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Satapatha Brahmana Part V (SBE44), Julius Eggeling tr. [1900], at




13:5:1:11. Then, on the morrow, there is (used) Gotama's Stoma (form of chanting) successively increasing by four (verses) 3: the Bahishpavamâna thereof is on four, the Âgya (stotras) on eight, the Mâdhyandina Pavamâna on twelve, the Prishtha (stotras) on

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sixteen, the Ârbhava Pavamâna on twenty, and the Agnishtoma-sâman on twenty-four (verses).

13:5:1:22. Now, some make its Agnishtoma-sâman a Sâman of four (verses), saying, 'It is neither an Agnishtoma, nor an Ukthya 1.' If they do so, let hire (the Hotri),

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after reciting the Stotriya 1 (strophe) together, recite the Anurûpa (strophe) together: the Rathantara Prishtha-sâman 2, the Sastra containing the Rathantara (text), and the Agnishtoma sacrifice--thereby he makes sure of this world.

13:5:1:33. 'There are twenty-one Savanîya 3 victims, all of them sacred to Agni: for these there is one and the same performance,' so say some; but, indeed, he should immolate two sets of eleven (victims), with the view of his obtainment of whatever desired object there may be in (victims) belonging to a set of eleven.

13:5:1:44. When the Agnishtoma is completed, and the Vasatîvarî water carried round, the Adhvaryu performs the Annahomas 4 (oblations of food): the import of these has been explained. With twelve

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[paragraph continues] Anuvâkas (Vâg. S. XXII, 23-34), 'To the in-breathing hail! To the off-breathing hail!' (he offers)--twelve months are a year, and the year is everything, and the Asvamedha is everything: thus it is for his obtaining and securing everything.

13:5:1:55. The central day is an ekavimsa day 1; for the twenty-one-fold is yonder sun, and he is the Asvamedha: by means of his own Stoma he thus establishes him in his own deity,--therefore it is an ekavimsa day.

13:5:1:66. And, again, as to why it is an ekavimsa day;--man is twenty-one-fold--ten fingers, ten toes, and the body (self) as the twenty-first: by means of that twenty-one-fold self he thus establishes him in the twenty-one-fold (day) as on a firm foundation,--therefore it is an ekavimsa day.

13:5:1:77. And, again, as to why it is an ekavimsa day;--the ekavimsa, assuredly, is the foundation of Stomas, and manifold is that ever-varying performance which takes place on this day,--and it is because he thinks that that manifold and ever-varying performance which takes place on this day, shall take place so as to be established on the ekavimsa as a firm foundation, that this is an ekavimsa day.

13:5:1:88. Now, as to the morning-service of this day. The Hotri, having recited as the Âgya (hymn 2) in the Paṅkti (metre) 'Agni I think on, who is good . . .,' recites thereto the one of a one-day's

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[paragraph continues] Soma-sacrifice 1. And the Bârhata Praüga and the Mâdhukhandasa one he recites both together 2 in triplets--(this being done) for the obtainment of the objects of desire which (may be contained) both in the Bârhata and the Mâdhukhandasa Praüga. The morning-service is (thus) set right.

13:5:1:99. Then as to the midday-service. For the obtainment of the Asvamedha, the atikhandas (verse, II, 22, 1), 'In the three troughs the buffalo drank the barley-draught,' is the opening verse of the Marutvatîya (sastra); for outstanding, indeed, is this atikhandas (hypercatalectic verse) amongst metres, and outstanding is the Asvamedha amongst sacrifices. This (verse), being recited thrice, amounts to a triplet, and thereby he obtains the object of desire which (may be contained) in the triplet. 'Here, O good one, is the pressed plant' (Rig-veda VIII, 2, 1-3) is the 'anukara' (sequent triplet): this same (triplet) is the constant

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connecting link of the one-day's sacrifice 1. Having recited both the paṅkti (verses, I, 80, 1-16) 'Here in the Soma-draught alone (the Brahman gave thee strength),' and the six-footed ones (VIII, 36, 1-7) 'The patron thou art of the offerer of Soma,' he inserts the Nivid in the (hymn) of the one-day's sacrifice. Thus as to the Marutvatîya (-sastra).

13:5:1:1010. Then as to the Nishkevalya (-sastra 2). The Mahânâmnî (verses) are the Prishtha (-stotra); and he recites them along with the anurûpa (verses) and pragâtha (-strophes), for the obtainment of all the objects of his desire, for in the Mahânâmnîs, as well as in the Asvamedha, are contained all objects of desire. Having recited the paṅkti verses (I, 81, 1-9) 'Indra hath grown in ebriety and strength,' and the six-footed ones (VIII, 37, 1-7) 'This sacred work didst thou protect in

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fights with Vritra,' he inserts the Nivid in the (hymn) of the one-day's sacrifice 1. The midday-service is (thus) set right.

13:5:1:1111. Then as to the evening-service. The atîkhandas verse (Vâg. S. IV, 25), 'Unto that god Savitri within the two bowls (do I sing praises 2),' is the opening verse 3 of the Vaisvadeva(-sastra 4): the mystic import thereof is the same as of the former (atikhandas verse). The Anukara 5 (Rig-veda I, 24, 3-5), 'Unto (abhi) thee, (the lord of treasures), O god Savitri, (ever helpful we come for our share . . .),' contains (the word) 'abhi,' as a form (sign) of victory (abhibhûti). Having recited the Sâvitra (triplet, VI, 71, 4-6), 'Up rose this god Savitri, the friend of the house . . .,' he inserts the Nivid in the (hymn) of the one-day's sacrifice 6. Having recited the four verses to Heaven and Earth (IV, 56, 1-4), 'The mighty Heaven and Earth, the most glorious, here . . .,' he inserts the Nivid in the (hymn I, 159) of the one-day's sacrifice. Having recited the Ârbhava (hymn, IV, 34), 'Ribhu, Vibhvan, Indra, Vâga, come ye to this our sacrifice . . .,'

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he inserts the Nivid in the (hymn, I, 111) of the one-day's sacrifice. Having recited the (hymn, V, 41) to the All-gods, 'Who is there righteous unto you, Mitra and Varuna? . . .,' he inserts the Nivid in the (hymn, I, 89) of the one-day's sacrifice. Thus as to the Vaisvadeva (-sastra).

13:5:1:1212. Then as to the Âgnimâruta 1. Having recited the (hymn, VI, 7) to (Agni) Vaisvânara, 'The head of the sky, and the disposer of the earth . . .,' he inserts the Nivid in the (hymn, III, 3) of the one-day's sacrifice. Having recited the (hymn, V, 57) to the Maruts, 'Hither, O Rudras, come ye united with Indra . . .,' he inserts the Nivid in the (hymn, I, 87) of the one-day's sacrifice. Having recited the nine verses (VI, 15, 1-9) to Gâtavedas, 'This guest of yours, the early-waking . . .,' he inserts the Nivid in the (hymn, I, 143) of the one-day's sacrifice. And as to why the (hymns) of the one-day's sacrifice are used for inserting the Nivid, it is for the sake of his (the Sacrificer's) not being deprived of a firm foundation, for the Gyotishtoma is a foundation.

13:5:1:1313. For this (day) there are those sacrificial animals--'A horse, a hornless he-goat, and a Gomriga 2,' fifteen 'paryaṅgyas': the mystic import of these has been explained. Then these wild ones--for spring he seizes (three) kapiñgalas 3, for summer sparrows, for the rainy season partridges: of these

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(wild animals) also (the mystic import) has been told 1.

13:5:1:1414. Then those (victims) for the twenty-one (stakes). He seizes twenty-one animals for each of the (eleven) deities of the Seasonal offerings 2; for as many as there are gods of the Seasonal offerings so many are all the gods; and all objects of desire are in the Asvamedha: 'by gratifying all the deities I shall gain all my desires,' so he thinks. But let him not proceed in this way.

13:5:1:1515. Let him seize seventeen victims for the central stake 3, in order that he may gain and secure every-thing,

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for the seventeenfold is Pragâpati, and the seventeenfold (stoma) is everything, and the Asvamedha is everything;--and sixteen at each of the other (stakes) in order that he may gain and secure everything, for everything here consists of sixteen parts, and the Asvamedha is everything. Thirteen wild (beasts) he seizes for each intermediate space, in order that he may gain and secure everything, for the year consists of thirteen months, and the Asvamedha is everything.

13:5:1:1616. Now, prior to the (chanting of the) Bahishpavamâna, they (the assistants of the Adhvaryu) bring up the horse, after cleansing it; and with it they glide along for the Pavamâna: the mystic import of this has been explained 1. When the Bahishpavamâna has been chanted, they make the horse step on the place of chanting: if it sniffs, or turns away, let him know that his sacrifice is successful. Having led up that (horse), the Adhvaryu says, 'Hotri, sing praises!' and the Hotri sings its praises 2 with eleven (verses, Rig-veda I, 163, 1-11)--

13:5:1:1717. 'When, first born, thou didst neigh . . .'--thrice (he praises) with the first, and thrice with the last (verse), these amount to fifteen,--fifteenfold is the thunderbolt, and the thunderbolt means vigour: with that thunderbolt, vigour, the Sacrificer thus from the very first repels evil: thus 3, indeed, it is to the Sacrificer that the thunderbolt is given in

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order to smite for him whoever is to be smitten.--[Rig-veda I, 163, 12. 13], The swift racer hath gone forward to the slaying. . . .'--'The racer hath gone forward to the highest place. . .'--

13:5:1:1818. Having omitted these two (verses), he inserts the hymn (I, 162), 'Never (shall forget us) Mitra, Varuna, Aryaman, Âyu . . .,' in the Adhrigu 1 (litany). Some, however, insert this verse (I, 162, 18), 'Thirty-four (ribs) of the steed, akin to the gods, (doth the knife hit) . . .,' before the (passage,--'twenty-six are its) ribs,' thinking lest they should place the holy syllable 'om' in the wrong place 2, or lest they should suggest the plural by a singular 3. Let him not proceed thus, but let him insert the hymn as a whole.--'The swift racer hath gone forward to the slaying . . .'--'The racer hath gone forward to the highest place . . .'--


375:1 'From natural fissures and incisions made in the bark (of Butea frondosa) issues during the hot season a red juice, which soon hardens into a ruby-coloured, brittle, astringent gum, similar to kino, and sold as Bengal kino.' Stewart and Brandis.

375:2 See p. 331, note 1.

375:3 Regarding the Katushtoma, see p. 329, note 1.

376:1 According to the practice here referred to, the Agnishtomasâman would not consist merely of the one triplet (usually Sâmav. II, 53-4 i.e. the so-called yagñâyagñîya triplet) ordinarily used for it, but of four different Sâmans, inasmuch as three of the triplets which may be used for the Uktha-stotras (of the Ukthya and other sacrifices) are added to that yagñâyagñîya triplet. In that case, however, the latter is not chanted to its own 'yagñâyagñîya' tune, but the Vâravantîya tune is used for all the four triplets. This practice is somewhat vaguely referred to in Tândya-Br. XIX, 5, 10-11. 'One Sâman (tune), many metres (texts): therefore one (man) feeds many creatures. Verily, the Agnishtoma (sâman) is the self, and the metres (hymn-texts) are cattle: he thus secures cattle for his own self. It is neither an Ukthya nor an Agnishtoma (sacrifice), for cattle are neither (entirely) domestic nor wild (viz. because though kept "in the village," they also freely graze "in the forest").' Here the passage 'One Sâman, many metres,' according to the commentary, refers to the Vâravantîya tune as being employed, on this occasion, for the texts of the Yagñâyagñîya, the Sâkamasva (II, 55-57, here the Calc. ed., by mistake, calls the second tune figured for chanting, like the first, Sâkamasva, instead of Vâravantîya), the Saubhara (II, 230-2, where the Calc. ed., by mistake, omits the name Vâravantîya), and the Tairaska (II, 233-5; curiously enough, the Tairaska is not mentioned, in Lâty. Sr. VIII, 9-10, amongst the Sâmans that may be used for the third--or the Akkhâvâka's--Uktha, but Sâyana, on Sâmav. II, 233, states distinctly, 'tairaskam tritîyam uktham'). Whilst, as Uktha-stotras, the last three texts would usually he chanted in the ekavimsa, or twenty-one-versed form, in the present instance, as part of the katushtoma, they would be chanted (along with the Yagñâyagñîya) in the twenty-four-versed form. Thus, though an Agnishtoma sacrifice, inasmuch as it has twelve stotras, yet it is not a regular one; neither is it an Ukthya, because the Ukthas are not chanted as so many Stotras, followed by the recitation of separate Sastras. In the Âsv. Sr. X, 6, different alternatives are proposed for the chanting of the Agnishtoma-sâman p. 377 in the 'Gotamastoma (i.e. Katushtoma) antarukthya' and the corresponding Sastra, including apparently the employment of the Yagñâyagñîya-sâman either for all the four triplets, or for the Yagñâyagñîya triplet alone with the respective Sâmans used for the other triplets; different modes of recitation being thereby implied with regard to the Stotriya and Anurûpa pragâthas.

377:1 For the Âgnimâruta-sastra, recited by the Hotri after the chanting of the Agnishtoma-sâman, and containing, amongst various hymns and detached verses, the triplet which forms the text of the Stotra, i.e. the 'Stotriya pragâtha,' as well as a corresponding antistrophe, the 'Anurûpa pragâtha,' see part ii, p. 369 note. On the present occasion, however, this constituent element of the Sastra would have to include the triplets of all the four Sâmans, as well as four 'antistrophes' which are thus 'recited together.'

377:2 Or, Prishtha-stotra, viz. the first stotra of that name at the midday-service, for which that Sâman is used in the Agnishtoma sacrifice (part ii, p. 339, note 2).

377:3 That is, victims sacrificed on the Sutyâs, or Soma-days. Two complete sets of eleven such victims are, however, required on each of the three days, see p. 309, note 2.

377:4 See XIII, 2, 1, 1 seqq., and p. 297, note 1.

378:1 That is one on which all Stotras are chanted in the 'ekavimsa' Stoma, or twenty-one-versed hymn-form.

378:2 Viz. Rig-veda V, 6, forming the special feature of the Âgyasastra at the Asvamedha.

379:1 Viz. the Âgya-sûkta, Rig-veda III, 13, forming the chief part of the Hotri's Âgya-sastra, or first Sastra of the Agnishtoma, for which see part ii, p. 327 note.

379:2 The Bârhata Praüga, or Praüga-sastra in the Brihatî metre,--being the one recited on the fifth day of the Prishthya-shadaha (Âsv. Sr. VII, 12, 7), and consisting of the seven different triplets, addressed to as many different deities,--is to be recited also on this occasion; and along with it (or rather, intertwined with it, triplet by triplet) the ordinary Praüga-sastra of the Agnishtoma, made up of the two hymns Rig-veda I, 2 and 3 which are ascribed to Madhukhandas, and consist of nine and twelve verses, or together seven triplets. I do not understand why Harisvâmin mentions 'Vâyur agregâh' (? Vâg. S. XXVII, 31) as being the first triplet of the Mâdhukhandasa Praüga, instead of I, 2, 1-3 'vâyav â yâhi darsata.' The Praüga is the Hotri's second Sastra of the morning-service, being preceded by the chanting of the first Âgya-stotra; see part ii, p. 325.

380:1 See part ii, p. 337, where the same triplet forms the anukara of this Sastra at the Agnishtoma. It is followed there by the Pragâthas VIII, 53, 5-6; I, 40, 5-6 (read thus! each two counting as one triplet); three Dhâyyâ verses, and the Marutvatîya Pragâthas VIII, 89, 3-4 (!), These are to be followed up, on the present occasion, by the two hymns I, 80, and VIII, 36, after which the Indra hymn X, 73, the chief part of the normal Marutvatîya Sastra, is to be recited, with the Nivid formula inserted after the sixth verse.

380:2 That is, the Sastra succeeding the chanting of the first, or Hotri's, Prishtha-stotra (see part ii, p. 339). Whilst, however, in the one-day's sacrifice, the Rathantara (or the Brihat) sâman is used for that stotra, the Mahânâmni verses (see part iii, introd. p. xx, note 2), with the Sâkvara tune, are to be used as the Stotriyâs on this occasion, and are therefore likewise to be recited by the Hotri as Stotriya-pragâthas (cf. Âsv. VII, 12, 10 seqq.), to be followed up by the antistrophe (anurûpa)--here consisting of the triplets I, 84, 10-12; VIII, 93, 31-3; I, 11, 1-3--and the Sâma-pragâtha, VIII, 3, 1-2.

381:1 Viz. after the eighth verse of the hymn Rig-veda I, 32, the chief part of the normal Nishkevalya-sastra.

381:2 For the complete verse see III, 3, 2, 1 2.

381:3 This verse is again recited thrice, and thus takes the place of the ordinary opening triplet.

381:4 For this Sastra, recited after the Ârbhava-Pavamâna-stotra, see part ii, p. 361.

381:5 Âsv. Sr. X, 10, 6 prescribes the ordinary anukara V, 82, 4-7; whence Sâyana on I, 24, 3 (-5) offers no indication of the ritualistic use of that triplet on this occasion.

381:6 Viz. IV, 54, before the last verse of which the Nivid is inserted.

382:1 Viz. the final Sastra of the evening-service, preceded by the chanting of the Agnishtoma-sâman; see part ii, p. 369.

382:2 See p. 298, note 4; p. 338, note 1.

382:3 The 'Kapiñgala' is a kind of wildfowl, apparently of the quail or partridge species--a hazel-cock, or francoline partridge. Some of the later authorities, however, identify it with the 'kâtaka' p. 383 ('cuculus melanoleucus'). With regard to some of the wild animals referred to in the corresponding section of the Vâg. S., the commentator Mahîdhara significantly remarks (Vâg. S. XXIV, 29; cf. Kâty. XX, 6, 6 scholl.) that the meaning of such names as are not understood must be made out with the help of quotations (nigama), Vedic vocabularies (nighantu) and their comments (nirukta), grammar (vyâkarana), the Unâdivritti, and dictionaries.

383:1 Viz. XIII, 2, 4, 1 seqq. It is not easy to see why the text should break off abruptly with the birds representing the rainy season. For autumn there are to be (three) quails, for winter 'kakara,' and for the dewy season 'vikakara.' Then follow, to the end of the 260 wild animals, a long series of divinities to each of which (or sometimes to allied deities) three animals are consigned. Thirteen of these wild animals are placed on each of the twenty spaces between the twenty-one stakes.

383:2 Or, perhaps, for the (eleven) deities of the Seasonal offerings he seizes twenty-one animals for each (stake); which would certainly simplify the distribution of those animals. Regarding the victims actually consecrated to the deities of the Kâturmâsya offerings, see p. 309, note 2.

383:3 This does not include the twelve 'paryaṅgyas' tied to the horse's limbs, but only the horse and two other victims sacred to Pragâpati, and twelve of a long series of beasts, of which three are dedicated to each successive deity (or allied group of deities). To these are afterwards added Agni's two victims belonging to the two sets of eleven victims (of the other twenty of which one is assigned to each of the other stakes).

384:1 XIII, 2, 3, 1.

384:2 The mode of recitation is similar to that of the kindling-verses (likewise eleven, brought up, by repetitions of the first and last, to fifteen), viz. by making a pause after each half-verse, but without adding the syllable 'om' thereto. Âsv. Sr. X, 8, 5.

384:3 Harisvâmin explains 'tad vai' as standing for 'sa vai' (liṅgavyatyayena)--viz. that fifteenfold thunderbolt.

385:1 On this recitation, consisting of a lengthy set of formulas, addressed to the slaughterers, see part ii, p, 188, note 2. The whole of the formulas are given Ait. Br. II, 6-7. The hymn, according to Âsv. X, 8, 7; is to be inserted either before the last formula of the litany, or somewhat further back--viz. before the formula 'shadvimsatir asya vaṅkrayas,' 'twenty-six are its ribs'--whilst our Brâhmana rather allows the alternative of the eighteenth verse of I, 162 being inserted at the latter place,--unless, indeed, the insertion in that case is to be made immediately before the word 'vaṅkrayah' which is scarcely likely.

385:2 Harisvâmin seems to take this to mean that as this verse is of the same nature as the formulas of the Adhrigu litany, he is to treat it as such, as otherwise, in reciting he would have to pronounce 'om' after that verse, which is not done after those formulas.

385:3 Or, the plurality by the individual. Owing to the corrupt state of the MS., the commentator's explanation of this passage is not clear. He seems, however, at any rate, to take the 'plural' to refer to the formula 'shadvimsatir asya vaṅkrayas,' where apparently 'eshâm' has to be substituted for 'asya' on this occasion, as many victims are immolated, and the ribs of a plurality of beasts are thus indicated, whilst in verse eighteen of the hymn, on the p. 386 contrary, only the ribs of one horse (thus forming a kind of unit) are referred to; and if that verse were recited, along with the whole hymn, before the final formula which refers to all the victims, the necessary connection would be interrupted.

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