Satapatha Brahmana Part 1 (SBE12), Julius Eggeling tr. , at sacred-texts.com
This peculiar modification of the new and full-moon sacrifice seems to have been originated and generally to have been practised among the Dâkshâyanas, a royal family which was evidently still flourishing at the time of our author 2.
Here also two days were, as a rule, required for the performance, both at full and new moon; but while, at the ordinary sacrifice,
the first day was completely taken up with the preliminary ceremonies, the Dâkshâyanas spread the special offerings over both days, making each time two separate ishtis of them. The special havis, or sacrificial dishes, were, at the ordinary full-moon sacrifice, a rice-cake (to Agni, and another) to Agni and Soma; and at the new-moors sacrifice, a cake (to Agni, and another) to Indra and Agni, or, as an alternative, a dish of curds (sânnâyya) prepared of sweet and sour milk, offered to Indra (or Mahendra). The Dâkshâyanas, on the other hand, offered the Agni-Soma and Indra-Agni cakes in the fore-noon of the first day, that of full and new moon respectively. The afternoons of the same days were then taken up with preliminary rites, such as the eating of fast-day food, the cutting of a palâsa branch, driving away of the calves from the cows, &c. The second day's performance commences (after the Agnihotra) with the election of the Brahman. The chief oblations of the day are (a cake to Agni, and) sour and sweet milk, offered separately to Indra at full moon; and mixed (as sânnâyya or payasyâ) to Mitra and Varuna at new moon.
At full moon some authorities add a special ishti to Indra Vimridh ('the Averter of evil'). The new-moon performance concludes with libations of whey to the divine coursers (the horses of the gods); and, optionally, with an ishti to Âditya.
The performance of the Dâkshâyana sacrifice was held to be obligatory only for a period of fifteen years (see XI, 1, 2, 13), whereas the ordinary new and full-moon offerings had to be performed for double that period from the setting up of the sacred fires. Nay, even the daily performance of it with certain modifications, for a whole year, was supposed to acquit the householder of any further obligation in this respect; his sacrificial duties being henceforth limited to the performance of the Agnihotra, or morning and evening libations. The daily performance of the Dâkshâyana is so regulated that an afternoon and following forenoon are alternately assigned to the two days' ceremonies of the ordinary fortnightly Dâkshâyana sacrifice.
2:4:4:11. In the beginning Pragâpati, being desirous of offspring, sacrificed with this sacrifice: 'May I abound in offspring and cattle; may I obtain prosperity; may I become glorious; may I become an eater of food!' so he thought.
2:4:4:22. Now he was indeed Daksha: and because
he sacrificed in the beginning with this sacrifice, it is called Dâkshâyana-sacrifice. Some, however, call it the Vasishtha-sacrifice; for he (Pragâpati) is indeed vasishtha (the best) 1, and after him they call it. He sacrificed with that sacrifice; and what race, what prosperity of Pragâpati was then produced through his performing that sacrifice, that same race he procreates, that same prosperity he obtains, whosoever, knowing this, performs that sacrifice: let him therefore perform that sacrifice.
2:4:4:33. Now that same sacrifice was afterwards performed by Pratîdarsa Svaikna; and he indeed was an authority 2 to those who emulated him. An authority, therefore, he will become, whosoever, knowing this, performs that sacrifice: let him, therefore, perform that sacrifice.
2:4:4:44. Him Suplan Sârñgaya approached for the sake of sanctity; and accordingly he was taught that sacrifice and another 3; and having learnt it he went back to the Sriñgayas. Now they knew that he was coming to them after studying the sacrifice for their sake. They said, 'Verily, with the gods (saha devaih) he has come to us who has come after studying the sacrifice:' thus he (was called) Sahadeva Sârñgaya; and even now the saying is, 'Lo, Suplan has taken another name!' He performed that sacrifice; and what race and prosperity of the Sriñgayas was then produced through his performing that sacrifice, that same race he procreates, that same prosperity he obtains, whosoever,
knowing this, performs that sacrifice: let him, therefore, perform that sacrifice.
2:4:4:55. That same sacrifice was afterwards performed by Devabhâga Srautarsha. He was Purohita both to the Kurus and the Sriñgayas. Now a very high position (is held by him) who is the Purohita of one kingdom: how much higher, then, is the position (of one) who (is the Purohita) of two (kingdoms). A very high position accordingly he obtains, whosoever, knowing this, performs that sacrifice: let him, therefore, perform that sacrifice.
2:4:4:66. That same sacrifice was afterwards performed by Daksha Pârvati; and even to this day these (descendants of his) the Dâkshâyanas are possessed of the royal dignity: royal dignity he, therefore, here obtains, whosoever, knowing this, performs that sacrifice: let him, therefore, perform that sacrifice.--Day by day there is one cake 1: thereby Fortune (srî) is (wedded) to him without a rival wife and undisturbed. He offers on two days of the full moon and on two of the new moon: for two means a pair, so that a productive pair is thereby obtained.
2:4:4:77. Now when 2, at full moon, he offers a (cake) to Agni and Soma on the first day,--these are two deities, and two means a pair: hence a productive pair is thereby obtained.
2:4:4:88. And on the morrow there are Agni's cake and Indra's Sânnâyya 3,--these are two deities, and two means a pair, so that a productive pair is thereby obtained.
2:4:4:99. Again when, at new moon, he offers a (cake) to Indra and Agni on the first day,--these are two deities, and two means a pair, so that a productive pair is thereby obtained.
2:4:4:1010. Then on the morrow there are Agni's cake and Mitra and Varuna's curds. Now Agni's cake (is offered), for the sole purpose that it may not forsake the sacrifice 1. Then those two, Mitra and Varuna, are two deities, and two means a pair: hence a productive pair is thereby obtained; and thus is (produced) that form (of the sacrifice) whereby he becomes many, whereby he is reproduced.
2:4:4:1111. And when, at full moon, he offers the Agni-Soma (cake) on the first day, then this is for him that victim which they slaughter for Agni and Soma on the fast-day (of the Soma-sacrifice) 2.
2:4:4:1212. And on the morrow there are Agni's cake and Indra's Sânnâyya. Now Agni's cake is for him what the morning libation is (at the Soma-sacrifice), for the morning libation is indeed sacred to Agni; and the Sânnâyya is for him the mid-day libation, for the mid-day libation is indeed sacred to Indra.
2:4:4:1313. And again when, at new moon, he offers the Indra-Agni (cake) on the first day, that is for him the same as the third (or evening) libation; for the third libation is sacred to the All-gods, and Indra and Agni truly are all the gods 3.
2:4:4:1414. And on the morrow there are Agni's cake and Mitra and Varuna's curds. Now Agni's cake is (offered) for the sole purpose that it should not
forsake the sacrifice and that dish of curds (payasyâ) is to him the same as that barren cow, the anûbandhyâ, which has to be slaughtered for Mitra and Varuna (at the Soma-sacrifice) 1: thus. by performing the full and new-moon offering one gains as much as is gained by performing a Soma-sacrifice; and that (offering) is indeed a great sacrifice.
2:4:4:1515. And again when, at full moon, he offers the Agni-Soma (cake) on the first day,--it was by that (offering) that Indra slew Vritra 2; it was thereby he gained that supreme authority which he now wields 3: and so does he (the sacrificer) thereby slay his wicked spiteful enemy and gain the superiority. And as to his mixing (sweet and sour milk),--the Sânnâyya is (the oblation) of the new moon (amâ-vâsyâ) 4, and the new moon 5 means being far away: to him who had slain Vritra this was forthwith (offered), and him they regaled with that draught. He therefore who, knowing this, prepares the Sânnâyya at full moon, forthwith
drives away evil. Now that moon doubtless is king Soma, the food of the gods: they extract it on the first day, intending to consume it on the next day; consequently when that (moon) wanes, it is being consumed by them.
2:4:4:1616. And when, at full moon, he offers the Agni-Soma (cake) on the first day, he thereby (as it were) extracts that (Soma); and, when extracted, he adds that juice to it, and makes it strong by means of that juice 1. Whosoever, then, knowing this, prepares the Sânnâyya at full moon, renders his offering palatable to the gods, and his offering is palatable to the gods.
2:4:4:1717. And again as to why, at new moon, he offers the Indra-Agni (cake) on the first day. Indra and Agni doubtless are the deities of the new and full moon: it is to these, therefore, that he offers directly and expressly; and directly to the new and full moon is offering made by him who thus knows this.
2:4:4:1818. And on the morrow there is Agni's cake and Mitra and Varuna's curds. Now Agni's cake is (offered) for the sole purpose that it may not forsake the sacrifice. Mitra and Varuna, on the other hand, are the two half-moons: the waxing one is Varuna, and the waning one is Mitra. During that night (of new moon) these two meet, and when they are thus together he pleases them with that (cake-offering): and, verily, all is pleased with him, all is obtained by him who thus knows this.
2:4:4:1919. In that same night Mitra implants seed in Varuna, and when it (the moon) wanes, then it is
produced from that seed. Now as to why that oblation of curds (payasyâ) to Mitra and Varuna is here exactly analogous (to the Sânnâyya offered at new moon) 1.
2:4:4:2020. The new moon doubtless is entitled to the Sânnâyya: it is prepared both then and at full moon. Now were he also here (at the full-moon offering) to mix together (the sweet and sour milk), he would commit a repetition and cause a quarrel (between the respective gods) 2. Having collected that (Soma or moon) from the waters and plants, he causes him to be born from out of the oblations; and on being born from the oblations, he is visible in the western (sky).
2:4:4:2121. It is through union that he produces him: the curds (payasyâ, fem.) are female, and the whey is seed. Now what is produced by union is (produced) properly: hence he thereby produces him by a productive union; and therefore there is an offering of curds.
2:4:4:2222. He then offers the whey 1 to the (divine) Coursers. Now the Coursers are the seasons, and the whey is seed: and thus the seed is cast properly, and the seasons bring forth the seed so cast in the form of these creatures. This is why he offers the whey to the Coursers.
2:4:4:2323. He offers, as it were, behind the sacrifice: for it is from behind that the male approaches and impregnates the female. He first offers in the east. With 'O Agni, accept . . . !' he repeats the Vashat,--this is in lieu of the Svishtakrit; and (the latter) 2 he offers in the east.
2:4:4:2424. He then sprinkles (the whey) in the several quarters, with the texts (Vâg'. S. VI, 19 b-g), 'The quarters!--The fore-quarters (pra-dis)!--The by-quarters (â-dis)!--The intermediate quarters (vi-dis)! The upper quarters (ud-dis)!--To the quarters,--Svâhâ 3!' Five are the quarters, and five the
seasons: he thus effects a union between the quarters and the seasons 1.
2:4:4:2525. Five partake of that (whey remaining in the spoon),--viz. the Hotri, the Adhvaryu, the Brahman, the Âgnîdhra, and the Sacrificer; for five are the seasons, so that the characteristic nature of the seasons is thereby obtained; and the seed that is cast is firmly implanted in the seasons. The sacrificer partakes of it first, thinking, 'May I first obtain seed!' But also last (he partakes of it) 2, thinking, 'May seed remain in me last of all!' By saying, 'Invited,--invite thou 3!' they make it (the whey to resemble) the Soma.
374:2 See Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 223; IV, p. 358; Ludwig, Rig-veda III, p, 595.
376:1 The Kânva text has:--Sa u vâ ekena nâmnâ vasishthas, 'and with one of his names he (Pragâpati) is indeed (called) Vasishtha.'
376:2 Vivakanam; vivâkanam, Kânva recension.
376:3 Viz. the Sautrâmanî-sacrifice, according to XII, 8, 2, 3.
377:1 Viz. on the first day of the full moon a cake to Agni-Soma; on that of new moon a cake to Indra-Agni; and on the second day of either ceremony the (ordinary) cake to Agni.
377:2 Or, 'Now, as to the reason why' (yad) here and in the sequel.
377:3 See I, 6, 4, 9 seq.
378:1 See I, 6, 2, 6, with note.
378:2 On the upavasatha (fast-day, or day of preparation) preceding the Soma-sacrifice a he-goat is sacrificed to Agni and Soma.
378:3 Compare II, 4, 3, 5 seq.
379:1 In connection with the so-called udayanîyâ ishti, or concluding offering, of the Soma-sacrifice, a barren cow, called anûbandhyâ (literally, 'to be bound afterwards'), is offered to Mitra and Varuna. In default of such a cow, an ox, or even a dish of curds (payasyâ) serves the same purpose. See Katy. Sr. X, 9, I2-15; Sat. Br. IV, 5, 2, 1 seq.
379:2 See I, 6, 4, 1 2.
379:3 Thus the frequently-occurring phrase 'vyagayata yâsyeyam vigitis tâm' (literally, 'he conquered that conquest which is now theirs') has been translated throughout.
379:4 On the derivation of amâ-vâsyâ ('dwelling at home, or together'), see I, 6, 4, 3 seq.
379:5 Or, 'the dwelling at home,' or '(Indra's) dwelling together (with Agni) means (Indra, the Vritra-slayer) being far away.'
380:1 See I, 6, 4, 6 seq.
381:1 Or, to the offering of sour and sweet milk at full moon; see next note. The Kânva text has: 'Now as to why the oblation of curds is here made exactly analogous (at the full and new-moon ceremonies).' Perhaps it may also refer to the exact correspondence of the offering of curds to Mitra and Varuna at new moon and at the Soma-sacrifice.
381:2 At the new-moon offering of the Dâkshâyana, the sânnâyya or payasyâ offered to Mitra and Varuna is prepared in the ordinary way (as at the new-moon ceremony), by fresh (boiled or un-boiled) milk being added to the sour milk of the preceding night's milking. At the full-moon offering, on the other hand, the sour and sweet milk remain separate, and constitute two different havis, or sacrificial dishes, dedicated to Indra. The terms san-nî ('to bring together') and sânnâyya are here likewise applied to the offering of the separate substances.
382:1 Before the oblations of curds are made, the whey is poured off into a vessel (then optionally sprinkled with butter), and placed on the utkara, or heap of rubbish. After the stalk of grass has been thrown into the fire (see I, 8, 3, 19), or after the dismissal of the spoons (I, 8, 3, 27), the Adhvaryu takes the whey and sprinkles the barhis (the grass covering on the altar) with it. He then pours the remaining whey into the guhû spoon and calls on the Hotri to recite the invitatory prayer to the Coursers. Thereupon he betakes himself with the spoon to the north of the fire, calls on the Hotri for the offering-formula, and at the two concluding Vashats pours some of the whey into the east part of the fire. He then sits down and sprinkles the whey on the fire according to the several quarters, beginning in the east, and moving around from left to right (pradakshinam), with the respective texts, Vâg. S. VI, 19 b-e; after which he makes two more libations in the centre and east part of the fire, with VI, 19 f and g.
382:2 The Kânva text has tadu instead of sa vai. On the oblation to Agni as 'the maker of good offering,' see I, 7, 3, 1 seq.
382:3 Svâhâ is uttered after each formula,--'The quarters, Svâhâ!' &c.
383:1 Ritûn evaitad digbhir mithunân karoti, Kânva recension.
383:2 The author does not express himself quite clearly. The sacrificer is to partake of the whey before the priests and also (or, as an alternative) after them. According to Kâty. IV, 4, 26-27, the sacrificer is to eat either last of all, or first and last. The Kânva text has: Prathamo yagamâno bhakshayati prathamo retah parigrihnâmîty athottamo mayy uttamam retah pratitishthâd iti,--accordingly he is to eat first and last.
383:3 Each of them, in his respective order, takes the spoon, calls on the others in the same order with 'O sacrificer (Hotri, Adhvaryu, &c.) invite!' Their permission having been given by 'Invited (thou art)!' he then takes some of the whey, with one of the texts: 'I eat thee, the courser (or whey, vâginam) of the seasons, the coursers!' 'I, the courser (or, mighty one) eat, invited, of the invited, to the whey.' 'May I be a racer in the race!' Kâty. IV, 4, 13-15.