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Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE22), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, [1884], at

p. 62




I say: To friendly or hostile (heretics) one should not give food, drink, dainties and spices, clothes, alms-bowls, and brooms; nor exhort these persons to give (such things), nor do them service, always showing the highest respect. Thus I say 1. (1)

(A heretic may say): Know this for certain: having or not having received food, &c. (down to) brooms, having or not having eaten (come to our house), even turning from your way or passing (other houses; we shall supply your wants). Confessing an individual creed, coming and going, he may give, or exhort to give, or do service (but one should not accept anything from him), showing not the slightest respect. Thus I say. (2)

Some here are not well instructed as regards the subject of conduct; for desirous of acts, they say: 'Kill creatures;' they themselves kill or consent to the killing of others; or they take what has not been given; or they pronounce opinions, e. g. the world exists, the world does not exist, the world is

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unchangeable, the world is ever changing; the world has a beginning, the world has no beginning; the world has an end, the world has no end; (or with regard to the self and actions): this is well done, this is badly done; this is merit, this is demerit; he is a good man, he is not a good man; there is beatitude, there is no beatitude; there is a hell, there is no hell. When they thus differ (in their opinions) and profess their individual persuasion, know (that this is all) without reason 1. Thus they are not well taught, not well instructed in the religion such as it has been declared by the Revered One, who knows and sees with quick discernment. (One should either instruct the opponent in the true faith) or observe abstinence as regards speech. Thus I say. (3)

Everywhere 2 sins are admitted; but to avoid them is called my distinction. For ye who live in a village or in the forest, or not in a village and not in the forest, know the law as it has been declared. 'By the Brahman, the wise (Mahâvîra), three 3 vows have been enjoined.' Noble and tranquil men who are enlightened and exert themselves in these (precepts), are called free from sinful acts. (4)

Knowing (and renouncing) severally and singly

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the actions against living beings, in the regions above, below, and on the surface, everywhere and in all ways--a wise man neither gives pain to these bodies, nor orders others to do so, nor assents to their doing so. Nay, we abhor those who give pain to these bodies. Knowing this, a wise man should not cause this or any other pain (to any creatures). Thus I say. (5)


62:1 This and the following paragraph are extremely difficult to translate. I have translated the words according to the scholiast, and supplied what he supplies; but his interpretation can scarcely be reconciled with the text.

63:1 The Gainas do not espouse one of the alternative solutions of the metaphysical and ethical questions; but they are enabled by the syâdvâda to believe in the co-existence of contrary qualities in one and the same thing.

63:2 In all other religious sects.

63:3 Gâma = yâma. These are, (1) to kill no living being, (2) to speak no untruth, (3) to abstain from forbidden things (theft and sexual pleasures). Or the three ages of man are intended by gâma, which we have rendered vows.

Next: Book I, Lecture 7, Lesson 2