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The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30), by Hermann Oldenberg, [1892], at


1. Now we shall explain the opening and the conclusion (of the annual course of study).

2. 2 During the fortnight that precedes the Sravanâ

p. 242

full moon, when the herbs have appeared, under (the Nakshatra) Hasta or on the full-moon day (itself), the opening ceremony of the (annual course of) study (is performed).

3. Having put wood on the fire and performed the rites down to the Vyâhriti oblations, he sacrifices (with his pupils) to the Rishis of the Kândas: 'To Pragâpati, the Rishi of a Kânda, svâhâ! To Soma, the Rishi of a Kânda, svâhâ! To Agni, the Rishi of a Kânda, svâhâ! To the Visve devâs, the Rishis of a Kânda, svâhâ! To Svayambhû, the Rishi of a Kânda, svâhâ!'—these are the Rishis of the Kândas. Or (he sacrifices) to the names of the Kândas, to the Sâvitrî, to the Rig-veda, the Yagur-veda, the Sâma-veda, the Atharva-veda, and to Sadasaspati.

4. Having (thus) sacrificed, they repeat the first three Anuvâkas,

5. Or the beginnings of all Kândas.

6. He enters upon (sacrificing) the Gaya, &c. (oblations; see above, I, 1, 3, 8).

7. After all rites down to the Svishtakrit oblation have been performed, they stop studying three days or one day; then they should go on studying so as to commence where they have broken off: so say the teachers.

8. 8 During the fortnight that precedes the Taishî full moon, under (the Nakshatra) Rohinî or on the full-moon day (itself), the Utsarga (or conclusion of the term of study) is celebrated.

p. 243

9. 9 (The teacher) with his pupils goes in an easterly or northerly direction, and where they find a pleasant water with a pleasant bathing-place, they dive into it and perform three suppressions of the breath with the Agharmarshana hymn (Rig-veda X, 190 = Taitt. Ar. X, 1, 13. 14.). Holding purifiers (i.e. Darbha blades) in their hands they bathe with the three (verses), 'Ye waters, ye are wholesome' (Taitt. Samh. IV, 1, 5, 1), with the four (verses), 'The gold-coloured, pure, purifying waters' (T.S.V, 6, 1, 1 seq.), and with the Anuvâka, '(Soma) which clears itself, the heavenly being' (Taitt. Br. I, 4, 8): giving the Darbha blades to each other and feigning to try to seize (??) each other.

10. Then they arrange on a pure spot that is inclined towards the east, seats of eastward-pointed Darbha grass, so that they end in the north—


241:2 18, 2. Sravanâpaksha means, according to Mâtridatta, srâvanapûrvapaksha, p. 242 and indeed the moon stands in conjunction with the Nakshatra Hasta only on one day of the first, not of the second, fortnight of the month Srâvana (comp. the note on Âsvalâyana-Grihya III, 5, 2. 3). Comp. taishîpakshasya rohinyâm, below, § 8.

242:8 As to taishîpaksha, comp. the note on Sûtra 2.

243:9 On the last words of this Sûtra, Mâtridatta says, ditsanta iveti dâtum ikkhanta ivânyonyam prati. athavâ âditsanta iveti pâthah. âditsanto mushnanta ivânyonyam.—Professor Kielhorn's text MS. has, âtsamta ivânyonyam; Professor Bühler's text MS., ditsamta ivânyonyam.

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