Tractate Berakoth, by , by A. Lukyn Williams, , at sacred-texts.com
4. (3). He who recites the Shma‘ not loud enough for himself to hear has fulfilled his obligation. R. Jose 4 says he has not. If he has recited without expressing the letters exactly, R. Jose says he has fulfilled his obligation. R. Judah says he has not. He who recites in an irregular order 5 has not fulfilled his obligation. If he has recited and made a mistake he must return to the place where he made the mistake.
4. He who recites the Shma‘ and makes a mistake, and leaves out one verse in it, must not begin and recite that verse by itself, 4 but he begins with that verse and finishes until the end, and so in the Hallel, and so in the Prayer, and so in the Roll. He who enters into the synagogue and finds that the congregation have said half the Shma‘, and finishes with them, should not begin and recite from the beginning of it as far as that place, but begins from the beginning and finishes to the end. And so in the Hallel, and so in the Prayer, and so in the Roll.
5. He who is reciting the Shma‘ and makes a mistake and does not know where he made it, returns to the beginning of it. If he has made the mistake in the middle of the section 5 he returns to the beginning of the section; if he has made the mistake between the first [verse] [where] "write" [is said] and the second, 6 he returns to the first.
6. They who are engaged in writing books of Scripture, Tephillin, 7 and Mezuzoth, 8 break off
7. A porter—although the burden is on his shoulders—behold such a man recites [the Shma‘]. But at the time that he is unloading and loading he does not recite (it), for his mind is not settled between one and the other. He should not pray (the Prayer) until the time that he unloads. 3
16:1 R. Joshua ben Qorcha. A mishna teacher of the third generation, C. 130-160 A.D.
16:2 the kingdom of heaven. The Sovereignty of God as made known to His people. This is also the primary meaning of "the kingdom of Heaven" in the Gospel according to St. Matthew.
16:3 The reference is to the "fringes" (tsitsith), which are not worn at night. Num. 1539 says "that ye may look upon it." See Abrahams on SA, p. 97. Vide infra, p. 80.
16:4 R. Jose. This name without any addition refers to R. Jose ben Chalaphta, a leather-worker in Sepphoris, and a mishna teacher of the third generation, c. 130-260 A.D.
16:5 in an irregular order. See p. 56.
17:1 the Hallel. Pss. 113-118. SA, p. 219.
17:2 the Prayer. The Eighteen Benedictions (vide supra, p. 5).
17:3 the Roll. The Book of Esther. Each of these three is composed of more than one section.
17:4 by itself. For it would then have been said out of order.
17:5 in the middle of the section. i.e. of the section he happens to be reciting.
17:6 the first [verse] . . . . the second. i.e. ver. 9 in Deut. 64-9, and ver. 20 in Deut 1113-21.
17:7 Tephillin. The phylacteries. Small square leather boxes bound by thongs on the left arm and the head during prayers. They have been in use at least since the third century B.C. Each box contains Exod. 131-10, 11-16. Deut. 64-9, 1113-21, written on parchment in Hebrew. The Greek name φυλακτήριον (Matt. 235) suggests that they were regarded as amulets having a prophylactic value against demons (see Oesterley and Box, pp. 447-450).
17:8 the Mezuzoth. The name Mezuzah (lit.: "doorpost") is given to the small case hung on the upper part of the right-hand doorpost p. 18 (cf. Deut. 69) containing a parchment on which is written Deut. 64-9 and 1113-21 in twenty-two lines.
18:1 R. Chananiah ben Aqabia. In the third generation of mishna teachers, c. 130-560 A.D. According to another reading the name of Chananiah's father was Aqiba.
18:2 Rabban Gamaliel and his court of justice. At Jabne, c. 90-130 A.D.
18:3 For the Eighteen, as has been already said, require strict attention.