Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE22), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, , at sacred-texts.com
In that period, in that age lived the Arhat Rishabha, the Kosalian 1, four important moments of whose life happened when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Uttarâshâdhâ; the fifth, when in conjunction with Abhigit: (204) in Uttarâshâdhâ he descended from heaven, &c. (all down to) in Abhigit he obtained final liberation. (205)
In that period, in that age, in the fourth month of summer, in the seventh fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Ashâdha, on its fourth day, the Arhat Rishabha, the Kosalian, descended from the great Vimâna called Sarvârthasiddha, where he had lived for thirty-three Sâgaropamas, here on the continent Gambûdvîpa, in Bharatavarsha, in Ikshvâkubhûmi, and in the middle of the night, &c., he took the form of an embryo in the womb of Marudevî, wife of the patriarch 2 Nâbhi. (206)
The knowledge of the Arhat Rishabha about this, &c. (all as in the case of Mahâvîra, but note the following differences: the first dream is a bull 'coming forward with his face,' the other (mothers of Tîrthakaras see first) an elephant. She (Marudevî) relates them to Nâbhi, the patriarch; there
are no interpreters of dreams; Nâbhi, the patriarch, himself interprets them). (207)
In that period, in that age the Arhat Rishabha, the Kosalian,--in the first month of summer, in the first fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Kaitra, on its eighth day, &c.,--(Marudevî), perfectly healthy herself, gave birth to a perfectly healthy boy. (208)
(The circumstances connected with the birth of Rishabha are the same as in the case of that of Mahâvîra, only that the contents of §§ 100 and 101 do not apply to the present case.) (209)
The Arhat Rishabha, the Kosalian, belonged to the Kâsyapa gotra, and he had five names: Rishabha, First King, First Mendicant, First Gina, and First Tîrthakara. (210)
The Arhat Rishabha, the Kosalian, clever, with the aspirations of a clever man, of great beauty, controlling (his senses), lucky, and modest, lived two millions of former years 1 as a prince, and six millions three hundred thousand former years as a king. During his reign he taught, for the benefit of the people, the seventy-two sciences, of which writing is the first, arithmetic the most important, and the knowledge of omens the last, the sixty-four accomplishments of women, the hundred arts, and the three occupations of men 2. At last he anointed his
hundred sons as kings, and gave each a kingdom. Then the Laukântika god, following the established custom, &c. (see §§ 110-112, down to) indigent persons. In the first month of summer, in the first fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Kaitra, on its eighth day, in the latter part of the day, riding in his palankin called Sudarsanâ, followed on his way by a train of gods, men, and Asuras, &c. (Rishabha) went right through the town Vinîtâ to the park called Siddhârtha Vana, and proceeded to the excellent tree Asoka. There, &c. (see § 116, down to) four handfuls. When the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Ashâdhâ, he, after fasting two and a half days without drinking water, put on a divine robe, and together with four thousand of high, noble, royal persons, and Kshatriyas, he tore out his hair, and leaving the house entered the state of houselessness. (211)
The Arhat Rishabha, the Kosalian, for one thousand years neglected his body, &c. (see §§ 1 I7-120, down to) meditated upon himself for one thousand years. Thereupon--it was in the fourth month of winter, the seventh fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Phâlguna, on its eleventh day, in the early part of the day, when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Ashâdhâ, outside of the town Purimatâla, in the park called Sakatamukha, under the excellent tree Nyagrodha--(Rishabha) after fasting three and a half days without drinking water, being engaged in deep meditation, reached the infinite, &c. (see § 120, down to) highest knowledge and intuition called Kevala, &c. (see § 121, down to) moment. (212)
The Arhat Rishabha, the Kosalian, had eighty-four Ganas and eighty-four Ganadharas. (213)
The Arhat Rishabha, the Kosalian, had an excellent community of eighty-four thousand Sramanas with Rishabhasena at their head; (214) three hundred thousand nuns with Brahmîsundarî at their head; (215) three hundred and five thousand lay votaries with Sreyâmsa at their head; (216) five hundred and fifty-four thousand female lay votaries with Subhadrâ at their head; (217) four thousand seven hundred and fifty sages who knew the fourteen Pûrvas, &c.; (218) nine thousand sages who were possessed of the Avadhi knowledge; (219) twenty thousand Kevalins; (220) twenty thousand six hundred sages who could transform themselves; (221) twelve thousand six hundred and fifty sages of vast intellect, &c.; (222) twelve thousand six hundred and fifty professors; (223) twenty thousand male and forty thousand female disciples who had reached perfection; (224) twenty-two thousand nine hundred sages in their last birth, &c. (225)
The Arhat Rishabha, the Kosalian, instituted, &c. (see § 146, down to) the former ended after numberless generations, the latter from the next Muhûrta after his Kevaliship. (226)
In that period, in that age the Arhat Rishabha, the Kosalian, lived two millions of former years as a prince, six millions three hundred thousand former years as a king, together eight millions three hundred thousand former years as a householder; a thousand (former) years in a state inferior to perfection, nine-and-ninety thousand former years as a Kevalin, together a hundred thousand former years as a Sramana, and eight
millions four hundred thousand years on the whole. When his fourfold Karman was exhausted, and in this Avasarpinî era the Sushamaduhshamâ period had nearly elapsed, only three years and eight and a half months being left, in the third month of winter, in the fifth fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Mâgha, on its thirteenth day, in the early part of the day when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Abhigit, (Rishabha), after fasting six and a half days without drinking water, on the summit of mount Ashtâpada, in the company of ten thousand monks in the Samparyaṅka position, died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains. (227)
Since the time that the Arhat Rishabha, the Kosalian, died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains, three years and eight and a half months elapsed; thereupon one koti of kotis of Sâgaropamas, less forty-two thousand and three years and eight and a half months, elapsed. At that time the Venerable Ascetic Mahâvîra died; after his Nirvâna nine centuries elapsed, of the tenth century this is the eightieth year.
End of the Life of Rishabha.
End of the Lives of the Ginas.
281:1 Kosaliya = Kausalika. He is thus called because he was born in Kosalâ or Ayodhyâ.
281:2 Kulakara; these Kulakaras were the first kings and founders of families at the time when the rest of mankind were 'Yugalins.' The first Kulakara was Vimalavâhana; the seventh and last of the line Nâbhi.
282:1 See Âkârâṅga Sûtra I, 6, 3, § 2, note 1.
282:2 The arts, as those of the potter, blacksmith, painter, weaver, and barber, each of which five principal arts is subdivided into twenty branches, are inventions and must be taught; while the occupations, agriculture, trade, &c. have everywhere developed, as it were, of themselves. The accomplishments of women are dancing, singing, &c. The commentator adds to these a detailed list of those questionable accomplishments which Vâtsyâyana has so curiously described, and refers the reader to the Gayamaṅgala for further details. The latter work, a still extant commentary on the p. 283 Kâma Sûtra, must therefore be older than 1307, the date of Ginaprabhamuni's commentary on the Kalpa Sûtra.