The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30), by Hermann Oldenberg, , at sacred-texts.com
The Ashtâ-kapâla for Agni, the Ekâdasa-kapâla or Dvâdasa-kapâla for Indra-Agnî, form the principal acts at the Amâvâsyâ, the new moon, in the case of one who does not sacrifice with Soma.
In the case of one who sacrifices with Soma, the second principal act is the Sâmnâyya (both at the full-moon and new-moon sacrifices).
The Sâmnâyya is a mixture of dadhi and payas, sour and sweet milk, and is intended for Indra or Mahendra 1. It takes the place of the second Purodâsa at the new-moon sacrifice.
In the case of a Brâhmana, who does not sacrifice with Soma, the Agnîshomîya cake is omitted.
This rule does not seem to be accepted by all schools. It is not found in Kâtyâyana, and Hiranyakesin observes: Nâsomayâgino brâhmanasyâgnîshomîyah purodâso vidyata ity ekeshâm. See Hillebrandt, l.c. p. iii.
Without distinction of caste, the Aindrâgna offering is omitted for one who offers the Sâmnâyya.
Even though he be not a Somayâgin, says the commentary.
This whole matter is summed up in Kapardin's commentary: Amâvâsyâyâm asomayâgina aindrâgna-sâmnâyyayor vikalpah. Paurnamâsyâm tv asomayâgino brâhmanasyâgnîshomîyayâgâbhâvah. Tadrahitâpi paurnamâsî purushârtham sâdhayati. Tatra dvayor eva hi yâgayoh paurnamâsîsabdavâkyatvam asti, pratyekam nâmayogât. Tasmâd agnîshomîyayâgarahitâv evetarau purushârtham sâdhayatah.
The Pitri-yagña, the sacrifice to the fathers, is not Aṅga (auxiliary) because its own time is prescribed.
The text should be pitriyagñah svakâlavidhânâd anaṅgah syât. This sacrifice for the Manes, called also the Pinda-pitriyagña, falls under the new-moon sacrifice, but is to be considered as a pradhâna, a primary sacrifice, not as an aṅga, a member of the Darsa.
Also, because it is enumerated like the Darsapûrnamâsa sacrifice.
This refers to such passages from the Brâhmanas as: There are four great sacrifices, the Agnihotram, the Darsapûrnamâsau, the Kâturmâsyâni, and the Pinda-pitriyagñah.
Also, because, when the Amâvâsyâ sacrifice is barred, the Pitriyagña is seen to take place.
A principal act (pradhâna) is accompanied by auxiliary acts (aṅga).
This Sûtra forms sometimes part of the preceding Sûtra, and would then refer to the Pitriyagña only.
A principal act is what has its own name, and is prescribed with special reference to place, time, and performer.
This Sûtra is sometimes divided into two; the first, dese kâle kartarîti nirdisyate, the second, asvasabdam yat. The following are given as illustrations. If it is said that 'he should sacrifice with the Vaisvadeva on a slope inclined to the East,' we have the locality. If it is said that 'he should sacrifice with the Vâgapeya in autumn,' we have the time. If it is said that 'the sacrificer himself should offer the Agnihotra on a parvan (change of the moon),' we have the performer. In each of these cases, therefore, the prescribed sacrificial act is a pradhâna sâṅgam, a principal act with auxiliary members.
The Darvi-homa (libation from a ladle) stands by itself.
Apûrva is explained by the commentator, not in its usual sense of miraculous, but as not being subject to the former regulations.
They are ordered by the word guhoti, he pours out.
They are offered with the word Svâhâ.
According to Kâtyâyana I, 2, 6-7, the guhotis are
offered sitting, the yagatis standing. See Sûtra XCII. The guhoti acts consist in pouring melted butter into the fire of the Âhavanîya altar, which is so called because 'âhûyanteऽsminn âhutayah kshipyanta iti.'
Taking (the butter) once.
Or, if there are several Âhutis, taking (the butter) for each Âhuti.
Or, doing as he likes in dividing (the butter).
These three Sûtras belong together. They teach that one slice (avadâna) of butter should be taken, melted, and poured on the Âhavanîya fire; or, if there are more than one âhuti, then one slice should be taken for each. This, however, is made optional again by the last Sûtra.
There is no fuel (in the Darvi-homa), except at the Agnihotra.
In the case of the Agnihotra it is distinctly stated, dve samidhâv âdadhyât, let him lay down two sticks.
One pours out (guhoti) the Darvi-homas, sitting west of the Âhavanîya fire, and bending the right knee, or not bending it.
If it is distinctly stated, it is done in a different way.
The vidhi, contained in Sûtra XCII, is therefore called autsargika, general, and liable to exceptions, as when it is said, that he turns to the east.
One pours out (guhoti) all âhutis, west of the Âhavanîya fire, passing (the altar) southward, and then turning to the north.
The Âsruta and Pratyâsruta, the Yâgyâ and Anuvâkyâ, the Upastarana and Abhighârana, with the slicings, the Katurgrihîta also, and the Vashatkâra constitute the Darvi-homas.
The Âsruta is â srâvaya; the Pratyâsruta, astu sraushat; Anuvâkyâ and Yâgyâ are verses, the first inviting the deity, the second accompanying the sacrifice. Whenever vegetable, animal, or sâmnâyya offerings have to be. sliced, upastarana, spreading, and abhighârana, sprinkling with fat, take place. With âgya offerings there is Katurgrihîta (taking four times), and the Vashatkâra.
With âhutis one should let the act (the pouring out) take place after the Vashatkâra has been made, or while it is being made.
The Vashatkâra consists in the word Vashat, to be uttered by the Hotri-priest. The five sacrificial interjections are, svâhâ, sraushat, vaushat, vashat, and svadhâ.
With the Grahas the act should be made to coincide with the Upayâma.
Grahas are offerings of Soma, and likewise the vessels (kamasa) in which the Soma is offered. The Soma is offered with the words upayâma-grihîtoऽsi, and while these words are being uttered, the fluid should be poured out (dhârâm srâvayet).
With the Ishtakâs, the act should be made to coincide with the words tayâ deva tena.
When the different ishtakâs or bricks are placed together for building an altar, &c., the act itself begins with the first and ends with the last words of the accompanying verse.
When there is a number of Purodâsas, one should slice off one after another, saying for each portion vyâvartadhvam (separate)!
Purodâsa is a cake made of meal (pakvah pishtapindah), different from karu, which is more of a pulse consisting of grains of rice or barley, and clarified butter (ghritatandulobhayâtmakam). This purodâsa cake has to be divided for presentation to different deities. If there are more than two deities, the plural vyâvartadhvam, separate, has to be used.
When the two last are sliced off, he should say for each portion, vyâvartethâm, separate ye two!
Each slice, avadâna, is said to be about a thumb's breadth. In the case of sâmnâyya, the mixture of sour and sweet milk, a kind of coagulated sour milk, each portion is to be of the same breadth, but, as it is fluid, it is
taken out with a ladle (sruva) of a corresponding size; see Kâtyâyana I, 9, 7.
337:1 Vaidya in his Dictionary explains it, however, as any substance mixed with clarified butter and offered as a burnt offering, which can hardly be right.