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1. “The Sanhedrin and all Israel saw (the new moon); the witnesses were examined, but it became dark before they

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could say, “Sanctified”? "The month is intercalary." "The Sanhedrin alone saw it?" "Two members must stand up and testify before them, and they shall say, 'Sanctified, sanctified.'" "Three composing a Sanhedrin saw it?" "Two of them must stand up, and their assessors must be seated with the single member, and before them they shall testify, and say, 'Sanctified, sanctified,' because an individual cannot be trusted by himself alone."

2. All cornets are allowed, except (horns) of a heifer, 1 because it is (written) horn. 2 Said Rabbi José, "are not all cornets called horn? for it is said, 'When they shall make a long (blast) with the ram's horn.'" 3

3. The cornet of the New Year was a straight horn of a wild goat; and its mouthpiece was plated with gold. And the two trumpets 4 were stationed on each side. The cornet, prolonged its note when the trumpets ceased, because the obligation of the day was for the cornet.

4. On fast days (there were) crooked ram's horns; and their mouthpieces were plated with silver. And the two trumpets were stationed in the midst. The cornet ceased, and the trumpets prolonged their notes, because the obligation of the day was for the trumpets.

5. The jubilee is like the New Year for the sounding and the blessings. R. Judah says, "on the New Year they sounded rams’ horns; and on the jubilee wild goats’ horns."

6. A cornet, which was rent and cemented, is disallowed. One cemented from fragments of cornets is disallowed. "It had a hole, which was closed?" "If it hinder the sound, it is disallowed; but if not, it is allowed."

7. "If one sound the cornet within a pit, a cistern, or in an earthenware vessel, and one (outside) hears the sound of the cornet?" "He is free." 5 "But if he hear the echo of the sound?" "He is not free." And so, if one be passing behind a synagogue, or his house adjoin the synagogue, and he hear the sound of the cornet, or the reading of the roll of

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[paragraph continues] Esther, he is legally free, provided he heard it with due attention; but if not, he is not legally free. Although one hears as well as another; yet one hears with hearty intention, and another without hearty intention.

8. "And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand that Israel prevailed," 1 etc. And how could the hands of Moses make the battle, or crush the battle? But it is written to tell thee that whilst Israel looked to Heaven for aid, and subjected their hearts to their heavenly Father, they prevailed; and when they did not do so, they were defeated. Like as He says, "Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole, and it shall come to pass that every one that is bitten, when he looketh upon it, shall live." 2 And how could the serpent kill, or make alive? But when the Israelites looked to Heaven for aid, and subjected their hearts to their heavenly Father, they were healed; and when they did not do so, they perished. One deaf and dumb, or an idiot, or a child, cannot, as proxies, free others from their obligations. This is the rule—all who are not responsible for a thing, cannot free others from their obligations.


154:1 Not to remind God of the sin of the golden calf.

154:2 Deut. xxxiii. 17.

154:3 Josh. vi. 5.

154:4 Numb. x.

154:5 From the obligation of hearing or sounding.

155:1 Exod. xvii. 11.

155:2 Numb. xxi. 8.

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