads i kea ahu ole; Ku has i ke aahu ole.

586. Text writes nahuno; Ku has nahu'na.

587. Text writes hula ka makani; Ku capitalizes Hula.

588. Text writes lohelohe.

590. Omitted in Ku.

593. Text misprints hohee.


595. Text reads auli, auli a Ke; MS has a-uli, auli a Ne; Ku has a Uli a Ne.

596. Text and MS read ka Pokini; Ku has Pokinikini.

597. Text writes hee nalu. In Kms, page I, Kapohaneeaku is the child (keiki) of Kapohiolo and Kapohanee, and parent by the woman Kapohanee mai of Lailai, the twins Kane and Kii, Kaheehaunawele, he ia (a fish), he mau Pahu, and the long-lived man named at lines 617-19.

{p. 247}

598. Bastian writes e mehe lau; Ku has Mehelau.

602,603. Ku writes in one line.

610. Text writes me he Kapoheenalu mamao.

614. Text writes Akua.

615. Written Kaheehaunawela in text and MS; Kaheehaunawele in Ku and Kms; Malo, page 333, has Haunawelu. Kms calls him "a fish" (he ia).

619. No hyphens in text.

622. Text capitalizes Kupakupa.

624-26. Text capitalizes Kapoheemamao and Kapokinikini and sets off with commas in the first two lines.

627-30. These names are absent from the Kms genealogies.

635, 636. Text capitalizes Kane.

638. Text writes Poelei and Poelea.

641. Text capitalizes Kikiki.

The text here is obscure. Some would make Maila wife to Ki'i the man (kane) and mother to the children listed; others, La'ila'i under the name of La'i'olo, born after her return to the god Kane.


644. No hyphens in text.

645. Text reads O owela, o owe.

647. Text has Piiaoalani.

648. O Onehenehe in text and MS. Text has ku ka honua; MS reads ku lani ka honua; Bastian has ka lani.

649. Text writes kii.

650. MS reads Puka ku lele.

651. Text has haihai lona.

656. Text has kuku ahi; MS as here.

657. MS reads nuu mealani.

662. MS reads Kanaokapokinikini, text has Kane a Kapokinikini.

663. MS has oia kini.

664. Text reads he mamo ka pa ina ina-u.

666. Text has laalaau.

667. Text reads hoo-wa.

668. Text and MS have haha poele.

670. Text writes O Lohelobe.


673. Text reads O Maila; Bastian writes O maila.

675. Text writes the name without a capital.

{p. 248}

679,680. Kama capitalized in text; names written in one word, Poeleieholo, etc.

681. Text has Wehiwelawehi loa.

689. Text has kane.

693. Text writes i kama keiki.

697. Text has kane.

701. Text writes kaka muli; MS as here.

707. Text has kane. Some would write Maila.

703. Text reads o ka o kana muli.


708. Text writes Piolani.

712-16. Kms, page 2, gives to Kii and Lailai the children Kama haina, Kamamule ... Kamakalua; to Kane and Lailai those named above. Cf. lines 676-85 and Ku, page 59.

716. Text has Hali.

768. Text has Kuamuu.

992. Heleaua in text.

994. Text uses hyphens: Ahia-ka-po-kau.

1021. Text writes Ia-a.

1082-1101. Names of wives do nor follow MS.

1094-1102. Text writes as two words, capitalized: Akahi Keawe (Keawe the first), etc.

1144. Text write Kupa

1182. Text inserts an initial Ku.

1223. Text writes Kamehana.

1231. Text writes the name with the O emphatic.

1258. Text writes Helelinaa.

1272. Text writes Onanana.

1314. Text has Lupalama.

1348. Text uses the O emphatic.

1455, Text writes Pa-e.

1531-35. Text capitalizes mauna, ino, au, pahupahu, pohaha, haluku, naueue, and kuaahale.

1553. Text writes Kanakulu.

1534. Text writes Hoi loli.

1536, 1537. Text writes Piikonikonihia in one word, Kani ka wa in three words.

1540, 1541. Text writes po ino and pomaikai.

1542. Text capitalizes moa and kua.

1543. Text is without hyphens.

{p. 249}

1544. Text capitalizes Aukaha Opikokahonua, writes Oia pu kaua; Ms is without capitals but writes Oiapu.


Genealogies in this and the last section are substantially the same in Kms, with minor variations not here noted. From line 1624 the genealogy to Wakea differs in Kms, indicating that a different line of descent has been followed.

1554,1555. Text has Opuele and Opumakaua.

1587. Kms, page 23, carries a note on Halulu, reading thus in translation: "This Halulu was a woman and from her came the bird Halulu whose bones now rest in the government house [sic]. In the mele of Kahikinuiauaimoku she was said to be the first wife of Kahikiwaieke who sailed from Upolo of Kohala."

1656. Text has Kuku Moi.

1665. Text misprints Kellikapuli.

1713. Kamiele is wife in Ku.

1716-26. See Kms, Page 35; Ku, page 60; Fornander, Polynesian Race, I, 181.

1732. Text misprints -lauinui.

1734. Commonly written Ho'ohokukalani.


1735. This section is called in the text He lala no ka wa umikumamalua (a branch of the twelfth section). From this point the emphatic O precedes the male names on genealogies listed in the next four sections, indicating a different source from that of earlier branches (see Kms, p. 33; Ku, pp. 59-60, for the Paliku genealogy).

1749. Text has mai kona hope noho.

1753. Text misprints Hanauua.

1754, 1755. Ohomaila and Ohomaili follow text.

1765. Kuaimehana in text, but see line 1948.

1760-66. Kms, page 33, names the same four women as daughters of Maulinaha and Hipoi, with Kukauakahi and Kahuhu as sons of Haumea by Kanaloa and Kauaimehani wife of the first, Kauahulihonua of the second. Ku, page 60, agrees with the Kalakaua text.

1779. Text writes kio.

{p. 250}

1783. Kms writes Maulinaha.

1784. Text misprints Launihau.

1792-94. Text is without hyphens.

1799, 1800. Text capitalizes Malama and Muli.


1815. Genealogy from Laka in Kms, page 34; Fornander, Kumuuli genealogy, Polynesian Race, I, 184-85.

1844. Text misprints Kupulaua. ...

1847. Kms writes Wakea he alii, Makulu he kauwa, Lihauula he kahuna ("... a chief ... a servant ... a priest").

1850-1900. Text is exceedingly corrupt. Star names are not consistently capitalized, commas are omitted between pairs, parts of a compound name often separated with out hyphens. Corrections are from Makemson's alphabetical star list.

1858. Text writes i ka paa.

1861. Text writes Kapakapa, ka lewa. ...

1862. Written Waileia in text.

1866. Text misprints Lawa.

1869. Written Huo in text.

1870. Text writes Lewalewa lewa. ...

1874. Written Kaululena in text.

1875. Perhaps Ihu-moe.

1881. Text writes Hinaieeleele.

1892-93. Perhaps Makemson's Maile-mua and Maile hope.

1894. Text has Hinaona lailena.

1897. Text has Hikuhana.

1898. Text has Hiku-oni.

1901. Text reads Lu ka anoano makaliianoano ka lani.

1906. Text has ahuahu.

1907. Text reads Hinaiaakamalama.

1908. Text reads Kauliaae ina Waa kapa ai hina-ke-ka ilaila.

1909. Text writes uku and puhaluholu.

1910. Text capitalizes the second hanau.

1913. Text has Kapa ai and hinahalakoa.

1914. Text writes hina.

1920. Text writes Kahilihili.

1929. Hyphenated throughout in text.

{p. 251}


1930. Text reads ku kuihaa.

1931. Text capitalizes Nuu.

1932. No commas in text.

1941. Text has uluhe.

1951, 1952. Text writes Ae ka wahine on the second line; hence the queen translates, "Yes, the wife."

1955. Text misprints Nauakahili.

1960. Text has awaawaina.

1962. Text writes e Uaia and pii-keakeae; no commas.

1966-69. Names are without capitals from kio to pupue.

1968. Text has ka kane.

1973, 1974. Text writes luanuu and kii.

1976. Text has ka Punuu.

1984. Text is without hyphens.

1985, 1986. Text has Maui a kamalo.

1987. Text capitalizes Malo.

1988. Text writes Hina a keahi.

1989. Text misprints hookahua, puts a comma after keiki.

1995. Text reads kialoa and kia akapoko.

1997. Text has kane and misprints Kaualoa.

2001. Text has na kia.

2004. Text writes kane.

2005. Text reads pae he uma.

2007. Text has Nuu

2009. Text has kalana.

2010, 2011. No hyphens for names.

2014. No hyphens, perhaps Mana-ia-ka-lani.

2016. Text has Kii and ahina.

2018. Text corrupted to ahi kuna ia a Mui.

2020. Text reads Kaopina, without commas.

2022. Text reads i ka ina a Maui.

2023. In the Kms genealogy, Mahanauluehu is wife of Maui a-Kalana and mother of Nanamaoa. In Fornander and in the genealogy of the sixteenth section, line 2049, she is called Hina-kealohaila.

2025. Text reads ina ia Koekapewa.

2026. Text separates a e.

2029. Text has makahiu.

{p. 252}

2030, 2033. Names are not hyphenated.

2034. Text reads Kike ke kaua.

2044. Text has kewe.

2046, 2047. Text capitalizes Malo and Hookala.


2049. For the Kumulipo genealogy begun at lines 1951-84 and continued in this section, see Kms, pages 36-37, 39-40, called Ke Kuamoo o Haloa ("The Lineage of Haloa"); Malo, page 312, as far as Palena; Ku, page 61; Fornander, Polynesian Race, I, 190-91, 193. Fornander omits Kapawa.

2059. Text has Kahainuia Hema.

2075. Text writes Kei Kauhale for the wife and omits ka wahine.

2090, 2091. He wahine, omitted in the first line, opens the second.

2098, 2099. Text capitalizes Ia and Kaulana.

2102. Text is without hyphens.

{p. 253}

Next: References