Satapatha Brahmana Part V (SBE44), Julius Eggeling tr. , at sacred-texts.com
13:4:2:11. Whilst this (offering to Pûshan) is being performed, the horse, having been cleansed, is led up--being one which is marked with all colours, or which is perfect in speed, worth a thousand (cows), in its prime, and without its match under the right-side yoke 2.
13:4:2:22. And as to its being one marked with all colours, it is for the sake of his (the Sacrificer's) obtaining and securing everything, for colour (outward appearance) is everything, and the Asvamedha is everything. And as to its being perfect in speed, it is for the sake of his obtaining and securing vigour, for speed is vigour. And as to its being worth a thousand (cows), it is for the sake of his obtaining and securing everything, for a thousand means everything, and the Asvamedha is everything. And as to its being in its prime, it is for the sake of his obtaining unlimited vigour, for such a one that is in the prime (of youth) increases to unlimited vigour. And as to its being without its match under the right-side yoke, it is for the sake of his obtaining yonder (sun), for that (horse) indeed is he that shines yonder, and assuredly there is no one to rival him.
13:4:2:33. As to this, Bhâllaveya, however, said, 'That horse should be of two colours, black-spotted 1, for that (horse) was produced from Pragâpati's eye, and this eye is of two colours, white and black: he thus endows it with its own colour.'
13:4:2:44. But Sâtyayagñi said, 'That horse should be of three colours, its forepart black, its hindpart white, with a wain for its mark in front;--when its forepart is black it is the same as this black of the eye; and when its hindpart is white it is the same as this white of the eye; and when it has a wain for its mark in front, that is the pupil: such
a one, indeed, is perfect in colour 1.' Whichever of these, then, should be ready at hand, either a many-coloured one, or one of two colours, or one of three colours with a wain for its mark, let him slaughter it: but in speed it should certainly be perfect.
13:4:2:55. In front (of the sacrificial ground) there are those keepers of it ready at hand,--to wit, a hundred royal princes, clad in armour; a hundred warriors armed with swords; a hundred sons of heralds and headmen, bearing quivers filled with arrows 2; and a hundred sons of attendants 3 and charioteers, bearing staves;--and a hundred exhausted, worn out horses 4 amongst which, having let loose that (sacrificial horse), they guard it.
13:4:2:66. He then prepares an (ishti) offering to Savitri 5--a cake on twelve potsherds to Savitri Prasavitri--thinking, May Savitri impel this my sacrifice!' for Savitri (the sun), indeed, is the impeller (prasavitri).
13:4:2:77. For this (offering) there are fifteen kindling-verses;
and the two butter-portions relate to the slaying of Vritra 1. [The verses, Rig-veda V, 82, 9; VII, 45, 1], 'He who calleth forth all these beings (with his call, may he, Savitri, quicken us)!' and 'May the divine Savitri come hither, treasure-laden, (filling the air whilst driving with his steeds; holding in his hand many things meet for man; and laying to rest and awakening the world),' pronounced in a low voice, are the invitatory and offering formulas of the chief oblation. Those of the Svishtakrit are two virâg-verses 2. The priests’ fee is gold weighing a hundred (grains): the meaning of this has been explained.
13:4:2:88. Whilst the fore-offerings of this (ishti) are being performed, a Brâhman lute-player, striking up the uttaramandrâ (tune 3), sings three strophes composed by himself (on topics 4 such as), 'Such a sacrifice he offered,--Such gifts he gave:' the meaning of this has been explained 5.
13:4:2:99. He then prepares a second (offering)--a cake on twelve potsherds to Savitri Âsavitri--thinking, 'May Savitri propel this my sacrifice!' for Savitri, indeed, is the propeller (âsavitri).
13:4:2:1010. For this (offering) there are seventeen kindling-verses; and the two butter-portions are possessed of that which is 1: the (truly) existent he thereby obtains. [The verses, Rig-veda V, 82, 5; VII, 45, 31 'All troubles, O divine Savitri, (keep from us, do thou send us that which is good)!' and 'May that mighty god Savitri (the lord of treasure, send us treasure; shedding wide-spread lustre, may he bestow upon us the joys of mortal life)!' pronounced in a low voice, are the invitatory and offering formulas of the chief oblation. Those of the Svishtakrit are two anushtubh verses 2. Silver is the priests’ fee,--for the sake of variety of colour, and also for the sake of (the horse's) going outside 3 and not going away. It weighs a hundred (grains), for man has a life of a hundred (years), and a hundred energies: it is life, and energy, vigour, he thus secures for himself.
13:4:2:1111. Whilst the fore-offerings of this (ishti) are being performed, a Brâhman lute-player, striking up the uttaramandrâ (tune), sings three strophes composed by himself (on topics such as), 'Such a sacrifice he offered,--Such gifts he gave:' the meaning of this has been explained.
13:4:2:1212. He then prepares a third (offering)--a cake
on twelve potsherds to Savitri Satyaprasava ('of true impulse'); for that, indeed, is the true impulse which is Savitri's: 'May he impel with true impulse this my sacrifice!' so he thinks.
13:4:2:1313. For this (ishti) there are again seventeen kindling-verses. The two butter-portions are possessed of 'wealth 1,' with a view to his obtaining and securing vigour, for wealth is vigour (strength). [The verses, Rig-veda V, 82, 7; IV, 54, 4,] 'The all-divine, true lord (we hope to gain this day by our hymns, Savitri of true impulsion),' and 'Indestructible is that (work) of the divine Savitri, (that he will ever sustain the whole world: whatever he, the fair-fingered, bringeth forth over the extent of the earth and the expanse of the sky, that is truly his own),' pronounced in a low voice, are the invitatory and offering formulas of the chief offering. Those of the Svishtakrit (he makes) the regular ones 2, thinking, 'Lest I should depart from the path of sacrifice:' he thus finally establishes himself in the well-ordered sacrifice. Trishtubh-verses they are for the sake of his gaining and securing (Indra's) energy, vigour, for the Trishtubh is the vigour in Indra. The priests’ fee is gold weighing a hundred (grains): the meaning of this has been explained 3.
13:4:2:1414. Whilst the fore-offerings of this (ishti) are
being performed, a Brâhman lute-player, striking up the uttaramandrâ (tune), sings three strophes composed by himself (on topics such as), 'Such a sacrifice he offered,--Such gifts he gave:' the meaning of this has been explained.
13:4:2:1515. When this (offering) is completed, the Adhvaryu and the Sacrificer rise, and whisper in the horse's right ear (Vâg. S. XXII, 19), 'Plenteous by thy mother, strengthful by dry father . . .!' the meaning of this has been explained 1. They then set it free towards the north-east, for that--to wit, the north-east--is the region of both gods and men: they thus consign it to its own region, in order to its suffering no injury, for one who is established in his own home suffers no injury.
13:4:2:1616. He says, 'O ye gods, guardians of the regions, guard ye this horse, consecrated for offering unto the gods!' The (four kinds of) human guardians of the (four) regions have been told, and these now are the divine ones, to wit, the Âpyas, Sâdhyas, Anvâdhyas 2 and Maruts; and both of these, gods and men, of one mind, guard it for a year without turning (driving) it back. The reason why they do not turn it back, is that it is he that shines yonder,--and who, forsooth, is able to turn him back? But were they to turn it back, everything here assuredly would go backward (go to ruin): therefore they guard it without turning it back.
13:4:2:1717. He says, 'Ye guardians of the quarters, those who go on to the end of this (horse-sacrifice) will
become (sharers of) the royal power, they will become kings worthy of being consecrated; but those who do not go on to the end of this (sacrifice) will be excluded from royal power, they will not become kings, but nobles and peasants, unworthy of being consecrated: do not ye therefore be heedless, and keep it (the horse) from water suitable for bathing and from mares! And whenever ye meet with any kind of Brâhmanas, ask ye them, "O Brâhmanas, how much know ye of the Asvamedha?" and those who know naught thereof ye may despoil; for the Asvamedha is everything, and he who, whilst being a Brâhmana, knows naught of the Asvamedha, knows naught of anything, he is not a Brâhmana, and as such liable to be despoiled. Ye shall give it drink, and throw down fodder for it; and whatever prepared food there is in the country all that shall be prepared for you. Your abode shall be in the house of a carpenter of these (sacrificers 1), for there is the horse's resting-place.'
353:1 Viz. according to Âsv. Sr. X, 6, 7,--Rig-veda I, 45, 6 (tvâm kitrasravastama) and V, 25, 7 (yad vâsishtham yad agnaye).
353:2 Thus Harisvâmin,--'anyebhyo dakshinadhuryebhya utkrishtah;' p. 354 hardly 'one which finds no (worthy) yoke-fellow' (St. Petersb. Dict.).
354:1 Or, black with some other colour.
355:1 One would expect an 'iti' here.
355:2 Or, furnished with bundles of arrows,--ishuparshinah, for which Kâty. XX, 2, 11, has 'kalâpinah' (=sarâvapanabhastrâvantah schol.). Harisvâmin explains it as if it were equivalent to 'ishuvarshinah,' 'showering arrows.'
355:3 Harisvâmin takes 'kshâttra' as the body of revenue-officers (tax-gatherers, &c.), 'âyavyayâdhyakshasamûhah.'
355:4 That is, according to Harisvâmin, over twenty-four years old; his explanation being based on the etymology of 'nirashtam' as 'outside the eight' (viz. characteristics of age in horses, each of which is supposed to hold good for three years).
355:5 The three ishtis to Savitri, treated of in paragraphs 6-17, as well as the proceedings subsequent thereto, are repeated every day during the twelvemonth during which the sacred horse is allowed to roam about.
356:1 See p. 350, note 3.
356:2 See p. 351, note 3.
356:3 Or, touching the uttaramandrâ lute,--literally, the 'upper deep' one, i.e. perhaps one the chords of which are pitched in the upper notes of the lower key. Cf. Scholl. on Katy. XX, 2, 8 uttaramandrâ ka gâyanaprasiddhâ;--uttaramandrâ-samgñâyâm vînâyâm. Harisvâmin does not explain the term.
356:4 Taitt. Br. III, 9, 14, 3 mentions three topics--one for each stanza,--viz. 'thus (such and such gifts) thou gavest, thus (by such and such sacrifices) thou didst sacrifice, thus thou didst cook (i.e. with such and such food thou didst regale the priests).'
356:5 See XIII, 1, 5, 6.
357:1 That is, their anuvâkyâs contain forms of the root 'as' (or 'bhû'), to be; cf. p. 352, note 2.
357:2 See XIII, 4, 1, 15, p. 353, note 1.
357:3 Viz. going outside the sacrificial ground, and yet not running away from its keepers,--this, according to the text, would be symbolically expressed by the gold (which was given as the priests’ fee for the first offering) giving place to silver at the second offering, but coming in again at the third.
358:1 That is, their invitatory formulas contain the word 'rayi' (wealth). What particular verses are intended here, I do not know.
358:2 Viz. the trishtubh-verses Rig-veda X, 2, 1; VI, 15, 14; see p. 351, note .
358:3 XII, 7, 2, 13.
359:1 See XIII, 1, 6, 1 seqq., 3, 7. 1-2 seqq.
359:2 On these divine beings see Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, p. 6, note.
360:1 Thus Harisvâmin,--teshâm ka yagamânânâm madhye rathakâro yas tasya grihe yushmâkam vasatah. The plural is probably meant as including the subjects of the king (cf. XI, 8, 4, 1), and the villages within reach of which the horse will roam.