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The Grihya Sutras, Part 1 (SBE29), by Hermann Oldenberg, [1886], at


1. Now various indeed are the customs of the (different) countries and the customs of the (different) villages: those one should observe at the wedding.

2. What, however, is commonly accepted, that we shall state.

3. Having placed to the west of the fire a mill-stone, to the north-east (of the fire) a water-pot, he should sacrifice, while she takes hold of him. Standing, with his face turned to the west, while she is sitting and turns her face to the east, he should with (the formula), 'I seize thy hand for the sake of happiness seize her thumb if he desires that only male children may be born to him;

4. Her other fingers, (if he is) desirous of female (children);

5. The hand on the hair-side together with the

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thumb, (if) desirous of both (male and female children).

6. Leading her three times round the fire and the water-pot, so that their right sides are turned towards (the fire, &c.), he murmurs, 'This am I, that art thou; that art thou, this am I; the heaven I, the earth thou; the Sâman I, the Rik thou. Come! Let us here marry. Let us beget offspring. Loving, bright, with genial mind may we live a hundred autumns.'

7. Each time after he has lead her (so) round, he makes her tread on the stone with (the words), 'Tread on this stone; like a stone be firm. Overcome the enemies; tread the foes down.'

8. Having 'spread under' (i.e. having first poured Âgya over her hands), her brother or a person acting in her brother's place pours fried grain twice over the wife's joined hands.

9. Three times for descendants of Gamadagni.

10. He pours again (Âgya) over (what has been left of) the sacrificial food,

11. And over what has been cut off.

12. This is the rule about the portions to be cut off.

13 13. 'To god Aryaman the girls have made sacrifice,

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to Agni; may he, god Aryaman, loosen her from this, and not from that place, Svâhâ!

'To god Varuna the girls have made sacrifice, to Agni; may he, god Varuna, &c.

'To god Pûshan the girls have made sacrifice, to Agni; may he, god Pûshan, &c.'—with (these verses recited by the bridegroom) she should sacrifice (the fried grain) without opening her joined hands, as if (she did so) with the (spoon called) Sruk.

14 14-15. Without that leading round (the fire, she sacrifices grain) with the neb of a basket towards herself silently a fourth time.

15. Some lead the bride round each time after the fried grain has been poured out: thus the two last oblations do not follow immediately on each other.

16. He then loosens her two locks of hair, if they are made, (i.e. if) two tufts of wool are bound round her hair on the two sides,

17. With (the Rik),'I release thee from the band of Varuna' (Rig-veda X, 85, 24).

18. The left one with the following (Rik).

19 19. He then causes her to step forward in a northeastern direction seven steps with (the words), 'For sap with one step, for juice with two steps, for thriving of wealth with three steps, for comfort with four steps, for offspring with five steps, for the seasons

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with six steps. Be friend with seven steps. So be thou devoted to me. Let us acquire many sons who may reach old age!'

20 20. Joining together their two heads, (the bridegroom? the Âkârya?) sprinkles them (with water) from the water-pot.

21. And she should dwell that night in the house of an old Brâhmana woman whose husband is alive and whose children are alive.

22 22. When she sees the polar-star, the star Arundhatî, and the seven Rishis (ursa major), let her break the silence (and say), 'May my husband live and I get offspring.'


167:3 7, 3. Professor Stenzler is evidently right in taking asmânam as in apposition to drishadam. Nârâyana says, drishat prasiddhâ asmâ tatputrakah. tatrobhayoh pratishthâpanam siddham.

The sacrifice is that prescribed in Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 12, II. 12. Regarding the rite that follows, comp. Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 13, 2.

168:6 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 13, 4. 9. 13.

168:7 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 13, 12.

168:8 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 13, 15. 16.

168:9 The two portions of fried grain poured over the bride's hands, together with the first (upastarana) and the second (pratyabhighârana) pouring out of Âgya, constitute the four Avattas, or portions cut off from the Havis. The descendants of Gamadagni were pañkâvattinas, i.e. they used to cut off five such portions (see Kâtyâyana I, 9, 3; Weber, Indische Studien, X, 95); so they had to pour out the fried grain three times.

168:13 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 18, 3; 13, 17; 14, 1.

169:14-15 14, 15. According to those teachers whose opinion is related in Sûtras 6-14, the leading round the fire, the treading on the stone, and the offering of fried grain (with the three parts of the Mantra, Sûtra 1 3) are repeated thrice; then follows the offering prescribed in Sûtra 14, so that the last two offerings follow immediately on each other. This is not the case, if in the first three instances the order of the different rites is inverted, as stated in Sûtra 15.

In Sûtra 14 Nârâyana explains sûrpaputa by kona.

169:19 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 14, 5. 6; 13, 2; Pâraskara I, 8, 1.

170:20 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 14, 9; Pâraskara I, 8, 5.

170:22 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 17, 2 seq.; Pâraskara I, 8, 19.

Next: I, 8