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Satapatha Brahmana Part II (SBE26), Julius Eggeling tr. [1885], at



3:8:3:11. For the same deity for which there is a victim, he subsequently prepares a sacrificial cake 2. The reason why he subsequently prepares a cake is this. Rice and barley, truly, are the sacrificial essence of all animals (victims) 3; with that same essence he now completes that (victim) and makes it whole. This is why he subsequently prepares a sacrificial cake.

3:8:3:22. And why he proceeds with that cake after performing (offering) with the omentum is this. It is from the middle (of the victim) that this omentum is pulled out, and from the middle he now completes that (victim) by means of that sacrificial essence and makes it whole; therefore he proceeds with that cake after performing with the omentum. The relation of

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this (cake to the animal offering), indeed, is one and the same everywhere; that cake is prepared after (and supplementary to) a victim.

3:8:3:33. Thereupon he cuts up the victim: 'Move thrice 1, and make the heart the uppermost of the thrice-moved!' thus (he says to the slaughterer), for threefold is the sacrifice.

3:8:3:44. He then instructs the slaughterer: 'If one ask thee, "Is the sacrificial food cooked, O Samitar?" say thou only "Cooked!" not "Cooked, reverend sir!" nor "Cooked, forsooth!"'

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3:8:3:55. Having then taken clotted ghee with the guhû, the Adhvaryu, stepping up (from the altar) to (the Sâmitra), asks, 'Is the sacrificial food cooked, O Sâmitar?' 'Cooked,' he says. 'That is of the gods,' says the Adhvaryu in a low voice.

3:8:3:66. The reason why he asks is this. Cooked, forsooth, not uncooked (must be) the gods' food; and the Samitri indeed knows whether it is cooked or uncooked.

3:8:3:77. And again, why he asks. 'I will perform with cooked (food),' so he thinks; and if that sacrificial food be uncooked, it is yet cooked food for the gods, and is cooked as regards the Sacrificer; and the Adhvaryu is guiltless; on the slaughterer that guilt lies. Thrice he asks, for threefold is the sacrifice. And as to his saying, 'That is of the gods,' that which is cooked, indeed, belongs to the gods; therefore he says, 'That is of the gods.'

3:8:3:88. The heart he bastes (with clotted ghee) first of all; for the heart is the self (soul), the mind; and the clotted ghee is the breath; he thus puts the breath into its (the victim's) self, into its mind; and thus it verily becomes the living food of the gods, and immortal for the immortals.

3:8:3:99. He bastes it with (Vâg. S. VI, 18), 'May thy mind unite with the mind; thy breath with the breath!' He utters no Svâhâ ('hail'), for this is not an oblation. They remove the victim (from the cooking-fire) 1.

3:8:3:1010. 'They take it along the back of the pit, and

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between the sacrificial stake and the (Âhavanîya) fire. The reason why, though it is cooked, they do not take it across the middle (of the altar), as they take other sacrificial dishes, is 'lest they should bring the sacrifice in the middle in connection with that which is cut up by limbs and mangled.' And why they do not take it outside (the altar) in front of the stake, is that they would thereby put it outside the sacrifice: therefore they take (the flesh) along between the stake and the fire. When they have put it down south (of the fire), the Pratiprasthâtri cuts off (the portions). There are Plaksha branches 1 (Ficus Infectoria) by way of an upper barhis (covering of altar); thereon he cuts. The reason why there are Plaksha branches by way of an upper barhis is this.

3:8:3:1111. For when the gods, at first, seized an animal to sacrifice), Tvashtri first spat upon its head, thinking, 'Surely, thus they will not touch it!' for animals belong to Tvashtri. That (spittle became) the brain in the head and the marrow in the neck-bone 2: hence that (substance) is like spittle, for Tvashtri spat it. Let him therefore not eat that, since it was spitten by Tvashtri.

3:8:3:1212. Its sacrificial essence flowed down and there a tree sprang up. The gods beheld it; wherefore it (was called) 'prakhya' (visible), for 'plaksha,'

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doubtless, is the same as 'prakhya.' With that same sacrificial essence he now completes it (the victim), and makes it whole: hence there are Plaksha branches as an upper covering.

3:8:3:1313. He then makes an 'underlayer' of ghee both in the guhû and the upabhrit, and in the vasâhomahavanî 1, and the samavattadhânî 2; and puts a piece of gold 3 both in the guhû and the upabhrit.

3:8:3:1414. Thereupon he addresses (the Hotri) for the recitation on the havis to the manotâ deity 4. The reason why he addresses him for the recitation on the havis to the manotâ deity is this. All the deities draw nigh to the victim while it is immolated, thinking, 'My name he will choose, my name he will choose!' for the animal victim is sacrificial food for all deities. The minds (manas), then, of all those deities are, fixed upon (ota) that victim; those (minds of theirs) he thereby satisfies, and thus the minds of the gods have not drawn nigh in vain. For this reason he addresses him for the recitation on the havis to the manotâ deity.

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3:8:3:1515. He first makes a portion of the heart 1. The reason why he first makes a portion of the heart which is in the middle, is that the heart is the breath, since it is from there that this breath moves upward 2; and the animal is breath, for only so long does the animal (live) as it breathes with the breath; but when the breath departs from it, it lies there useless, even (as) a block of wood.

3:8:3:1616. The heart, then, is the animal; thus he first makes a portion of its very self (or soul). And, accordingly, if any portion were omitted, he need not heed this, since it is of his entire animal victim that the first portion is made which is made of the heart. He therefore first makes a portion of the heart, that being in the middle. Thereupon according to the proper order.

3:8:3:1717. Then of the tongue, for that stands out from its fore-part. Then of the breast, for that also (stands out) therefrom 3. Then of the simultaneously moving (left) fore-foot 4. Then of the flanks. Then of the liver. Then of the kidneys.

3:8:3:1818. The hind-part he divides into three parts; the broad piece (he reserves) for the by-offerings 5; the middle one he cuts into the guhû after dividing it in two; the narrow piece (he reserves) for the

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tryaṅga 1. Then of the simultaneously moving (right) haunch 2. This much, then, he cuts into the guhû.

3:8:3:1919. Then into the upabhrit, he makes a portion of the upper part of the fore-foot belonging to the tryaṅga (viz. the right one); of the (narrow piece of the) hind-part, after dividing it in two; and of the haunch belonging to the tryaṅga (viz. the left). Thereupon he puts two pieces of gold on (the flesh oblations in the spoons) and pours ghee thereon.

3:8:3:2020. He then takes the oblation of gravy 3 with (Vâg. S. VI, 18), 'Thou art trembling,' for quivering, as it were, is the broth: hence he says, 'Thou art trembling;'--'May Agni prepare 4 thee!' for the fire does indeed cook it: hence he says, 'May Agni prepare thee!'--'The waters have washed thee together,' for the water indeed gathers together that (fat) juice from the limbs: hence he says, 'The waters have washed thee together.'

3:8:3:2121. 'For the sweeping of the wind--thee!' for verily yonder blower sweeps along the air, and for the air he takes it: hence he says, 'For the sweeping of the wind (I take) thee.'

3:8:3:2222. 'For the speed of Pûshan,'--Pûshan's speed, forsooth, is yonder (wind) 5, and for that he takes it: hence he says, 'For the speed of Pûshan.'

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3:8:3:2323. 'From the hot vapour may totter--;' the hot vapour, namely, is yonder (wind), and for that he takes it: hence he says, 'From the hot vapour may totter--.' Thereupon he bastes it twice with ghee above.

3:8:3:2424. He then mixes it either with the crooked knife or with the chopping-knife 1, with '--Confounded hatred 2!' whereby he chases away from here those evil spirits, the Rakshas.

3:8:3:2525. The broth which is left he pours into the Samavattadhânî, and therein he throws the heart, tongue, breast, the broad piece (of the back part), the kidneys, and the rectum. He then bastes it twice with ghee above.

3:8:3:2626. The reason why there is a piece of gold on each side is this. When they offer up the victim in the fire, they slay it, and gold means immortal life: thereby then it rests in immortal life; and so it rises from hence, and so it lives. This is why there is a piece of gold on each side.

3:8:3:2727. And because he cuts crossways,--of the left fore-foot and the right haunch; and of the right forefoot and the left haunch,--therefore this animal draws forward its feet crossways. But were he to cut straight on, this animal would draw forward its feet (of the same side) simultaneously: therefore he cuts crossways. Then as to why he does not make cuttings of the head, nor the shoulders, nor the neck, nor the hind-thighs.

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3:8:3:2828. Now the Asuras, in the beginning, seized a victim. The gods, from fear, did not go near it 1. The Earth 2 then said unto them, 'Heed ye not this: I will myself be an eye-witness thereof, in whatsoever manner they will perform this (offering).'

3:8:3:2929. She said, 'Only one oblation have they offered, the other they have left over.' Now that which they left over are these same portions. Thereupon the gods made over three limbs to (Agni) Svishtakrit, whence the Tryaṅga oblations. The Asuras then made portions of the head, the shoulders, the neck, and the hind-thighs: therefore let him not make portions of these. And since Tvashtri spat upon the neck, therefore let him not make a portion of the neck. Thereupon he says (to the Hotri), 'Recite (the invitatory prayer) to Agni and Soma for the havis of the buck!' Having called for the Sraushat, he says (to the Maitrâvaruna), 'Prompt (the Hotri to recite the offering-prayer 3 for) the havis of the buck to Agni and Soma!' He does not say '(the havis) made ready:' when the Soma has been pressed he says 'made ready.'

3:8:3:3030. In the interval between the two half-verses of the offering-prayer he offers the oblation of gravy. It is from out of this that that essence (juice) has risen upwards here,--that sap of this earth whereby creatures exist on this side of the sky 4; for the

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oblation of gravy is sap, and essence is sap: thus he renders the sap strong by means of sap, whence this sap when eaten does not perish.

3:8:3:3131. And as to why he offers the oblation of gravy in the interval between the two half-verses of the offering-prayer,--one half-verse, forsooth, is this earth, and the other half-verse is yonder sky. Now between the sky and the earth is the air, and it is to the air that he offers: therefore he offers the oblation of gravy between the two half-verses of the offering-prayer.

3:8:3:3232. He offers with (Vâg. S. VI, 19), 'Drink the ghee, ye drinkers of ghee! Drink the gravy, ye drinkers of gravy! thou art the havis of the air, Hail!' With this prayer to the All-gods he offers, for the air belongs to the All-gods: because creatures move about here in the air breathing in and breathing out therewith, therefore it belongs to the All-gods. As the Vashat (of the offering-prayer for the meat portions) is pronounced, he offers the portions that are in the guhû.

3:8:3:3333. Thereupon, while taking clotted ghee with the guhû, he says (to the Hotri), 'Recite (the invitatory prayer) to the Lord of the forest!' Having called for the Sraushat, he says (to the Maitrâvaruna), 'Prompt (the Hotri to recite the offering-prayer) to the lord of the forest!' and offers, as the Vashat is pronounced 1. The reason why he offers to the lord of the forest (the tree) is,--he thereby makes that thunderbolt, the sacrificial stake, a sharer (in the sacrifice); and, the lord of the forest being Soma 2,

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he thereby makes the victim to be Soma. And as to his offering (to the tree) between the two oblations, he thus fills both completely: therefore he offers between the two oblations.

3:8:3:3434. Thereupon, while pouring together the meat portions that are for the upabhrit, he says (to the Hotri), 'Recite (the invitatory prayer) to Agni Svishtakrit (the maker of good offering)!' Having called for the Sraushat, he says (to the Maitrâvaruna), 'Prompt for Agni Svishtakrit!' and offers as the Vashat is pronounced.

3:8:3:3535. With what is left of the offering of gravy, he then sprinkles the quarters, with, 'The regions,--the fore-regions,--the by-regions,--the intermediate regions,--the upper regions,--to the regions, Hail!' For the offering of gravy is sap: thus he imbues all the regions with sap, and hence sap is obtained here on earth in every region.

3:8:3:3636. Thereupon he touches (what remains of) the victim 1: now is the time for the touching. And whether he has touched it before, fearing 'those (evil spirits) that hover near will tear it about,' or whether he be not afraid 2 of its being torn about, let him in any case now touch (the victim).

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3:8:3:3737. [Vâg. S. VI, 20], 'To Indra belongeth the out-breathing: may it attend 1 to every limb! To Indra belongeth the in-breathing: it is attended to in every limb.' Where it has been cut up limb by limb, there he heals it by means of the out-breathing and in-breathing.--'O divine Tvashtri, let thine ample (forms) closely unite together, that it be uniform what is of different shape:' whereby he makes it completely enclosed (in its limbs and flesh). 'May thy friends, thy father and mother 2, to please thee, joyfully welcome thee going to the gods!' Thus, having made it whole wherever he has offered (a piece of) it, he afterwards unites it firmly, and that body (self) of it is complete in yonder world.


199:2 The technical name of this cake to Indra and Agni is pasu-purodâsa (animal-cake). The anuvâkyâ and yâgyâ for the chief oblation, are Rig-veda I, 93, 2 and 6 respectively; for the Svishtakrit, III, I, 23, and III, 54, 22; Adv. III, 8, 1; 5, 9. For a similar performance, described in detail, see note on III, 2, 5, 22.

199:3 On the sacrificial essence passing successively from man into the horse, the ox, the goat, and finally into the rice and barley, see I, 2, 3, 6-7.

200:1 The order of proceeding is not quite clear from the context, and seems to have puzzled the later ritualists. From Kâty. VI, 7-8 it would seem that the author of the Sûtras means the performance of the cake-offering to go on simultaneously with the cutting up of the victim (and the cooking of the portions and roasting of the beast). The comm. on Kâty. VI, 7, 29, however, protests against this arrangement as contrary to the order laid down in the Brâhmana; and insists especially on the 'atha (now)' at the beginning of this paragraph. This particle is, however, often used in a vague sense; as very frequently when, after sketching the chief course of performance, the author turns back to fill in the details. There seems also a difference of opinion as to the exact meaning of the above direction given by the Adhvaryu to the Samitar after (as would seem) the portions have been cooked. The commentator on Kâty. VI, 8, 1 apparently takes 'trih prakyâvaya' in the sense of 'shake thrice' or 'turn thrice.' Sâyana, on the other hand, explains it as meaning that the Samitri is to divide the portions into three parts, according to whether they are destined for the chief offerings, or the Svishtakrit, or the by-offerings (?). As the direction cannot refer to the taking out of the portions from the cooking-vessel (ukhâ) it would seem that the Samitar is either to move (shake) the vessel itself, or to stir the contents, perhaps hereby separating the respective portions. The Kânva text reads, Trih prakyâvayâd ity uttame prakyâva uttamârdhe hridayam kurutâd iti. The heart, when done, is to be removed from the spit and laid on the portions; whereupon the Adhvaryu pours ghee on the portions (paragraph 8).

201:1 The Adhvaryu removes the dish northwards from the fire, takes the portions out of it, puts them into some kind of basket, and performs 'prânadâna' (p. 196, note 3) on them.

202:1 Or, the Plaksha branches with which the altar was covered on the preceding night. See p. 120, note 3. The Kânva text (as Taitt. S. VI, 3, 10, 2) speaks of one Plaksha branch put on the barhis.

202:2 Anûka, of which anûkya is the adjective, means 'the forepart of the spinal column.' The Kânva text reads,--yan mastishko yad anûke maggâ.

203:1 That is, the ladle used (as a substitute for the guhû) for offering the fat-liquor or gravy. See paragraph 20.

203:2 That is, the vessel used for holding the cuttings (samavatta) of the idâ; also called idâpâtrî, see part i, p. 219, note 3.

203:3 See p. 198, note 1.

203:4 Thereupon he says, 'Recite to the manotâ (deity) the invitatory prayer for (of) the havis which is being cut in portions (havisho ’vadîyamânasya).' Kânva text; cf. Ait. Br. II, 10.--While the sacrificial portions are being cut into the respective spoons, the Hotri recites the Hymn to Agni, Rig-veda VI, 1, 1-13, beginning, 'Thou, O wondrous Agni, the first thinker (manotri) of this hymn, wert verily the priest. . . .' From the occurrence of this word manotâ, the latter has come to be the technical name both of the hymn itself and of the deity (Agni) to whom it is recited.

204:1 Literally, he makes a cutting of the heart (hridayasya-avadyati), that is to say, he puts the entire heart into the guhû as an offering-portion.

204:2 Etasmâd dhy ayam ûrdhvah prâna ukkarati, Kânva rec.

204:3 Or, that (comes) after that (tongue): tad dhi tato ’nvak, Kânva rec.

204:4 According to Kâty. VI, 7, 6, it is the foremost (or upper) joint (pûrvanadaka) of the left fore-foot which is taken. The Kânva text has simply 'atha doshnah.'

204:5 See III, 8, 4, 9 seq.

205:1 Literally, the three-limbs, the technical name of the portion for Agni Svishtakrit.

205:2 For 'athaikakarâyai sroneh' the Kânva text reads 'áthấdhyûdhasah sneh,' of the hip above the udder.

205:3 Vasâ, i.e. the melted fat (and juice) mixed with the water in which the portions have been cooked, and forming a rich gravy, offered with the Vasâhomahavanî.

205:4 Literally, 'mix'--srî, this root being here, as usual, confounded with sri, to cook.

205:5 Esha viva pûshâ yo ’yam pavata etasmâ u hi grihnâti, Kânva recension.

206:1 Sâsena vâ pârsvena vâ, Kânva text.

206:2 This forms part of the preceding formula (as subject to the verb 'may totter'), though the author seems to separate it therefrom, as does Mahîdhara. The meaning of the formula seems to be, 'May the enemies perish, confounded by (?) the hot vapour!'

207:1 The St. Petersburg Dict. takes 'Na-upâveyuh' in the sense of 'they did not fall in therewith; they did not feel inclined for it;' as above, III, 7, 3, 3. Sâyana explains it by 'nopâgatâh' (MSS. nâpâgatâh).

207:2 That is, Aditi, according to the Kânva recension.

207:3 The yâgyâ and anuvâkyâ are I, 93, 3 and 7 respectively.

207:4 Ito vâ ayam ûrdhva ukkhrito raso yam idam imâh pragâ upagîvanty arvâg divo ’sminn antarikshe, Kânva recension.

208:1 For the formulas used with this oblation, as well as the Svishtakrit, see Haug, Transl. Ait. Br. pp. 95-96 notes.

208:2 Or, Soma being a tree (plant).

209:1 This touching takes place either before or after the invocation of Idâ (see I, 8, I, I seq.), whereupon the priests and sacrificer eat their respective portions; the straight gut being the Agnîdh's, the part above the udder (adhyndhnî) the Hotri's, the kloman (apparently the right lung) the Brahman's, the pericardium (? purîtat) the Adhvaryu's, and the spleen the sacrificer's share, while the Idâ is eaten by all of them.

209:2 Or perhaps,--And as to his touching it before this, (he did so) fearing lest those (evil spirits) that hover near would tear it about; and even if he be not (any longer?) afraid of its being torn about, let him now touch it in any case. The Kânva text has simply,--p. 210 This is the time for touching; but if he think, 'Those standing about here will meddle with it,' he may also touch it before: but this is certainly the time for touching.

210:1 The St. Petersburg Dictionary suggests that 'nidîdhyat' and 'nidhîta' are probably corruptions of forms from 'dhâ;' the Taitt. S. (I, 3, 10) having 'ni dedhyat--vi bobhuvat' instead. Mahîdhara also takes 'nidîdhyat' from 'dhî' in the sense of 'dhâ,'--'Indra's out-breathing is infused into every limb; Indra's in-breathing has been infused into every limb.' The Kânva text has '-nidhîtah, -nidîdhe.'

210:2 Rather, 'the mothers (or mother) and fathers.' The Taitt. S. separates mâtâ pitarah, 'the mother and the fathers.'

Next: III, 8, 4. Fourth Brâhmana