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FRONTISPIECE. Top. Castle Tomen, Radnor Forest, 1,250 feet above the sea, and is supposed to be the Cruger Castle of the Itinerary of Giraldus. Background. A glade on a ley. Bottom. The Four Stones, New Radnor, the easterly pair lined up for sighting over.

PLATE I. PRIMARY PEAK. Titterstone Clee Hill, and Park Hall, Bitterley.

PLATE II. MOUNDS. 1, Tre-fedw, Pandy. The Skirrid, a primary peak, in distance. 2, Didley. With homestead alongside.

PLATE III. MOUND AND MOAT. 1, Houghton Mound. 2, Lemore Moat. Note how slight is the dividing line between this type of mound and a moat.

PLATE IV. THREE-POINT PROOFS. 1 (a telephotograph), Hereford Cathedral and Pen-y-Beacon. Here the camera stood on a known ley in gateway near top of Hafod Hill, and the line runs through pond at foot (marked by sheet of paper), tower of Cathedral, and the 20 mile distant mountain point or bluff. Another ley is seen crossing the meadow in a straight line just where "the lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea." 2, Tre-fedw Mound (see Plate II.), shown at top of sighting line down present road to ancient Monnow ford (alongside present bridge) at Llanvihangel Mill.

PLATE V. SIGHTING CUTTINGS (all telephotographs). 1, Notch with earthwork at Trewyn Camp above Pandy (Black Mountains). 2, Cutting through top of ridge at Marstow, a bridge now spans it, and the sighting line down to a ford on the Garron is indicated. The road beyond the cutting is on the ley. 3, Black Darren, Longtown (Black Mountains). This is taken from the Tan House, Longtown, and only 100 yards to right or left the notch begins to lessen and then disappear.

PLATE VI. CAUSEWAYS. 1, Through pond near Ten Houses (now Priory Terrace), Holmer. Note the unmistakable direction, confirmed on map. 2, Through the River Monnow, behind Tan House, Longtown. A piece of fine engineering, the below-stream edge of large stones embedded in grouting or concrete. This ley is over the notch in Plate V.

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PLATE VII. CAUSEWAYS. 1, Over a ford of Olchon Brook, Longtown. 2, Ingestone, Ross. Through the "fold" and straight to the centre of the pond against the house. I cannot assign a period to any of these.

PLATE VIII. LEYS DISPLAYED. 1, Rhiw (mountain track) south of Llanthony Abbey, Mon. This is sighted for Balmawr on the ridge, and shows that where possible even mountain side tracks were kept straight. Taken in evening light and shows (on left) the triple tracks down which it is surmised the tile stones for roofing the Abbey to have been slid from the quarry on the top. 2, Stones at base of ancient Wye-side causeway at Bartonsham (formerly Bassam) Farm, Hereford City. The stones continue in a "wash-out" in bed of river to right, and the ley is sighted over tumps at Hoggs Mount and Holmer Lane. Note on bank to right the mark-stone for the ford (see Plate IX.).

PLATE IX. MARK-STONES. 1, Red Lion, Madley. On a "red line" ley from the Whitney pottery. Note subsequent boundary stone alongside. 2, Credenhill. 3, Wye Street, Hereford, marking the Palace Ford; there are a pair of these stones. Bartonsham Farm, Hereford (see Plate VIII.).


1, Wergin's Stone, Sutton. With flat face suited for sighting. A cavity for payments (or offerings) on the flat base. Early example of "shaft and base." 2, Pedlars Cross above Llanigon. A menhir chipped into rude semblance of a cross. 3, In churchyard, Vowchurch, unworked base. A ley runs through it. Inset, Sighting hole in shaft of Bitterley Cross. 4, In Capel-y-fin churchyard (Black Mountains).

PLATE XI. CHURCHYARD CROSS. Bitterley (see Inset Plate X.).

PLATE XII. TREE. Eastwood Oak, Tarrington, on a ley.

PLATE XIII. TREES. 1, A "One Tree Hill" near Llanvihangel-nant-Melan. 2, Monnington Walks, an avenue of Scotch Firs (Scots Pines) on a ley sighted on Scar Rock, Brobury, seen in distance. See Map, Plate XIX.

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PLATE XIV. CAMPS. 1, Sutton Walls. One of the sighting mounds, there being four, a pair at eastern end, a pair at this the western end. 2, Herefordshire Beacon. Winds Point to the left.

PLATE XV. CHURCH. Church Lane, Ledbury. The detached tower of Ledbury Church is shown on the ley.

PLATE XVI. CASTLE. Wigmore Castle. The keep is on a sighting mound, the ley passing also through the church, as is almost invariable where castle and church are near together.

PLATE XVII. CASTLE. Brampton Bryan Castle (on a sighting mound) with Coxall Knoll, another mound, in the distance on the right.


PLATE XIX. MAP. TWO LEYS. A, Consecutive strips containing the straight ley from Glascwm Hill to Birley Hill via four mounds; Turret Tump, The Camp, Batch Twt, Almeley, Moat, Sarnesfield Coppice; and Weobley Church. B, Little Mountain to Holy Well Malvern, through Moccas "Castle" Tump, Preston-on-Wye Church, Byford Ford, Holmer Church, Palmer's Court, Moat, Shucknell, Walsopthorne. Portions of two interesting leys are also shown. c, Scar Rock, Brobury, through Monnington Walks to Monnington Church (see Plate XIII); and D, Little Mountain (Westbrook), through Arthur's Stone (dolmen), Cross End, Moccas Church, Monnington Church, St. Ann's Well, and Priory Church, Malvern.

PLATE XX. MAP. Portions of eight leys passing through Capel-y-tair-ywen (Chapel of the three yew trees), a chapel site, originally a mound, described in Woolhope Transactions, 1898, p. 38, on the high plateau below the great northern escarpment of the Black Mountains. A, Hay Tump (near church ford) to Pen-y-Beacon, on to Castle Tump, Rhos-goch. B, Mouse Castle to Tumpa, passes through Maes-coch (red field), Priory Wood, and the ancient "red" pottery, Whitney. C, Merbach to Llanelieu Church. D, Mynydd-brith Tump to Talgarth Church. E, Castle Tump, Dorstone, to Moat at Felin-fach. F, Snodhill Castle to Aberllynfi Gaer; beyond Snodhill it passes to or through Holy Well, near Blakemere. G, Michaelchurch Escley to Llanigon Mound. H, Black Hill (Olchon) to Painscastle Mound.

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