Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna, by D. A. Sola and M. J. Raphall, , at sacred-texts.com
§ 1. In a garden bed that is six hands square, five different kinds of seed may be sown, namely, four kinds in the four corners of the bed, and the fifth in the centre. If the bed has a ridge [border], thirteen different kinds may be sown; three in each corner, and one in the middle of the bed; 1 but turnip-tops must be sown on the
ridge [border] as they fill it. R. Jehudah saith, "six different kinds [may be sown in the middle of the field]."
§ 2. All kinds of field seeds must not be sown in a garden bed; but all kind of herbs [garden seed] may be sown therein. Mustard and small peas are field seeds. Camel [large] peas are garden seed. A ridge [border] that had been one hand high, but is decreased in height, still remains [within the meaning and benefit of the law], because originally it had been of lawful height. In a trench or dry kennel, one hand deep, three different kinds of seed may be sown; namely, one [kind] on each side, and one [kind] in the middle.
§ 3. There is no legal objection, if the point of the angle of a field sown with herbs, enter into another herb field, because any one can see to which field the angle appertains. If, in a field sown with herbs of one kind, a man wishes to set one row of herbs of another species, R. Ishmael saith, "This can only be done if the open furrow [which separates the two kinds of herbs] traverse the whole length of the field [from top to bottom]. R. Akivah saith, "it [the furrow] needs but be six hands long, but must be as wide as it is deep." R. Jehudah saith, "it [the furrow] must be as wide as the sole of a man's foot."
§ 4. It is lawful for a man to set two rows of cucumbers, two rows of pumpkins, and two rows of Egyptian beans, [a furrow separating each kind from the other]; but a single row of cucumbers, one of pumpkins, and one of Egyptian beans, is prohibited. One row of cucumbers, one of pumpkins, one of Egyptian beans, and [then again] a row of cucumbers, are, according to R. Eleazar, permitted; but, according to the sages, prohibited.
§ 5. A man may plant cucumbers and pumpkins in the same cavity [hollow], provided that each kind incline towards its own side [of the cavity]. (Another reading has: "Care must, however, be taken, that the leaves of each kind incline toward its own side only; for all that the sages prohibited in this respect they did on the score of outward appearance only.")
§ 6. If a man's field have been set with onions, and he wish to plant rows of pumpkins in it, R. Ishmael saith, He must pull up [onions sufficient to make room for] two rows [of pumpkins], and [in the middle of that vacant space] he plants one row [of pumpkins]; he then leaves a plot of onions [equal to the] space [occupied by] two rows of pumpkins, and then [again pulls up onions sufficient to make room for] two rows [of pumpkins], in the middle of which space [he again] sows one row of pumpkins, [and so on
alternately. 2 But R. Akivah saith, "he pulls up [onions sufficient to make room for] two rows [of pumpkins] he then plants [these] two rows of pumpkins, leaves a plot of onions equal to the space occupied by two rows of pumpkins, and then again pulls up onions sufficient to make room for two rows of pumpkins, which [two rows] he sets in the vacant space, [and so on alternately]." But the sages say, "Unless there is a space of twelve cubits between each row of pumpkins, he is not permitted to let that which is between [the two rows] remain in the ground."
§ 7. Pumpkins [may be] planted next to garden seed, [as they] are likewise considered as a garden plant; but if [they are] planted next to corn, a space must be left fallow, of size sufficient to receive one quarter kab of seed corn. If, in a field sown with corn, it is wished to set one row of pumpkins, a clear space of six hands wide must be allowed for its cultivation: should it spread, the corn must be pulled up to make room for it. R. Jose saith: "a clear space, four amoth wide, must be left for its cultivation." They [the sages] objected, [saying], "Does this species [pumpkins] require greater rigour than the vine does?" but he, [R. José], replied, "We do find that this species [pumpkins] exacts a more- rigorous observance than the vine: for a single vine requires that a clear space, six hands wide, be allowed for its cultivation; whereas a single pumpkin must have a clear space, equal to a quarter kab, allowed for that purpose." R. Meir said, on the authority of R. Ishmael, "Whenever three [Greek] pumpkins are set in a field equal to a saah of seed corn, no other kind of seed must be sown [within that area]." R. Jose ben Hahoteph Ephrati said, on the authority of R. Ishmael, "If three [Greek] pumpkins are set in a field large enough to hold a kur [of seed corn], no other kind of seed may be sown within that area."
18:1 Namely, one kind on the even ground, one kind on the acclivity of the ridge, and one kind on the top.
20:2 The space required for each row of pumpkins is four cubits in width; thus there would he a distance of twelve cubits between each row of pumpkins.