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Vedic Hymns, Part II (SBE46), by Hermann Oldenberg [1897], at

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1. He who gives vigour like wealth acquired by the fathers 1, who is a good guide like the instruction of a sage, who is pleased (by worship) like a comfortably resting guest 2, (Agni) has crossed the (sacrificial) seat of the worshipper like a Hotri.

2. He who being truthful like the god Savitri 1 protects by his power of mind all settlements 2, praised by many like impetuous splendour 3, the truthful one has become dear like vital breath and worthy to be searched for 4.

1. (Agni) who possessing every refreshment dwells on the earth like a god, like a king who has made himself (valiant) friends 2, like heroes who sit in front and under shelter, like a blameless wife beloved by her husband—

4. Thee, O Agni, who art constantly kindled in the house, men have worshipped in their firm dwellings. They have placed in him rich splendour 1. Be thou possessed of all life, a supporter of riches 2.

5. May the liberal givers, O Agni, attain nourishment, may the rich 1 who bestow gifts (on us) attain to a full span of life. May we win in battles the booty of him who does not give 1, obtaining a (rich) share before the gods, that we may win glory 2.

6. The lowing milch-cows of Rita, assigned by Heaven, were exuberant with their full udders. The rivers imploring the favour (of the gods) from afar

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have broken through the midst of the rock with their floods.

7. Imploring favour from thee, O Agni, the worshipful (gods) have won glory in the sky. They have made Night and Dawn of different shapes; they have joined the black and red colour (to Night and Dawn).

8. And may we, our liberal givers and ourselves, be the mortals whom thou furtherest to wealth, O Agni 1. Like a shadow thou followest the whole world, having filled the two worlds (Heaven and Earth) and the air 2.

9. May we, O Agni, guarded by thee, conquer with our racers the racers, with our men the men, with our heroes the heroes (of our enemies). Being masters of the riches which their fathers 1 have conquered, may our rich (givers) reach a hundred winters.

10. May these hymns, O Agni, worshipper (of the gods), be grateful to thee, to thy mind and heart. May we be able to bridle thee, the well-harnessed wealth 1, acquiring the glory which the gods have assigned us.


The same Rishi and metre.—Verse 5 = MS. IV, 14, 15. Verse 7 = TB. II, 7, 12, 5. Verse 10 = MS. IV, 14, 15.

Verse 1.

Note 1. Agni is compared to wealth acquired by the fathers, being himself pitrivitta, found by the forefathers

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of the Brâhmanic tribes. Prof. Max Müller proposes to translate: 'wealth inherited from the fathers.'

Note 2. Comp. VII, 42, 4, and see also VI, 16, 42.

Verse 2.

Note 1. The first Pâda is identical with the fourth of IX, 97, 48. There the expressions are referred to Soma.

Note 2. On vrigána, comp. the quotations given above, I, 60, 3, note 2; cf. IX, 87, 2. vrigánam rákshamânah.

Note 3. Comp. I, 64, 9. amátih ná darsatâ´.

Note 4. Comp. II, 4, 1 (see below).

Verse 3.

Note 1. The first three Pâdas are nearly identical with III, 55, 21.

Note 2. As to the meaning of hitámitra, comp. X, 108, 3. mitrám ena dadhâma; see also X, 132, 5, and H. O., Religion des Veda, 186, note 1.

Verse 4.

Note 1. Comp. I, 72, 10 (see above).

Note 2. I cannot accept Pischel's translation of dharúnah rayînâ´m, 'der Reichtum fliessen lässt' (Vedische Studien, I, 40).—'Be thou, who art rich in all food, the protector of riches.' M. M.

Verse 5.

Note 1. On sûrí and arí, see Bergaigne, Rel. Véd. II, 218 seq. Aryáh may also be nom. pl. and mean '(we) the poor ones.'

Note 2. 'May we win in battles the booty of the enemy, setting aside a share for the gods to their glory.' M. M.

Verse 8.

Note 1. In the first Pâda one syllable is wanting. Perhaps the acc. plur. yâ´n had here dissyllabic value.

Note 2. The last Pâda is identical with the second of X, 139, 2.

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Verse 9.

Note 1. Comp. above, verse 1, note 1.

Verse 10.

Note 1. Comp. sakéma vâgínah yámam, II, 5, 1; ágne sakéma te vayám yámam devásya vâgínah, III, 27, 3. As sudhúr and sudhúra are epithets of horses, the poet of course could say, sakéma sudhûrah yámam te. But Agni is not only a horse; he is also wealth (II, 1, 12; IV, 2, 5, &c.). The combination of the two metaphors explains the curious expression sudhúrah râyáh.

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