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1. In order to obtain wealth and for the sake of security he shall apply to a lord.

2. He must not travel alone; 3. Nor with wicked companions; 4. Nor with Sûdras; 5. Nor with enemies; 6. Nor too early in the morning; 7. Nor too late in the evening; 8. Nor in the twilight; [9. Nor at noon; 10. Nor near water;] 11. Nor in too great a hurry; 12. Nor at night

[8. 1 See XXIII, 51.

LXIII. I. M. IV, 33; Gaut. IX, 63.--2-9. M. IV, 140, 55, 60.--13-17, 19, 21. M. IV, 67, 131, 57.--24, 25. M. IV, 78; Y. I, 139; Âpast. II, 8, 20, 11; Gaut. IX, 15.--26-28. Sânkh. IV, 12, 15; M. IV, 39; Y. I. 133; Gaut. IX, 66.--40. M, IV, 130.--41. M. IV, 132.--42. M. IV, 38; Gaut. IX, 52.--43. M. IV, 38; Gobh. III, 5, 11.--46. Âsv. III, 9, 6; M. IV, 77; Y. I, 139; Âpast. I, 11, 32, 26; Gaut. IX: 32.--47. Âpast. I, 11, 32, 27; Gaut. IX, 33.--49. Gobh. III, 5, 13; Pâr. II, 7, 6; Sânkh. IV, 12, 28.--51. M. IV, 138, 139; Y. I, 117; Âpast. II, 5, 11, 5-7; Gaut. VI, 24, 25.

1. 'A lord' (îsvara) means a king or another rich man, in his own country, or in another country. (Nand.) See also Dr. Bühler's note on Gaut. IX, 63, where the same Sûtra occurs.

9, 10. Sûtras 9 and 10 are wanting in Dr. Bühler's MS.]

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13. Nor (let him travel) without cessation with (horses or other) beasts of draught that are quite young, diseased, or (otherwise) afflicted;

14. Nor with such as are deficient in limb; 15. Nor with weak ones; 16. Nor with young bulls; 17. Nor with untrained animals.

18. He must not appease his hunger and allay his thirst without having first given grass and water to the animals.

19. He must not stop at a place where four ways meet; 20. Nor at night at the root of a tree: 21. Nor in an empty house; 22. Nor upon a meadow; 23. Nor in a stable;

24. Nor (must he stand) on hair, on the husks of grain, on potsherds, on bones, on ashes, or coal;

25. Nor on seeds of the cotton plant.

26. When he passes by a place where four ways meet, let him turn his right side towards it.

27. And let him do the same in passing by the image of a deity;

28. And in passing by well-known large trees.

29. After having seen a fire, or a Brâhmana (with his turban on), or a public prostitute, or a jar filled (with water), or a looking-glass, or an umbrella, or a flag, or a banner[1], or a Bèl tree, or a lid (or platter), or a palace built in the shape of a certain diagram (or in the form of a quadrangle without a western gate)[2];

[29. 1 'More precisely the term patâkâ signifies "a staff, by which a piece of cloth torn in the middle is fastened."' (Nand.)--2 'The particle ka is added at the end of this enumeration in order 'to include in it perfumes, lamps, and other objects mentioned in a Smriti.' (Nand.)]

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30. Or a fan, or a chowrie, or a horse, or an elephant, or a goat, or a cow (having a calf), or sour milk, or milk, or honey, or white mustard;

31. Or a lute, or sandal-wood, or a weapon, or fresh cow-dung, or fruit, or a flower, or a fresh pot-herb, or Gorokanâ, or blades of Dûrvâ grass;

32. Or a turban, or ornaments, or jewels, or gold, or silver, or clothes, or a seat, or a vehicle, or (raw) meat;

33. Or a golden vase, or cultivated land which is being carried away (by a stream), or a single (bull or other) piece of cattle tied with a rope, or an unmarried damsel (clad in white), or a (boiled) fish, (let him turn his right side towards them and) go on.

34. Having seen one intoxicated, or insane, deformed, he must or turn back;

35. (Also, if he has seen) one who has vomited, or one who has been purged, or one who has had his head shorn, or one who wears all his hair tied in one knot, or a dwarf;

[30. 'The particle ka, which is added at the end of this Sûtra, refers to a king, his ministers, his domestic priest, &C., as indicated in a Smriti passage.' (Nand.)

31. Nand. infers from another Smriti passage that ka here refers to a crow and to a Sûdra or workman with his tools.

32. Nand. here refers ka to shells and other objects mentioned in a Smriti.

33. Nand. here refers ka to a dead body and other objects enumerated in a Smriti.

34. The enumeration of auspicious objects in Sûtras 29-33 is followed by an enumeration of inauspicious objects in Sûtras 34-38. (Nand.)

35. The particle ka refers to enemies, outcasts, and others mentioned in a Smriti. (Nand.)]

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36. Or (if he has seen) one wearing a dress (of a reddish-yellow colour) dyed with Kashâya[1], or an ascetic, or one smeared[2] (with ashes)[3];

37. Or (if he has seen) oil, or sugar, or dry cow-dung, or fire-wood, or grass (other than Kusa or Dûrvâ grass), or Palâsa (and other leaves, other than betel leaves), ashes, or coal[1];

38. Or (if he has seen) salt, or a eunuch, or (the spirituous liquor called) Âsava, or an impotent man, or cotton cloth, or a rope, or an iron chain for the feet, or a person with dishevelled hair.

39. (If he sees), while about to begin a journey, a lute, or sandal-wood, or fresh pot-herbs, or a turban, or an Ornament, or an unmarried damsel, he must praise them.

[36. 1 Nand. refers kâshâyin, 'wearing a dress dyed with Kashâya,' to 'persons who wear the marks of an order to which they do not belong.' But this interpretation is evidently wrong. Among the sects that wear a dress dyed with Kashâya, Buddhists are the most prominent, but it must not be overlooked that there are other important sects also, as e. g. the Svâminârâyanîs of the present day, who wear such dresses.--2 The term malina, 'smeared,' no doubt refers to a Saiva sect. Nand. interprets it by 'Kâpâlikas and the like;' but more probably the Pâsupatas are meant.--3 The particle ka further refers to the humpbacked, deaf, and blind, to barren women, and to naked and hungry persons, as stated in a Smriti. (Nand,)

37. 1 Nand. refers the particle ka in this Sûtra to hares, naked mendicants, snakes, iguanas, lizards, skins, and other inauspicious objects and persons enumerated in a Smriti.

38. Nand. argues from a passage of Nârada (not found in his Institutes), that the particle ka here refers to persons mounted upon an ass, camel, or buffalo, and others.

39. 1 Nand. mentions two explanations of this Sûtra: 1. he must eulogise the above objects or persons if he sees them; 2. he must gladden persons, who have those objects or persons with them, with presents and the like.]

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40. He must not (knowingly) step on (or step over, or stand on) the shade of the image of a deity, of a (learned) Brâhmana, of a spiritual teacher, of a brown (bull or other animal), or of one by whom the initiatory ceremony at a Soma-sacrifice has been performed.

41. Nor (must he step) on anything spat out or vomited, nor on blood, nor on fæces or urine, nor on water used for ablutions.

42. He must not step over a rope to which a calf (or a cow) is tied.

43. He must not walk quickly in the rain.

44. He must not cross a river without need;

45. Nor without having previously offered an oblation of water to the gods and to the manes;

46. Nor (swimming) with his arms;

47. Nor in a leaky vessel.

48. He must not stand on the bank (of a river).

49. He must not gaze into a pool.

50. He must not cross it (by swimming through it, or in any other way).

51. Way must be made for an aged man, for one carrying a burden, for a king, for a Snâtaka (of any of the three kinds[1]), for a woman, for a sick person, for a bridegroom, and for one riding in a carriage. Among those, should they all meet, a king must be

[41. According to Nand., the particle vâ, 'or,' is added at the end of this Sûtra, in order to include an officiating priest and others mentioned by Yâgñavalkya I, 152.

51. 1 The Snâtaka (see XXV III, 42, note) is of three kinds: 1. the Vidyâsnâtaka, who has studied the Vedas; 2. the Vratasnâtaka, who has performed the Vratas or vowed observances of a student; 3. the Ubhayasnâtaka, who has completed both the Vedas and the Vratas. (Nand.) See the Grihya-sûtras.]

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honoured by the rest (excepting the Snâtaka); but the king himself must show honour to a Snâtaka.

Next: LXIV.