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p. 184


1. Tame animals must not be eaten, 1

2. Nor carnivorous and (tame) birds, 2

3. Nor (tame) cocks and pigs; 3

4. Goats and sheep (are) excepted (from the above prohibition).

5. Five five-toed animals may be eaten, (viz.) the porcupine, the iguana, the hare, the hedgehog, the tortoise and the rhinoceros, excepting the rhinoceros, 5

6. Likewise five animals with cloven hoofs, (viz.) the white-footed antelope (Nîl-gâi), the (common ravine) deer, the spotted deer, the buffalo, the (wild) boar and the black antelope, excepting the black antelope, 6

7. (Likewise) five (kinds of) birds that feed scratching with their feet, (viz.) the partridge, the blue rock-pigeon, the francoline partridge, the (crane called) Vârdhrânasa, the peacock and the Vârana, excepting the Vârana, 7

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8. (And the following) fishes, (viz.) the Silurus Pelorius (Sahasradamshtrin), the Kilikima, the Varmi, the Brihakkhiras, the Masakari(?), the Cyprinus Rohita, and the Râgi. 8

9. The milk of a (female animal) whose offspring is not ten days old, and of one that gives milk while big with a young one, must not be drunk, 9

10. Nor that of a (cow) that has no calf or that (suckles) a strange calf.

11. (The milk) of sheep, camels, and one-hoofed animals must not be drunk. 11

12. If (he has) drunk (milk) which ought not to be drunk, excepting cow's milk, (he must perform) a Krikkhra (penance). 12

13. But if (he has drunk) cow's milk (that is unfit for use, he shall) fast during three (days and) nights.

14. Stale (food must not be eaten or drunk) excepting pot-herbs, broths, meat, clarified butter, cooked grain, molasses, sour milk, and barley-meal, 14

15. Nor (substances) which have turned sour, nor molasses which have come into that state. 15

16. After performing the ceremony preparatory 16

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to the beginning of the Veda-study (upâkarman) on the (full moon of the month) of Srâvana or of Ashâdha, they shall close the term on the full moon of Taisha or Mâgha.


184:1 12. Vasishtha XIV, 40.

184:2 Vasishtha XIV, 48. Govinda says that the particle ka, 'and,' is used in order to indicate that the word 'tame' must be understood.

184:3 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 29, 32.

184:5 Vasishtha XIV, 39. Another explanation of the word svâvit, 'the porcupine' (see also Gautama XVII, 27), is given in the commentary, which says that it is a wild animal resembling a dog, and belonging to the boar species. Govinda points out that there is a dispute among the learned regarding the rhinoceros (Vasishtha XV, 47), and that the peculiar wording of the Sûtra is intended to indicate that.

184:6 The permissibility of the last-named animal is again doubtful.

184:7 Gautama XVII, 35. The case of the last-mentioned bird, the Vârana, is again doubtful. From the first rock-edict of Asoka p. 185 it appears that peacocks, now considered inviolable, were actually eaten in the third century A. D.

185:8 Vasishtha XIV, 41-42. The names are much corrupted in the MSS., and for Masakari, which I do not find in the dictionaries, Samasakari or Samasakari is also read. The Brihakkhiras is probably the Indian salmon, the Mâhsir.

185:9-10. Vasishtha XIV, 34-35 Gautama XVII, 22. The meaning of sandhinî, 'a female animal that gives milk while big with young,' is uncertain. See also Vishnu LI, 40 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 23.

185:11 Gautama XVII, 24.

185:12 Vishnu LI, 38-41.

185:14 Gautama XVII, 16.

185:15 Vasishtha XIV, 37-38.

185:16 Vasishtha XIII, 1-5. Govinda states that this Sûtra has been introduced here, because the purity of one's food ensures p. 186 purity of one's soul, and purity of soul gives strength of memory, and thereby makes one fit to study the Veda.

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