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The Grihya Sutras, Part 1 (SBE29), by Hermann Oldenberg, [1886], at

p. 166


1. (The father) may give away the girl, having decked her with ornaments, pouring out a libation of water: this is the wedding (called) Brâhma. A son born by her (after a wedding of this kind) brings purification to twelve descendants and to twelve ancestors on both (the husband's and the wife's) sides.

2. He may give her, having decked her with ornaments, to an officiating priest, whilst a sacrifice with the three (Srauta) fires is going on: this (is the wedding called) Daiva. (A son) brings purification to ten descendants and to ten ancestors on both sides.

3. They fulfil the law together: this (is the wedding called) Prâgâpatya. (A son) brings purification to eight descendants and to eight ancestors on both sides.

4. He may marry her after having given a bull and a cow (to the girl's father): this (is the wedding called) Ârsha. (A son) brings purification to seven descendants and to seven ancestors on both sides.

5. He may marry her, after a mutual agreement has been made (between the lover and the damsel): this (is the wedding called) Gândharva.

6. He may marry her after gladdening (her father) by money: this (is the wedding called) Âsura.

p. 167

7. He may carry her off while (her relatives) sleep or pay no attention: this (is the wedding called) Paisâka.

8. He may carry her off, killing (her relatives) and cleaving (their) heads, while she weeps and they weep: this (is the wedding called) Râkshasa.


166:1 6, 1. Comp. Vasishtha I, 30; Âpastamba II, 11, 17; Baudhâyana I, 20, 2.

166:2 Vasishtha I, 31; Âpastamba II, 11, 19; Baudhâyana I, 20, 5.

166:3 Baudhâyana I, 20, 3.

166:4 Vasishtha I, 32; Âpastamba II, 11, 18; Baudhâyana I, 20, 4.

166:5 Vasishtha I, 33; Âpastamba II, II, 20; Baudhâyana I, 20, 6.

166:6 Vasishtha I, 35 (where this rite is designated as Mânusha); Âpastamba II, 12, 1; Baudhâyana I, 20, 7.

167:7 Baudhâyana I, 20, 9.

167:8 Vasishtha I, 34 (where this rite is called Kshâtra); Âpastamba II, a 1, 2; Baudhâyana I, 20, 8. The text of this Sûtra seems to be based on a hemistich hatvâ bhittvâ ka sîrshâni rudadbhyo rudatîm haret; comp. Manu III, 33.

Next: I, 7