The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30), by Hermann Oldenberg, , at sacred-texts.com
For these two last portions he makes the indication of the deity.
With the earlier portions, there is a rule which of two gods should have the first or the second portion. With the last couple, however, the priest may himself assign whichever portion he likes to one or the other god. The commentary says, svayam eva idam asyâ iti saṅkalpayet.
When there is a number of Karus and Purodâsas, one separates what belongs to the Karus and what belongs to the Purodâsas, before the strewing.
Prâg adhivapanât, before the strewing, is explained by prâg adhivapanârthakrishnâginâdânât, before one takes the black skin which is used for the strewing.
One then marks the two (the materials for the Karus and the Purodâsas) according to the deities (for whom they are intended).
Let the word idam be the rule.
This means that the offering (havis) intended for each deity should be pointed out by the words idam, this, Agneh, is for Agni, &c. Thus we read with regard to the offerings intended for certain gods and goddesses: idam Dhâtur, idam Anumatyâ, Râkâyâh Sinîvâlyâh, Kuhvâh.
All this applies also to Karus and Purodâsas which are separated.
The commentary explains vyatishikta by anyonyam vyavahita, though it is difficult to see how it can have that meaning. It is said that in the Vaisvadeva the Karus and Purodâsas are vyatishikta, but that they also have to be divided before the adhivapana, and to be marked for each deity. Thus we read: Idam Agneh, Savituh, Pûshno, Marutâm, Dyâvâprithivyoh, &c.
At the time when the Kapâlas are put on the fire, one puts on the karu with the first kapâla verse.
Karu is here used for the vessel for boiling the karu, the karusthâlî. The first of these verses is dhrishtir asi. Kapâlas are the jars in which the rice is cooked.
The verse is adapted and changed to dhruvoऽsi.
Samnâma means the same as ûha, i.e. the modification of a verse so as to adapt it to the object for which it is used. In our case, karu, being a masculine, dhrishti, a feminine, is replaced by dhruva, a masculine.
At the time when the meal is to be cleansed, one cleanses the grains.
This takes place after the karu-pot has been put on. The tandulas are the unhusked grains, pishta is the
ground flour. In Sanskrit a distinction is made between sasya, the corn in the field, dhânya, corn with the husk, tandula, grains without husks, anna, roasted grains.
At the time of cooking (adhisrapana) one throws the grains in with the cooking verse.
Commentary. This verse is gharmoऽsi.
Without taking the karu (out of the sthâlî) one puts it down.
At the Darsa-pûrnamâsa sacrifices there are fifteen Sâmidhenîs.
Sâmidhenîs are particular verses recited while the fire is being kindled. The first and last verses are repeated thrice, so as to make fifteen in all.
At the Ishti and Pasubandha sacrifices there are seventeen Sâmidhenîs, when they are so handed down.
When it is said that wishful ishtis are performed in a murmur, this means that the names of the chief deities are pronounced in a murmur (likewise the yâgyâ and anuvâkyâ).
The Darsa-pûrnamâsa sacrifice is the Prakriti or norm for all ishtis.
The Sûtras, in describing the performance of certain sacrifices, treat some of them in full detail. These are called prakriti. Prakriyanteऽsmin dharmâ iti prakaranam prakritih. They form the type of other sacrifices, which are therefore looked upon as mere modifications, vikriti, and in describing them those points only are fully described in which they differ from their prakriti. A sacrifice which is a vikriti, may again become the prakriti of another sacrifice. This system is no doubt compendious, but it is not free from difficulty, and, in some cases, from uncertainty. It shows how much system there is in the Indian sacrifices, and how fully and minutely that system must have been elaborated, before it assumed that form in which we find it in the Brâhmanas and Sûtras. It must not be supposed that the sacrifices which serve as prakriti, are therefore historically the most ancient.
It is also the norm for the Agnîshomîya Pasu, the animal sacrifice for Agnî-Shomau.
And this is the norm for the Savanîya.
And the Savanîya is the norm for the Aikâdasinas.
And the Aikâdasinas are the norm for the Pasuganas.
The rules for the Pasuganas are therefore to be taken over from the Aikâdasinas, the Savanîya, the Agnîshomîya-pasu, and the Darsa-pûrnamâsa, so far as they have been modified in each particular case, and are
finally determined by the rules of each Pasugana, as, for instance, the Âditya-pasu.
The Vaisvadeva is the norm for the Varuna-praghâsa, Sâkamedha, and Sîra.
The Vaisvadeva, beginning, like the Darsa-pûrnamâsa, with an Âgneya ashtakapâla, takes certain rules from the Darsa-pûrnamâsa, and transfers these, together with its own, as, for instance, the nine prayâgas, to the Varuna-praghâsa, &c.
The Vaisvadevika Ekakapâla is the norm for all Ekakapâlas.
The Ekakapâla is a purodâsa cake, baked in one kapâla. It is fully described in the Vaisvadeva, and then becomes the norm of all Ekakapâlas. An ekakapâla cake is not divided.
The Vaisvadevî Âmikshâ is the norm for the Âmikshâs (a preparation of milk).
Here the Vikâra, the modification, is perceived from similarity.
If it has once been laid down that the Darsa-pûrnamâsa is the prakriti or norm for all ishtis, then similarity determines the modification in all details, such as the offerings and the gods to whom offerings are made. Thus Karu, being a vegetable offering, would rank as a vikâra of purodâsa, which occurs in the Darsa-pûrnamâsa sacrifice, and is likewise vegetable. Honey and water
would be looked upon as most like the Âgya in the Darsa-pûrnamâsa. Âmikshâ, a preparation of milk, would come nearest to the Sâmnâyya, which is a mixture of sour and sweet milk.
Offerings for one deity are vikâras of the Âgneya.
In the Darsa-pûrnamâsa, which is the prakriti of the ishtis, the purodâsa for Agni is meant for one deity. Hence all offerings to one deity in the vikritis follow the general rules of the Âgneya purodâsa, as described in the Darsa-pûrnamâsa, for instance, the karu for Sûrya, the Dvâdasa-kapâla for Sâvitrî.
Offerings for two deities are vikâras of the Agnîshomîya.
They must, however, be vegetable offerings, because the purodâsa for Agnî-Shomau is a vegetable offering. As an instance, the Âgnâvaishnava Ekâdasakapâla is quoted. Agnîshomîya has a short a, but the first a in âgnavaishnava is long.
Offerings for many deities are vikâras also of the Aindrâgna.
The ka in bahudevatâs ka is explained by the commentary as intended to include the Âgnâvaishnava also. Any offering intended for more than one deity may be considered as intended for many deities.