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1. Now, therefore, we will declare the rule for (performing) the twilight devotions.

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2. Going to a (sacred) bathing-place, he shall bathe, in case he is impure; in case he is pure, he may, optionally, omit the bath. (But in either case) he shall wash his feet and hands. Sipping water and sprinkling himself, while he recites the (Rik-verses) containing the word Surabhi, the Abliṅgas, those addressed to Varuna, the Hiranyavarnas, the Pâvamânîs, the (sacred syllables called) Vyâhritis, and other purificatory (texts), he becomes pure (and fit to perform the twilight devotions). 2

3. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'Submersion in water (and) bathing are prescribed for all the (four) castes. But sprinkling (water over the body), while Mantras (are being recited), is the particular (duty) of the twice-born.'

4. He who sprinkles himself (with water) at the beginning of any sacred rite,--before the time of the twilight devotions,--while reciting that same collection of purificatory (texts), becomes pure.

5. Now they quote also (the following rules): Seated, with his face to the west, on Darbha grass and holding Darbha blades in his (right) hand, which 5

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is filled with water, he shall repeat the Sâvitrî one thousand times;

6. Or (he may recite the verse) one hundred times, suppressing his breath; 6

7. Or mentally ten times, adding the syllable Om at the beginning and at the end and the seven Vyâhritis. 7

8. And if he is tired by three suppressions of his breath (performed) with (the recitation of) the (Anuvâka called) Brahmahridaya (the heart of Brahman, then let him repeat the Sâvitrî). 8

9. In the evening he worships (the sun) with the two (verses) addressed to Varuna, 'Hear this my call, O Varuna,' and 'Therefore I go to thee.' 9

10. The same (rules apply to the twilight devotion) in the morning, (but the worshipper) shall face the east and stand upright. 10

11. In the day-time he worships (the sun) with the two (verses) addressed to Mitra, 'The glory of Mitra, who supports men,' and 'Mitra causes men to join.' 11

12. Let him begin (the twilight devotion) in the 12

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morning very early, and finish it when the sun has risen.

13. Let him begin (the twilight devotion) in the evening, when (the sun) has set, (and finish it) very soon after (the appearance of the stars);

14. And the complete observance of the twilight devotions (produces as its reward) an uninterrupted succession of days and nights. 14

15. Now they quote with reference to this (subject) also the following two verses, which have been proclaimed by the Lord of created beings (Pragâpati) 'How can those twice-born men be called Brâhmanas who do not perform their twilight devotions, in the morning and in the evening at the proper time? At his pleasure a righteous king may appoint those Brâhmanas who neglect to daily perform the twilight devotions, both at morn and at eve, to do the work of Sûdras.'

16. If the time for the (twilight devotion) is allowed to pass in the evening, (the offender shall) fast during the night; and if it is neglected in the morning, he shall fast during the (next) day. 16

17. He obtains (thereby) the (same) reward as if he had remained standing and sitting (in the twilight).

18. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'Whatever sin (a man) may have committed with his organ, with his feet, with his arms, by thoughts or by speech, from (all) that he is freed by performing the twilight devotion in the evening.' 18

19. (The worshipper) becomes also connected

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(thereby) with the (next) night, and Varuna will not seize him.

20. In like manner he becomes free from the sin committed during the night by worshipping in the morning. 20

21. He is also connected with the (next) day, Mitra protects him and Âditya leads him up to heaven.

22. It is declared in the Veda, 'A Brâhmana who in this same manner daily worships in the twilight, both at morn and at eve and, being sanctified by the Brahman, becoming one with the Brahman, and resplendent through the Brahman, follows the rules of the Sâstra, gains the heaven of Brahman.' 22


246:2 7. 'A sacred bathing-place, i.e. a river or pond outside the village.'--Govinda. The same author adds that the hands must be washed as far as the wrist, that while sipping water the worshipper is to repeat in the evening, Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 31, and in the morning X, 32, and that if he bathes, Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 1, 12, and other texts must be recited. The Rik containing the word Surabhi is found Taittirîya Samhitâ I, 5, 11, 4, 7; the three Abliṅgas, Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 1, 11; the four verses addressed to Varuna, Taittirîya Samhitâ III, 4, 11, 4, and Taittirîya Âranyaka II, 4, 4. By the term Pâvamânîs the Pavamânânuvâka, Taittirîya Brâhmana I, 4, 8, is meant.

246:5 The injunction to turn the face to the west refers to the evening prayer; see also below, Sûtra 10.

247:6 Govinda states that prânâyâmasah, 'suppressing his breath,' has in this Sûtra no technical meaning.

247:7 Govinda says that the order to be observed in this case is as follows: First the syllable Om is to be recited, next the seven Vyâhritis, beginning with Bhûh and ending with Satyam, then the Sâvitrî, and finally again the syllable Om.

247:8 The Brahmahridaya is Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 28. This Anuvâka may be repeated three times for each Prânâyâma (see Vasishtha XXV, 13), or altogether nine times, and, if the worshipper is then tired, he may go on repeating the Sâvitrî without suppressing his breath.

247:9 Taittirîya Samhitâ II, 1, 11, 6.

247:10 Gautama II. 11.

247:11 Taittirîya Samhitâ III, 4, II, 5.

247:12 Very early, i.e. when the stars are still visible; see also Gautama II, 11, and note.

248:14 The day and night will not be cut off from his existence.

248:16 Vasishtha XX, 4-5.

248:18 Vasishtha XXVI, 2.

249:20 Vasishtha XXVI, 3.

249:22 Brahman means here the Veda, the Sâvitrî, and the universal soul.

Next: Prasna II, Adhyâya 5, Kandikâ 8