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Vedic Hymns, Part I (SBE32), by Max Müller, [1891], at

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To the Maruts and Indra.

The Prologue.

The sacrificer speaks:

1. To what splendour do the Maruts all equally 1 cling 2, they who are of the same age, and dwell in the same nest? With what thoughts?—from whence are they come 3? Do these heroes sing forth their (own) strength 4, wishing for wealth?

2. Whose prayers have the youths accepted? Who has turned the Maruts to his own sacrifice? By what strong desire 1 may we arrest them, they who float through the air like hawks?

The Dialogue.

The Maruts speak:

3. From whence 1, O Indra, dost thou come alone, thou who art mighty? O lord of men 2, what has thus happened to thee? Thou greetest (us) 3 when thou comest together with (us), the bright (Maruts) 4. Tell us then, thou with thy bay horses, what thou hast against us!

Indra speaks:

4. The sacred songs are mine, (mine are) the prayers 1; sweet 2 are the libations! My strength rises 3, my thunderbolt is hurled forth. They call for me, the hymns yearn for me. Here are my horses, they carry me hither.

The Maruts speak:

5. From thence, in company with our strong

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friends 1, having adorned our bodies, we now harness our fallow deer 2 with all our might 3;—for, Indra, according to custom, thou hast come to be with us.

Indra speaks:

6. Where, O Maruts, was that custom with you, when you left me alone in the killing of Ahi? I indeed am terrible, powerful, strong,—I escaped from the blows of every enemy 1.

The Maruts speak:

7. Thou hast achieved much with us as companions 1. With equal valour, O hero! let us achieve then many things, O thou most powerful, O Indra! whatever we, O Maruts, wish with our mind 2.

Indra speaks:

8. I slew Vritra, O Maruts, with (Indra's) might, having grown powerful through my own vigour; I, who hold the thunderbolt in my arms, have made these all-brilliant waters to flow freely for man 1.

The Maruts speak:

9. Nothing, O mighty lord, is strong 1 before thee: no one is known among the gods 2 like unto thee. No one who is now born 3 comes near, no one who has been born. Do what thou wilt do 4, thou who art grown so strong.

Indra speaks:

10. Almighty strength be mine alone, whatever I may do, daring in my heart 1; for I indeed, O Maruts, am known as terrible: of all that I threw down, I, Indra, am the lord.

Indra speaks:

11. O Maruts, now your praise has pleased me, the glorious hymn which you have made for me, ye

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men!—for me, for Indra, for the joyful hero, as friends for a friend, for your own sake, and by your own efforts 1.

Indra speaks:

12. Truly, there they are, shining towards me, bringing blameless glory, bringing food. O Maruts, wherever I have looked for you, you have appeared to me in bright splendour: appear to me also now!

The Epilogue.

The sacrificer speaks:

13. Who has magnified you here, O Maruts? Come hither, O friends, towards your friends. Ye brilliant Maruts, welcoming 1 these prayers, be mindful 2 of these my rites.

14. The wisdom of Mânya has brought us hither, that he should help as the poet helps the performer of a sacrifice 1: turn hither quickly 2! Maruts, on to the sage! the singer has recited these prayers for you.

15. May this your praise, O Maruts, this song of Mândârya, the son of Mâna 1, the poet, bring offspring 2 for ourselves with food. May we have an invigorating autumn, with quickening rain 3.

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A critical examination of Professor von Roth's remarks on this hymn, together with some supplementary notes of my own, will be found in the Preface to this volume.

According to the Anukramanikâ this hymn is a dialogue between Agastya, the Maruts, and Indra. A careful consideration of the hymn would probably have led us to a similar conclusion, but I doubt whether it would have led us to adopt the same distribution of the verses among the poet, the Maruts, and Indra, as that adopted by the author of the Anukramanikâ. He assigns the first two verses to Indra, the third, fifth, seventh, and ninth to the Maruts, the fourth, sixth, eighth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth to Indra, and the three concluding verses to Agastya. I think that the two verses in the beginning, as well as the three concluding verses, belong certainly to Agastya or to whoever else the real performer of the sacrifice may have been. The two verses in the beginning cannot be ascribed to Indra, who, to judge from his language, would never say: 'By what strong desire may we arrest the Maruts?' It might seem, in fact, as if the three following verses too should be ascribed to the sacrificer, so that the dialogue between Indra and the Maruts would begin only with the sixth verse. The third verse might well be addressed to Indra by the sacrificer, and in the fourth verse we might see a description of all that he had done for Indra. What is against this view, however, is the phrase prábhritah me ádrih. If used by the sacrificer, it might seem to mean, 'my stone, i. e. the stone used for squeezing the Soma, has been brought forth.' But though Professor Roth assigns this meaning to prábhrita in our passage, I doubt whether, in connection with ádri, or with vágra, prábhrita can mean anything but hurled. Thus we read:

I, 61, 12. asmaí ít ûm (íti) prá bhara—vritrâ´ya vágram.

Hurl thou, Indra, the thunderbolt against this Vritra.

V, 32, 7. yát îm vágrasya prá-bhritau dadâ´bha.

When Indra conquered him in the hurling of the thunderbolt.

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I therefore suppose the dialogue to begin with verse 3, and I find that Langlois, though it may be from different reasons, arrived at the same conclusion.

There can be little doubt that the other verses, to verse 12, are rightly apportioned between Indra and the Maruts. Verse 12 might perhaps be attributed again to the worshipper of the Maruts, but as there is no absolute necessity for assigning it to him, it is better to follow the tradition and to take it as the last verse of Indra's speech. It would seem, in fact, as if these ten verses, from 3 to 12, formed an independent poem, which was intended to show the divine power of the Maruts. That their divine power was sometimes denied, and that Indra's occasional contempt of them was well known to the Vedic poets, will become evident from other hymns. This dialogue seems therefore to have been distinctly intended to show that, in spite of occasional misunderstandings between the Maruts and the all-powerful Indra, Indra himself had fully recognised their power and accepted their friendship. If we suppose that this dialogue was repeated at sacrifices in honour of the Maruts, or that possibly it was acted by two parties, one representing Indra, the other the Maruts and their followers, then the two verses in the beginning and the three at the end ought to be placed in the mouth of the actual sacrificer, whoever he was. He begins by asking, Who has attracted the Maruts to his sacrifice, and by what act of praise and worship can they be delighted? Then follows the dialogue in honour of the Maruts, and after it the sacrificer asks again, 'Who has magnified the Maruts, i. e. have not we magnified them?' and he implores them to grant him their friendship in recognition of his acts of worship. If then we suppose that the dialogue was the work of Mândârya Mânya, the fourteenth verse, too, would lose something of its obscurity. Coming from the mouth of the actual sacrificer, it would mean, 'the wisdom, or the poetical power, of Mânya has brought us to this, has induced us to do this, i. e. to perform this dialogue of Mânya, so that he, Mânya, should assist, as a poet assists the priest at a sacrifice.' Of course all this is and can only be guess-work.

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[paragraph continues] We do not know the age of Mânya nor that of Agastya. We do not know whether they were Contemporaries or not. But supposing that Mânya was present at the sacrifice, vípra might be meant for Mânya; and in the last words, too, 'the singer has recited these prayers for you,' the singer (garitâ´) might again be Mânya, the powerful poet whose services the sacrificer had engaged, and whose famous dialogue between Indra and the Maruts was considered a safe means of winning their favour. It would be in keeping with all this, if in the last verse the sacrificer once more informed the Maruts that this hymn of praise was the work of the famous poet Mândârya, the son of Mâna, and if he then concluded with the usual prayer for safety, food, and progeny.

No verse of this hymn occurs in the Sâma-veda; verse 3 = VS. XXXIII, 27; verse 4 = VS. XXXIII, 78; verse 6 = TB. II, 8, 3, 5; verse 8 = TB. 11, 8, 3, 6; verse 9 = VS. XXXIII, 79.

Verse 1.

Note 1. As samânî´ occurs in the Veda as the feminine of samâna (cf. IV, 51, 9; X, 191, 3; 4), samânyâ´ might, no doubt, be taken as an instrumental, belonging to subhâ´. We should then have to translate: 'With what equal splendour are the Maruts endowed?' Sâyana adopts the same explanation, while Wilson, who seems to have read samânyâh, translates 'of one dignity.' Professor Roth, s. v. myaksh, would seem to take samânyâ´ as some kind of substantive, and he refers to another passage, I, 167, 4, sâdhâranyâ´-iva marútah mimikshuh, without, however, detailing his interpretation of these passages.

It cannot be said that Sâyana's explanation is objectionable, yet there is something awkward in qualifying by an adjective, however indefinite, what forms the subject of an interrogative sentence, and it would be possible to avoid this, by taking samânyâ´ as an adverb. It is clearly used as an adverb in III, 54, 7; VIII, 83, 8.

Note 2. Mimikshuh is the perfect of myaksh, in the sense of to be firmly joined with something. It has therefore a more definite meaning than the Latin miscere and the Greek μίσγειν, which come from the same source, i. e.

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from a root mik or mig, in Sanskrit also mis in mis-ra; (see Curtius, Grundzüge, p. 300.) There may be indeed one or two passages in the Veda where myaksh seems to have the simple meaning of mixing, but it will be seen that they constitute a small minority compared with those where myaksh has the meaning of holding to, sticking to; I mean

X, 104, 2. mimikshúh yám ádrayah indra túbhyam.

The Soma which the stones have mixed for thee.

This form cannot be derived from mimiksh, but is the 3rd pers. plur. perf. Parasm. of myaksh. It may, however, be translated, 'This Soma which the stones have grasped or squeezed for thee,' as may be seen from passages quoted hereafter, in which myaksh is construed with an accusative.

II, 3, 11. ghritám mimikshe.

The butter has been mixed.

This form cannot be derived from mimiksh, but is the 3rd pers. sing. perf. Âtm. of myaksh. If the meaning of mixing should be considered inadmissible, we might in this verse also translate, 'The butter has become fixed, solid, or coagulated.'

Leaving out of consideration for the present the forms which are derived from mimiksh, we find the following passages in which myaksh occurs. Its original meaning must have been to be mixed with, to be joined to, and in many passages that original sense is still to be recognised, only with the additional idea of being firmly joined, of sticking to, or, in an active sense, laying hold of, grasping firmly.

1. Without any case:

I, 169, 3. ámyak sâ´ te indra rishtíh asmé (íti).

This thy spear, O Indra, sat firm for us.

This would mean that Indra held his weapon well, as a soldier ought to hold his spear. Ámyak is the 3rd pers. sing. of a second aor. Parasm., ámyaksham, ámyak(sh + t); (Say. prâpnoti.) Cf. VIII, 61, 18.

2. With locative:

X, 44, 2. mimyáksha vágrah nri-pate gabhástau.

In thy fist, O king, the thunderbolt rests firmly.

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I, 167, 3. mimyáksha yéshu sû-dhitâ—rishtíh.

To whom clings the well-grasped spear.

VI, 50, 5. mimyáksha yéshu rodasî´ nú devî´.

To whom the goddess Rodasî clings. (Sây. samgakkhate.)

VI, 11, 5. ámyakshi sádma sádane prithivyâ´h.

The seat was firmly set on the seat of the earth. (Sây. gamyate, parigrihyate.) It is the 3rd pers. sing. aor. pass.

VI, 29, 2. â´ yásmin háste náryâh mimikshúh â´ ráthe hiranyáye rathe-sthâ´h, â´ rasmáyah gábhastyoh sthûráyoh â´ ádhvan ásvâsah vshanah yugânâ´h.

To whose hand men cling, in whose golden chariot the drivers stand firm, in whose strong fists the reins are well held, on whose path the harnessed stallions hold together. (Say. âsikyante, âpûryante; or âsiñkanti, pûrayanti.)

X, 96, 3. índre ní rûpâ´ háritâ mimikshire.

Bright colours stuck or clung or settled on Indra. (Sây. nishiktâni babhûvuh; miheh sanantât karmani rûpam.)

3. With instrumental:

I, 165, 1. káyâ subhâ´ marûtah sám mimikshuh.

To what splendour do the Maruts cling; or, what splendour clings to them?

V, 58, 5. sváyâ matyâ´ marûtah sám mimikshuh. (See also I, 165, 1.)

The Maruts cling to their own thought or will. (Sây. vrishtyâ samyak siñkanti.)

I, 167, 4. yavyâ´ sâdhâranyâ´-iva marútah mimikshuh.

The Maruts cling to the young maid, as if she belonged to all. See I, 173, 12; VIII, 98, 8; or VI, 27, 6,

I, 87, 6. bhânú-bhih sám mimikshire.

The Maruts were joined with splendour. (Sây. medhum ikkhanti.)

4. With accusative:

VIII, 61, 18. ni yâ´ vágram mimikshátuh.

Thy two arms which have firmly grasped the thunderbolt. (Say. parigrihnîtah.)

Here I should also prefer to place VII, 20, 4, if we might read mimikshe or mimyáksha, for it is impossible to take mímikshan for anything but a participle of the desiderative of mih, which does not yield an appropriate meaning.

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ní vágram índrah mímikshan.

Grasping firmly the thunderbolt. (Sây. satrushu prâpayan.)

VI, 29, 3. sriyé te pâ´dâ dûvah â´ mimikshuh.

Thy servants embrace thy feet for their happiness. (Sây. âsiñkanti, samarpayanti.)

Like other verbs which mean to join, myaksh, if accompanied by prepositions expressive of separation, means to separate. (Cf. vi-yukta, se-junctus.)

II, 28, 6. ápo (íti) sú myaksha varuna bhiyásam mát.

Remove well from me, O Varuna, terror. (Sây. apagamaya.)

Quite distinct from this is the desiderative or inchoative verb mimiksh, from mih, in the sense of to sprinkle, or to shower, chiefly used with reference to the gods who are asked to sprinkle the sacrifice with rain. Thus we read:

I, 142, 3. mádhvâ yagñám mimikshati.

(Narâsamsa) sprinkles the sacrifice with rain.

IX, 107, 6. mádhvâ yagñám mimiksha nah.

Sprinkle (O Soma) our sacrifice with rain.

I, 34, 3. tríh adyá yagñám mádhunâ mimikshatam.

O Asvins, sprinkle the sacrifice with rain thrice to-day!

I, 47, 4. mádhvâ yagñám mimikshatam.

O Asvins, sprinkle the sacrifice with rain!

5. Without mádhu:

I, 22, 13. mahî´ dyaûh prithivî´ ka nah imám yagñám mimikshatâm.

May the great heaven and earth sprinkle this our sacrifice.

6. With mádhu in the accusative:

VI, 70, 5. mádhu nah dyâ´vâprithivî´ (íti) mimikshatâm.

May heaven and earth shower down rain for us.

Very frequently the Asvins are asked to sprinkle the sacrifice with their whip. This whip seems originally, like the whip of the Maruts, to have been intended for the cracking noise of the storm, preceding the rain. Then as whips had possibly some similarity to the instruments used for sprinkling butter on the sacrificial viands, the Asvins are

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asked to sprinkle the sacrifice with their whip, i. e. to give rain:

I, 157, 4. mádhu-matyâ nah kasayâ mimikshatam.

O Asvins, sprinkle us with your rain-giving whip.

I, 22, 3. táyâ yagñám mimikshatam.

O Asvins, sprinkle the sacrifice with it (your whip).

7. Lastly, we find such phrases as,

I, 48, 16. sám nah râyâ´—mimikshvá.

Sprinkle us with wealth, i. e. shower wealth down upon us. Here mih is really treated as a Hu-verb in the Âtmanepada, though others take it for mimikshasva.

As an adjective, mimikshú is applied to Indra (III, 50, 3), and mimikshá to Soma (VI, 34, 4).

Note 3. I do not see how étâsah can here be taken in any sense but that suggested by the Pada, â´-itâsah, come near. Professor Roth thinks it not impossible that it may be meant for étâh, the fallow deer, the usual team of the Maruts. These Etas are mentioned in verse 5, but there the Pada gives quite correctly étân, not â´-itân, and Sâyana explains it accordingly by gantûn.

Note 4. The idea that the Maruts proclaim their own strength occurred before, I, 87, 3. It is a perfectly natural conception, for the louder the voice of the wind, the greater its strength, and vice versa.

Verse 2.

Note 1. Mánas here, as elsewhere, is used in the sense of thought preceding speech, desire, or devotion not yet expressed in prayer. See Taitt. Samh. V, 1, 3, 3. yat purusho manasâbhigakkhati tad vâkâ vadati, what a man grasps in his mind, that he expresses by speech. Professor Roth suggests an emendation which is ingenious, but not necessary, viz. mahâ´ námasâ, with great adoration, an expression which occurs, if not in VI, 52, 17, at least in VII, 12, 1. We find, however, the phrase mahâ´ mánasâ in

VI, 40, 4.

â´ yâhi sásvat usatâ´ yayâtha índra mahâ´ mánasâ soma-péyam,
ûpa bráhmâni srinavah imâ´ nah átha te yagñáh tanvẽ váyah dhât.

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Come hither, thou hast always come, Indra, to our libation through our yearning great desire. Mayest thou hear these our prayers, and may then the sacrifice put vigour in thy body.

It is curious to observe that throughout the Rig-veda the instrumental singular mahâ´ is always used as an adjective belonging to some term or other for praise and prayer. Besides the passages mentioned, we find:

II, 24, 1. ayâ´ vidhema návayâ mahâ´ girâ´.

Let us sacrifice with this new great song.

VI, 52, 17. su-ukténa mahâ´ námasâ â´ vivâse.

I worship with a hymn with great adoration, or I worship with a great hymn in adoration. VIII, 46, 14. gâya girâ´ mahâ´ ví-ketasam. Celebrate the wise Indra with a great song. Otherwise we might translate, Thou hast always come with a great yearning desire.

Verse 3.

Note 1. We ought to scan kŭtāh t̆văm īnd̆ră mâ̄hĭnāh san, because yâsi, being anudâtta, could not begin a new pâda. It would be more natural to translate kútah by why? for the Maruts evidently wish to express their surprise at Indra's going to do battle alone and without their assistance. I do not think, however, that in the Rig-veda, even in the latest hymns, kútah has as yet a causal meaning, and I have therefore translated it in the same sense in which it occurs before in the poet's address to the Maruts.

Note 2. Sat-pati, lord of men, means lord of real men, of heroes, and should not be translated by good lord. Sat by itself is frequently used in the sense of heroes, of men physically rather than morally good:

II, I, 3. tvám agne índrah vrishabháh satâ´m asi.

Thou, Agni, art Indra, the hero among heroes.

I, 173, 7. samát-su tvâ sûra satâ´m urânám.

Thee, O hero, in battles the protector of (good and true) men.

Note 3. The meaning of sám prikkhase is very much the same as that of sám vadasva in I, 170, 5.

Note 4. Subhâná is evidently meant as a name for the

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[paragraph continues] Maruts, who thus speak of themselves in the third person, which is by no means unusual in the Rig-veda.

Mahîdhara explains subhânaih by sobhanair vakanaih.

Verse 4.

Indra certainly addresses his old friends, the Maruts, very unceremoniously, but this, though at first startling, was evidently the intention of the poet. He wished to represent a squabble between Indra and the Maruts, such as they were familiar with in their own village life, and this was to be followed by a reconciliation. The boorish rudeness, selfishness, and boastfulness here ascribed to Indra may seem offensive to those who cannot divest themselves of the modern meaning of deities, but looked upon from the right point of view, it is really full of interest.

Note 1. Bráhmâni and matáyah are here mentioned separately in the same way as a distinction is made between bráhman, stóma, and ukthá, IV, 22, I; VI, 23, 1; between bráhmâni and gírah, III, 51, 6; between bráhma, gírah, and stómah, VI, 38, 3; between bráhma, gírah, ukthâ´, and mánma, VI, 38, 4, &c.

Note 2. Sám, which I have here translated by sweet, is a difficult word to render. It is used as a substantive, as an adjective, and as an adverb; and in several instances it must remain doubtful whether it was meant for one or the other. The adverbial character is almost always, if not always, applicable, though in English there is no adverb of such general import as sám, and we must therefore render it differently, although we are able to perceive that in the mind of the poet it might still have been conceived as an adverb, in the sense of 'well.' I shall arrange the principal passages in which sám occurs according to the verbs with which it is construed.

1. With bhû:

VIII, 79, 7. bháva nah soma sám hridé.

Be thou, Soma, well (pleasant) to our heart. Cf. VIII,

82, 3.

VIII, 48, 4. sám nah bhava hridé â´ pîtáh indo (íti).

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Be thou well (sweet) to our heart, when drunk, O Soma! Cf. X, 9, 4.

I, 90, 9. sám nah bhavatu aryamâ´.

May Aryaman be well (kind) to us!

VI, 74, 1. sám nah bhûtam dvi-páde sám kátuh-pade.

May Soma and Rudra be well (kind) to our men and cattle.

Here sám might be rendered as an adverb, or as an adjective, or even as a substantive, in the sense of health or blessing.

Cf. VII, 54, I; IX, 69, 7. The expression dvipád and kátuh-pad is curiously like what occurs in the prayers of the Eugubian tables, Fisovie Sansie, ditu ocre Fisi, tote Jovine, ocrer Fisie, totar Jovinar dupursus, peturpursus fato fito (Umbrische Sprachdenkmäler, ed. Aufrecht, p. 198); and also in the edicts of Piyadasi, dupada-katupadesu pakhivâlikalesu, 'aux bipèdes, aux quadrupèdes, aux volatiles, aux animaux qui se meuvent dans les eaux.' See Burnouf, Lotus, p. 667.

II, 38, 11. sám yát stot-bhyah âpáye bhávâti.

What may be well (a pleasure) for the praisers, for the friend.

X, 37, 10. sám nah bhava kákshasâ.

Be kind to us with thy light!

2. With as:

VIII, 17, 6. sómah sám astu te hridé.

May the Soma be well (agreeable) to thy heart!

I, 5, 7. sám te santu prá-ketase.

May the Somas be well (pleasing) to thee, the wise!

V, 11, 5. túbhyam manîshâ´ iyám astu sám hridé.

May this prayer be well (acceptable) to thy heart!

I, 114, 1. yáthâ sám ásat dvi-páde kátuh-pade.

That it may be well for our men and cattle. Cf. X, 165, I; 3.

VII, 86, 8. sám nah kshéme sám ûm (íti) yóge nah astu.

May it be well with us in keeping and acquiring!

V, 7, 9. â´ yáh te—agne sám ásti dhâ´yase.

He who is lief to thee to support, i. e. he whom thou likest to support.

V, 74, 9. sám ûm (íti) sú vâm—asmâ´kam astu karkrih.

Let there be happiness to you—glory to us!

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3. With as or bhû understood:

VI, 45, 22. sám yát gáve ná sâkíne.

A song which is pleasant to the mighty Indra, as food to an ox.

VIII, 13, 11. sám ít hí te.

For it is well for thee.

X, 86, 15. mantháh te indra sám hridé.

The mixture is pleasant to thy heart, O Indra!

X, 97, 18. áram kâ´mâya, sám hridé.

Enough for love, pleasant to the heart.

VI, 34, 3. sám tát asmai.

That is pleasant to him.

VI, 21, 4. káh te yagñáh mánase sám várâya.

What sacrifice seems to thy mind pleasant to select?

4. With kar:

I, 43, 6. sám nah karati árvate.

May he do well to our horse, i. e. may he benefit our horses.

IV, I, 3. tokâ´ya tugé—sám kridhi.

Do good to our children and progeny, or bless us for the procreation of children.

VIII, 18, 8. sám nah karatah asvinâ.

May the two Asvins do us good!

5. With vah:

I, 157, 3. sám nah â´ vakshat dvi-páde kátuh-pade.

May he bring blessing to us for man and cattle.

VIII, 5, 20. téna nah—pásve tokâ´ya sám gáve, váhatam pî´varîh íshah.

Bring to us rich food, a blessing to cattle, to children, and to the ox.

6. With verbs, such as pû, vâ, and others, where it is clearly used as an adverb:

IX, II, 3. sáh nah pavasva sám gáve sám gánâya sám árvate, sám râgan óshadhîbhyah.

Do thou, king Soma, stream upon us, a blessing for the ox, a blessing for man, a blessing for the horse, a blessing for the plants. Cf. IX, 11, 7; 60, 4; 61, 15; 109, 5.

VII, 35, 4. sám nah ishiráh abhí vâtu vâ´tah.

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May the brisk wind blow kindly upon us, or blow a blessing upon us!

VII, 35, 6. sám nah tváshtâ gnâ´bhih ihá srinotu.

May Tvashtar with the goddesses hear us here well, i. e. auspiciously!

VII, 35, 8. sám nah sû´ryah—út etu.

May the sun rise auspiciously for us!

VIII, 18, 9. sám nah tapatu sûryah.

May the sun warm us well!

III, 13, 6. sám nah soka—ágne.

Shine well for us, O Agni!

Sám Yóh.

Sám also occurs in a phrase that has puzzled the interpreters of the Veda very much, viz. sám yóh. These are two words, and must both be taken as substantives, though originally they may have been adverbs. Their meaning seems to have been much the same, and in English they may safely be rendered by health and wealth, in the old acceptation of these words:

I, 93, 7. dhattam yágamânâya sám yóh.

Give, Agni and Soma, to the sacrificer health and wealth.

I, 106, 5. sám yóh yát te mánuh-hitam tát îmahe.

Brihaspati, we ask for health and wealth which thou gavest to Manu.

I, 114, 2. yát sám ka yóh ka mánuh â-yegé pitâ´ tát asyâma táva rudra prá-nîtishu.

Rudra, the health and wealth which Manu, the father, obtained, may we reach it under thy guidance.

II, 33, 13. yâ´ni mánuh ávrinîta pitâ´ nah tâ´ sám ka yóh ka rudrásya vasmi.

The medicines which our father Manu chose, those I desire, the health and wealth of Rudra.

I, 189, 2. bháva tokâ´ya tánayâya sám yóh.

Be to our offspring health and wealth!

IV, 12, 5. yákkha tokâ´ya tánayâya sám yóh.

Give to our offspring health and wealth!

V, 69, 3. î´le tokâya tánayâya sám yóh.

I ask for our offspring health and wealth,

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VI, 50, 7. dhâ´ta tokâ´ya tánayâya sám yóh.

Give to our offspring health and wealth!

X, 182, I. átha karat yágamânâya sám yóh.

May he then produce for the sacrificer health and wealth.

VII, 69, 5. téna nah sám yóh—ní asvinâ vahatam.

On that chariot bring to us, Asvins, health and wealth.

III, 17, 3. átha bhava yágamânâya sám yóh.

Then, Agni, be health and wealth to the sacrificer.

III, 18, 4. brihát váyah sasamânéshu dhehi, revát agne visvâ´mitreshu sám yóh.

Give, Agni, much food to those who praise thee, give to the Visvâmitras richly health and wealth.

X, 15, 4. átha nah sám yóh arapáh dadhâta.

And give us health and wealth without a flaw! Cf. X, 59, 8.

X, 37, 11. tát asmé sám yóh arapáh dadhâtana.

And give to us health and wealth without a flaw!

V, 47, 7. tát astu mitra-varunâ tát agne sám yóh asmábhyam idám astu sastám.

Let this, O Mitra-Varuna, let this, O Agni, be health and wealth to us; may this be auspicious!

V, 53, 14. vrishtvî´ sám yóh â´pah usrí bheshagám syâ´ma marutah sahá.

Let us be together with you, O Maruts, after health, wealth, water, and medicine have been showered down in the morning.

VIII, 39, 4. sám ka yóh ka máyah dadhe.

He gave health, wealth, and happiness.

VIII, 71, 15. agnim sám yóh ka dâ´tave.

We ask Agni to give us health and wealth.

X, 9, 4. sám yóh abhí sravantu nah.

May the waters come to us, as health and wealth, or may they run towards us auspiciously.

Note 3. If we retain the reading of the MSS. sûshmah iyarti, we must take it as an independent phrase, and translate it by 'my strength rises.' For sûshma, though in this and other places it is frequently explained as an adjective, meaning powerful, is, as far as I can see, always a substantive, and means breath, strength. There may be a few passages in which, as there occur several words for strength, it might

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be possible to translate súshma by strong. But even there it is better to keep to the general meaning of súshma, and translate it as a substantive.

Iyarti means to rise and to raise. It is particularly applied to prayers raised by the poet in honour of the gods, and the similes used in connection with this, show clearly what the action implied by iyarti really is. For instance,

I, 116, 1. stómân iyarmi abhríyâ-iva vâ´tah.

I stir up hymns as the wind stirs the clouds.

X, 116, 9. su-vakasyâ´m iyarmi síndhau-iva prá îrayam nâ´vam arkaíh.

I stir up sweet praise, as if I rowed a ship on the river with hymns.

In the sense of rising it occurs,

X, 140, 2. pâvaká-varkâh sukrá-varkâh ánûna-varkâh út iyarshi bhânúnâ.

Thou risest up with splendour, Agni, thou of bright, resplendent, undiminished majesty.

We might therefore safely translate in our verse 'my strength rises,' although it is true that such a phrase does not occur again, and that in other passages where iyarti and súshma occur together, the former governs the latter in the accusative. Cf. IV, 17, 12; X, 75, 3.

Mahîdhara translates, my held-up thunderbolt moves on destroying everything,' but he admits another rendering in which adri would mean the stone used for pressing the Soma.

Verse 5.

Note 1. If, as we can hardly avoid, we ascribe this verse to. the Maruts, we must recognise in it the usual offer of help to Indra on the part of the Maruts. The question then only is, who are the strong friends in whose company they appear? It would be well if one could render antamébhih by horses, as Sâyana does, but there is no authority for it. Svá-kshatra is an adjective, meaning endowed with independent strength, synonymous with svá-tavas, I, 166, 2. It is applied to the mind of Indra, I, 54, 3; V, 3, 4; to the Maruts, V, 48, 1, but never to horses. As it stands, we can only suppose that a distinction is made between the Maruts and their followers,

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and that after calling together their followers, and adorning themselves for battle, they proceed to harness their chariots. Cf. I, 107, 2.

Note 2. Etân, in all MSS. which I consulted, has here the accent on the first syllable, and Professor Aufrecht ought not to have altered the word into etâ´n. If the accent had not been preserved by the tradition of the schools, the later interpreters would certainly have taken etân for the demonstrative pronoun. As it is, in spite of accent and termination, Sâyana in I, 166, 10, seems to take étâh for eté. In other passages, however, Sâyana, too, has perceived the difference, and in I, 169, 6, he explains the word very fully as prishadvarnâ gantâro vâ asvâ vâ. In this passage the Etas are clearly the deer of the Maruts, the Prishatîs:

I, 169, 6. ádha yát eshâm prithu-budhnâ´sah étâh.

In the next verse, however, éta seems applied to the Maruts themselves:

I, 169, 7. práti ghorâ´nâm étânâm ayâ´sâm marútâm srinve â-yatâ´m upabdíh.

The sound of the terrible, speckled, indefatigable Maruts is heard, as they approach; unless we translate:

The noise of the terrible deer of the indefatigable Maruts is heard, as they approach.

In I, 166, 10, ámseshu étâh, I adopt Professor Roth's conjecture, that étâh means the skins of the fallow deer, so that we should have to translate: On their shoulders are the deer-skins.

In the other passages where éta occurs it is used as a simile only, and therefore throws no light on the relation of the Etas to the Maruts. In both passages, however (V, 54, 5; X, 77, 2), the simile refers to the Maruts, though to their speed only, and not to their colour.

Note 3. Máhah-bhih, which I have translated 'with all our might,' seems to be used almost as an adverb, mightily or quickly (makshu), although the original meaning, with our powers, through our might, is likewise applicable. The original meaning is quite perceptible in passages like

V, 62, 3. ádhârayatam prithivî´m utá dyâ´m mítra-râgânâ varunâ máhah-bhih.

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Kings Mitra and Varuna, you have supported heaven and earth by your powers.

VII, 3, 7. tébhih nah agne ámitaih máhah-bhih satám pûrbhíh â´yasîbhih ví pâhi.

With those immeasurable powers, O Agni, protect us, with a hundred iron strongholds.

I, 90, 2. té—máhah-bhih, vratâ´ rakshante visvâ´hâ.

They always protect the laws by their powers.

VII, 71, 1. tvám nah agne máhah-bhih pâhí.

Protect us, Agni, with thy power.

In other passages, however, we see máhah-bhih used of the light or of the flames of Agni and of the dawn:

IV, 14, 1. deváhkamânah máhah-bhih.

Agni, the god, brilliant with his powers.

VI, 64, 2. devi rókamânâ máhah-bhih.

O goddess, brilliant with thy powers.

The powers of the Maruts are referred to by the same name in the following passages:

V, 58, 5. prá-pra gâyante—máhah-bhih.

The Maruts are born with their powers.

VII, 58, 2. prá yé máhah-bhih ógasâ utá sánti.

The Maruts who excel in power and strength. Cf. III, 4, 6.

Verse 6.

Note 1. Indra in this dialogue is evidently represented as claiming everything for himself alone. He affects contempt for the help proffered by the Maruts, and seems to deny that he was at any time beholden to their assistance. By asking, Where was that custom that I should be with you and you with me in battle? he implies that it was not always their custom, and that he can dispense with their succour now. He wants to be alone, as in his former battle with Ahi, and does not wish that they should join him (cf. I, 33, 4). Professor Roth takes sam-ádhatta in the sense of implicating, but it can hardly be said that the Maruts ever implicated Indra in his fight against Ahi. Certainly this is not in keeping with the general tenor of this dialogue where, on the contrary, Indra shuns the

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company of the Maruts. But while on this point I differ from Professor Roth, I think he has rightly interpreted the meaning of ánamam. Out of the four passages in which badhasnaíh occurs, it is three times joined with nam, and every time has the sense of to bend away from, to escape from. See also Sonne, in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xii, p. 348.

Verse 7.

Note 1. See VII, 39, 6. sakshîmáhi yúgyebhih nú devaíh.

Note 2. The last words leave no doubt as to their meaning, for the phrase is one of frequent occurrence. The only difficulty is the vocative marutah, where we should expect the nominative. It is quite possible, however, that the Maruts should here address themselves, though, no doubt, it would be easy to alter the accent. As to the phrase itself, see

VIII, 61, 4. táthâ ít asat índra krátvâ yáthâ vásah.

May it be so, O Indra, as thou mayest desire by thy mind.

VIII, 66, 4. vagrî´—ít karat índrah krátvâ yáthâ vásat.

May Indra with the thunderbolt act as he may desire in his mind. Cf. VIII, 20, 17; 28, 4, &c.

Verse 8.

Note 1. Here again Indra claims everything for himself, denying that the Maruts in any way assisted him while performing his great deeds. These deeds are the killing of Vritra, who withholds the waters, i. e. the rain from the earth, and the consequent liberation of the waters, so that they flow down freely for the benefit of Manu, that is, of man.

When Indra says that he slew Vritra indriyéna, he evidently chooses that word with a purpose, and we must therefore translate it here, not only by might, but by Indra's peculiar might. Indriyá, as derived from índra, means originally Indra-hood, then power in general, just as verethraghna in Zend means victory in general, though originally it meant the slaying of Vritra.

On bádhîm, see Bollensen, Z. D. M. G. XXII, p. 594.

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[paragraph continues] He takes bádhîm for a contraction of badhisham, in analogy with badhîs and badhît. He refers to akramîm, X, 166, 5, and badhîm, X, 28, 7.

Verse 9.

Note 1. Ánutta, in the sense of 'not shaken,' not shakeable, inébranlable, is strange; likewise the genitive, where we expect the instrumental. Still, nud, by itself, occurs in similar phrases, e. g. VI, 17, 5, nutthâ´h ákyutam, thou shookest what is unshakeable, which might have been expressed by ákukyavah ánuttam, and I cannot bring myself to believe that in our passage Aufrecht's conjectural emendation is called for. He (K. Z. XXVI, 611) takes ánutta for ánudatta, like pratta for pradatta, &c., and proposes to omit the negative particle, translating the verse: 'Certainly it is conceded to thee, there is none among the gods like unto thee.'

But though I cannot adopt this emendation here, I think that in other passages Aufrecht's rendering of ánutta is far more appropriate than to take it for a-nutta; for instance, I, 80, 7; III, 31, 13; VII, 34, 11.

There remains one verse in which anutta seems to mean not shaken, not overcome, namely, VIII, 90, 5, tvám vritrâ´ni hamsi apratî´ni ékah ít ánuttâ karshani-dhtâ, thou, being alone, killest the irresistible enemies with the thunderbolt (?). However, anudâ, in the sense of conceding, yielding, nachgeben, is certainly a very familiar idea in Vedic poetry.

II, 12, 10. yáh sárdhate ná anu-dádâti sridhyâ´m, who does not forgive the hurter his hurt.

I, 53, 8; II, 21, 4; 23, 11; X, 38, 5, Indra is called ananudáh, not yielding, not surrendering.

We must therefore admit two anuttas, one á-nutta, the other ánu(da)tta. In ánutta-manyu I prefer the former, 'of irresistible fury,' while Aufrecht prefers the latter, 'of recognised, or universally-admitted fury.'

Note 2. Devátâ in the ordinary sense of a deity never occurs in the Rig-veda. The word, in fact, as a feminine substantive occurs but twice, and in the tenth Mandala

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only. But even there it does not mean deity. In X, 24, 6, devâh devátayâ means, O gods, by your godhead, i. e. by your divine power. In X, 98, 1, bhaspate práti me devátâm ihi, I take devátâ in the same sense as devátâti, and translate, O Brihaspati, come to my sacrifice.

In all other places where devátâ occurs in the Rig-veda it is a local adverb, and means among the gods. I shall only quote those passages in which Professor Roth assigns to devátâ a different meaning:

I, 55, 3. prá vîryẽna devátâ áti kekite.

He is pre-eminent among the gods by his strength.

I, 22, 5. sáh kéttâ devátâ padám.

He knows the place among the gods.

I, 100, 15. nâ yásya devâ´h devátâ ná mártâh â´pah kaná sâvasah ántam âpúh.

He, the end of whose power neither the gods among the gods, nor mortals, nor even the waters have reached.

Here the translation of devátâ in the sense of 'by their godhead,' would be equally applicable, yet nothing would be gained as, in either case, devátâ is a weak repetition.

VI, 4, 7. índram ná tvâ sávasâ devátâ vâyúm prinanti râ´dhasâ n-tamâh.

The best among men celebrate thee, O Agni, as like unto Indra in strength among the gods, as like unto Vâyu in liberality. See also devatâti, VIII, 74, 3; X, 8, 2.

Note 3. The juxta-position of gâ´yamânah and gâtáh would seem to show that, if the latter had a past, the former had a future meaning. To us, 'No one who will be born and no one who has been born,' would certainly sound more natural. The Hindu, however, is familiar with the idea as here expressed, and in order to comprehend all beings, he speaks of those who are born and those who are being born. Thus in a Padasishta of the Pâvamânîs (IX, 67) we read:

yan me garbhe vasatah pâpam ugram,
yag gâyamânasya ka kimkid anyat,
gâtasya ka yak kâpi vardhato me,
tat pâvamânîbhir aham punâmi.

Note 4. Karishyâ´ is written in all the MSS. without a

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[paragraph continues] Visarga, and unless we add the Visarga on our own authority, we should have to take it as an entirely anomalous acc. plur. neut. of a passive participle of the future, karishyám standing for kâryãm, faciendum. It is much easier, however, to explain this form if we add the Visarga, and read karishyâ´h, which would then be a second person singular of a Vedic conjunctive of the future. This form occurs at least once more in the Veda:

IV, 30, 23. utá nûnám yát indriyám karishyâ´h indra paúmsyam, adyá nákih tát â´ minat.

O Indra, let no man destroy to-day whatever manly feat thou art now going to achieve.

Verse 10.

Note 1. As I have translated these words, they sound rather abrupt. The meaning, however, would be clear enough, viz. almighty power belongs to me, therefore I can dare and do. If this abrupt expression should offend, it may be avoided, by taking the participle dadhrishvâ´n as a finite verb, and translating, Whatever I have been daring, I shall do according to my will.

Verse 11.

Note 1. In this verse Indra, after having declined with no uncertain sound the friendship of the Maruts, seems to repent himself of his unkindness towards his old friends. The words of praise which they addressed to him in verse 9, in spite of the rebuff they had received from Indra, have touched his heart, and we may suppose that, after this, their reconciliation was complete. The words of Indra are clear enough, the only difficulty occurs in the last words, which are so idiomatic that it is impossible to render them in English. In tanvẽ tanû´bhih, literally for the body by the bodies, tang is used like the pronoun self. Both must therefore refer to the same subject. We cannot translate 'for myself made by yourselves,' but must take the two words together, so that they should mean, 'the hymn which you have made for your own benefit and by your own exertions.'

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Verse 13.

Note 1. Spiegel, in his review, called my attention to the Zend api-vat, which Burnouf discussed in his 'Études,' p. 328. Burnouf tries to show that vat in Zend has the meaning of knowing, and that it occurs with the preposition api, in apivatahê and apivatâiti. If this is the same word as in Sanskrit, then apivâtayati would be a causative, meaning to make known. The meaning of vat, however, is doubtful in Zend, and hardly appropriate in the few passages where it occurs in the Veda. Roth, in the Dictionary, explains vat by verstehn, begreifen, the causative by begreiflich machen; but in our passage he translates it by belebend, Ludwig by aufspürend. Till we get more light, I shall feel content to translate apivat by to approach, to obtain, and the causative by to make approach, to invite, to welcome.

The following are the passages in which api-vat occurs:

VII, 3, 10. ápi krátum su-kétasam vatema.

May we obtain an excellent understanding; not, Awaken in us a good sense.

VII, 60, 6. Api krátum su-kétasam vátantah.

They (Mitra and Varuna) obtaining an excellent understanding.

I, 128, 2. tám yagña-sâ´dham ápi vâtayâmasi.

Him, Agni, the performer of the sacrifice, we make approach, we invite.

X, 20, I; 25, 1. bhádram nah ápi vâtaya mánah, dáksham utá krátum.

Bring to us, i. e. give us, a good mind, and a strong understanding.

X, 13, 5. pitré putrâ´sah api avîvatan ritam.

The sons obtained the right for the father (an obscure verse).

As to svapivâta, VII, 46, 3, I should derive it from van, in the sense of implored, desired; see, however, Muir, Sanskrit Texts, IV, p. 314, note; Nirukta, ed. Roth, p. 135.

Note 2. On návedâh, see IV, 23, 4.

Verse 14.

Note 1. This is a verse which, without some conjectural

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alterations, it seems impossible to translate. Sâyana, of course, has a translation ready for it, so has M. Langlois, but both of them offend against the simplest rules of grammar and logic. The first question is, who is meant by asmâ´n (which is here used as an amphimacer), the sacrificers or the Maruts? The verb â´ kakré would well apply to the medhâ´ mânyásya, the hymn of Mânya, which is intended to bring the Maruts to the sacrifice, this bringing to the sacrifice being the very meaning of â kar. But then we have the vocative marutah in the next line, and even if we changed the vocative into the accusative, we should not gain much, as the Maruts could hardly call upon anybody to turn them towards the sage.

If, on the contrary, we admit that asmâ´n refers to those who offer the sacrifice, then we must make a distinction, which, it is true, is not an unusual one, between those who here speak of themselves in the first person, and who provide the sacrifice, and the poet Mândârya Mânya, who was employed by them to compose or to recite this hymn.

But even if we adopt this alternative, many difficulties still remain. First of all, we have to change the accent of kakré into kakre, which may seem a slight change, but is not the less objectionable when we consider that in our emendations of the Vedic hymns we must think rather of accidents that might happen in oral traditions than of the lapsus calami of later scribes. Secondly, we must suppose that the hymn of Mândârya Mânya ends with verse 13, sand that the last verses were supplied by the sacrificers themselves. Possibly the dialogue only, from verse 3 to verse 12, was the work of Mânya, and the rest added at some solemn occasion.

Other difficulties, however, remain. Duvasyâ´t is taken by Sâyana as an ablative of duvasyá, worthy of dúvas, i. e. of worship, of sacrifice. Unfortunately this duvasyá does not occur again, though it would be formed quite regularly, like namasyâ´, worthy of worship, from námas, worship.

If we take duvasyâ´t as the 3rd pers. sing. of the present in the Vedic conjunctive, we must also confess that this conjunctive does not occur again. But the verb duvasyati

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occurs frequently. It seems to have two meanings. It is derived from dúvas, which in the Vedic language means worship or sacrifice, just as karma, work, has assumed the special sense of sacrifice. Derived from dúvas in this sense, duvasyati means to worship. But dúvas meant originally any opus operatum. The root from which dúvas is derived, is lost in Sanskrit, but it exists in other languages. It must have been du or dû in the sense of acting, or sedulously working. It exists in Zend as du, to do, in Gothic as táujan, gataujan, Old High-German zawjan, Modern German zauen (Grimm, Gram. i2. p. 1041). The Gothic tavi, opus, Old High-German zouwi, Middle High-German gezöuwe (Grimm, Gram. iii. p. 499), come from the same source; and it is possible, too, that the Old Norse taufr, modern töfrar, incantamenta, the Old High-German zoupar, Middle High-German zouber, both neuter, and the modern Zauber, may find their explanation in the Sanskrit dúvas. Derived from dúvas, in the sense of work, we have duvasyati in the sense of helping, providing, the German schaffen and verschaffen.

In the sense of worshipping, duvasyati occurs,

III, 2, 8. duvasyáta—gâtá-vedasam.

Worship Gâtavedas.

V, 28, 6. â´ guhota duvasyáta agním.

Invoke, worship Agni. Cf. III, 13, 3; 1, 13.

III, 3, 1. agníh hí devâ´n—duvasyáti.

Agni performs the worship of the gods. Cf. VII, 82, 5.

I, 167, 6. sutá-somah duvasyán.

He who has poured out Soma and worships.

In many passages duvasyati is joined with an instrumental:

V, 42, 11. námah-bhih devám—duvasya.

Worship the god with praises.

I, 78, 2. tám u tvâ gótamah girâ´—duvasyati.

Gotama worships thee with a song.

V, 49, 2. su-uktaíh devám—duvasya.

Worship the god with hymns.

VI, 16, 46. vîtî´ yáh devám—duvasyét.

He who worships the god with a feast.

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X, 14, 1. yamám—havíshâ duvasya.

Worship Yama with an oblation.

VI, 15, 6. agním-agnim vah samídhâ duvasyata.

Worship Agni with your log of wood. Cf. VIII, 44, 1.

III, 1, 2. samít-bhih agním námasâ duvasyan.

They worshipped Agni with logs of wood, with praise.

In the more general and, I suppose, more original sense of caring for, attending, we find duvasyati:

III, 51, 3. anehásah stúbhah índrah duvasyati.

Indra provides for the matchless worshippers.

I, 112, 15. kalím yâ´bhih—duvasyáthah.

By the succours with which you help Kali. Cf. I, 112, 21.

I, 62, 10. duvasyánti svásârah áhrayânam.

The sisters attend the proud (Agni).

I, 119, 10. yuvám pedáve—svetám—duvasyathah.

You provide for Pedu the white horse.

If, then, we take duvasyati in the sense of working for, assisting, it may be with the special sense of assisting at a sacred act, like διακονεῖν; and if we take duvás, as it has the accent on the last syllable, as the performer of a sacrifice, we may venture to translate, 'that he should help, as the singer helps the performer of the sacrifice a': The singer or the poet may be called the assistant at a sacrifice, for his presence was not necessary at all sacrifices, the songs constituting an ornament rather than an essential part in most sacred acts. But though I think it right to offer this conjectural interpretation, I am far from supposing that it gives us the real sense of this difficult verse. Duvasyâ´t may be, as Sâyana suggests, an ablative of duvasyá; and duvasyá, like namasyâ´, if we change the accent, may mean he who is to be worshipped, or worshipping. In this way a different interpretation might suggest itself, though I confess I do not see that any other interpretation as yet suggested is satisfactory. Some happy thought may some day or other clear up this difficulty, when those who have

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toiled, but toiled in a wrong direction, will receive scant thanks for the trouble they have taken. See Bollensen, Z. D. M. G. XVIII, p. 606.

Note 2. In the second line, the words ó sú varta remind us of similar phrases in the Veda, but we want an accusative, governed by varta; whereas marutah, to judge from its accent, can only be a vocative. Thus we read:

I, 138, 4. ó (íti) sú tvâ vavritîmahi stómebhih.

May we turn thee quickly hither by our praises!

VIII, 7, 83. ó (íti) sú vshnah—vavrityâ´m.

May I turn the heroes quickly hither!

Compare also passages like III, 33, 8:

ó (íti) sú svasârah kâráve srinota.

Listen quickly, O sisters, to the poet.

I, 139, 7. ó (íti) sú nah agne srinuhi.

Hear us quickly, O Agni.

Cf. I, 182, 1; II, 34, 15; VII, 59, 5; VIII, 2, 19; X, 179, 2.

Unless we change the accent, we must translate, 'Bring hither quickly!' and we must take these words as addressed to the kârú, the poet, whose hymn is supposed to attract the gods to the sacrifice. By a quick transition, the next words, marutah vípram ákkha, would then have to be taken as addressed to the gods, 'Maruts, on to the sage!' and the last words would become intelligible by laying stress on the vah, 'for you, and not for Indra or any other god, has the singer recited these hymns.' See, however, Preface, p. xxi.

Verse 15.

Note 1. I translate Mânya, the son of Mâna, because the poet, so called in I, 189, 8, is in all probability the same as our Mândârya Mânya. But it may also be Mânya, the descendant of Mandâri. The Mânas are mentioned I, 172, 5;182, 8.

Note 2. Vâg.. S. XXXIV, 48. The second line is difficult, owing to the uncertain meaning of vayâ´m.

´ ishâ´ a yâsîshta has been rendered, 'Come hither with

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water or drink or rain,' yâsîshta being the aorist without the augment and with the intermediate vowel lengthened. The indicative occurs in

V, 58, 6. yát prá áyâsishta pshatîbhih ásvaih.

When you Maruts came forth with your fallow deer and your horses.

But what is the meaning of vayâ´m? Vayâ´ means a germ, a sprout, an offshoot, a branch, as may be seen from the following passages:

II, 5, 4. vidvâ´n asya vratâ´ dhruvâ´ vayâ´h-iva ánu rohate.

He who knows his eternal laws, springs up like young sprouts. (Better vayâ´-iva.)

VI, 7, 6. tásya ít ûm (íti) vísvâ bhúvanâ ádhi mûrdháni vayâ´h-iva ruruhuh.

From above the head of Vaisvanara all worlds have grown; like young sprouts.

VIII, 13, 6. stotâ´—vayâ´h-iva ánu rohate. (Better vayâ´-iva.)

The worshipper grows up like young sprouts.

VIII, 13, 17. índram kshonî´h avardhayan vayâ´h-iva.

The people made Indra to grow like young sprouts.

VIII, 19, 33. yásya te agne anyé agnáyah upa-kshítah vayâ´h-iva.

Agni, of whom the other fires are like parasitical shoots.

I, 59, 1. vayâ´h ít agne agnáyah te anyé.

O Agni, the other fires are indeed offshoots of thee.

II, 35, 8. vayâ´h ít anyâ´ bhúvanâni asya.

The other worlds are indeed his (the rising sun's) offshoots.

VI, 13, 1. tvát vísvâ—saúbhagâni ágne ví yanti vanínah ná vayâ´h.

From thee O Agni, spring all happinesses, as the sprouts of a tree.

VI, 24, 3. vrikshásya nú (ná?) te—vayâ´h ví ûtáyah ruruhuh.

Succours sprang from thee, like the branches of a tree.

V, 1, 1. yahvâ´h-iva prá vayâ´m ut-gíhânâh prá bhânávah sisrate nâ´kam ákkha.

Like birds (?) flying up to a branch, the flames of Agni went up to heaven; (or like strong men reaching up to.)

p. 208

VI, 57, 5. tâ´m pûshnáh su-matím vayám vrikshásya prá vayâ´m-iva índrasya ka â´ rabhâmahe.

Let us reach this favour of Pûshan and of Indra, as one reaches forth to the branch of a tree.

There remain some doubtful passages in which vayâ´ occurs, VII, 40, 5, and X, 92, 3; 134, 6. In the first passage, as in our own, vayâ´h is trisyllabic.

If vayâ´ can be used in the sense of offshoot or sprout, we may conclude that the same word, used in the singular, might mean offspring, particularly when joined with tanvẽ. 'Give a branch to our body,' would be understood even in languages less metaphorical than that of the Vedas; and as the prayer for 'olive branches' is a constant theme of the Vedic poets, the very absence of that prayer here, might justify us in assigning this sense to vayâ´m. In VI, 2, 5, the expression vayâ´vantam ksháyam, a house with branches, means the same as nrivántam, a house with children and men. See M. M., On Βίος and váyas, in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xv, p. 215. Benfey (Endungen in îans, p. 37) takes vayâm as a genitive plural, referring it to the Maruts, as closely connected with each other, like branches of a tree. This is much the same interpretation as that of Mahîdhara (VS. XXXIV, 48), who translates 'come near for the body, i. e. for the bodily strength of the fellows, the Maruts.' Ludwig takes it as a possible instrumental of vayam.

It is preferable, however, to take yâsîshta as a precative Âtm., in order to account for the long î, and to accept it as a third person singular, referring to stómah.

Note 3. Vrigána means an enclosure, a νομός, whether it be derived from vrig, to ward off; like arx from arcere, or from vrig, in the sense of clearing, as in vrikta-barhis, barhíh prá. vriñge, I, 116, 1. In either case the meaning remains much the same, viz. a field, cleared for pasture or agriculture,—a clearing, as it is called in America, or a camp,—enclosed with hurdles or walls, so as to be capable of defence against wild animals or against enemies. In this sense, however, vrigana is a neuter, while as a masculine it means powerful, invigorating. See Preface, p. xx.


205:a Kar in the sense of officiating at a sacrifice is equally construed with a dative, X, 97, 22. yásmai krinóti brâhmanáh, he for whom a Brâhmana performs a sacrifice.

206:a There was a misprint in the Samhitâ text, eshâ´ instead of éshâ´, which was afterwards repeated whenever the same verse occurred again.

Next: I, 166. To the Maruts (the Storm-gods)