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p. 190


1. A householder must perform the Pâkayagñas[1]

[11. 1 Nand. interprets the term pârsvika by 'moving a chowrie to and fro before one's master, while standing by his side.'

LIX. 1. M. IV, 67, Gaut. V, 7-9.--1, 2. M. IV, 25; Y. I, 97.--3, 4. Âsv. I, 9; I, 10; Gobh. I, 3, 5-9; Pâr. I, 9; I, 12; Sânkh. I, 3.--2, 4-9. Gaut. VIII, 19, 20.--4-9. M. IV, 25, 26; XI, 7, 8; Y. I, 124, 125.--5-7. Âsv. I, 11; Gobh. III, 8; Pâr. III, 1; III, 8; Sânkh. III, 8.--10. M. XI, 27; Y. I, 126.--11. M. XI, 24; Y. I, 127---12. M. XI, 25; Y. I, 127.--13. M. III, 84, 90, &c. (see below, LXVII).--14, 15, 16. See the references given below (ad LXVII),--19, 20. M. III, 68, 69.--21-25. M. III, 70. Y. I, 102; Âpast. I, 4, 12, 16; I, 4, 13, 1; Gaut. V, 3, 9; Âsv. III, 1, 1-3; Pâr. II, 9, 1.--26. M. III, 72.--27-30. M. III, 77, 78, 80, 81.

1. 1 The term Pâkayagña is used in a more restricted sense here than above (LV, 20). Nand. interprets it by 'Vaisvadeva, {footnote p. 191} Sthâlîpâka, Sravnâkarmen, and similar sacrifices,' i. e. all the sacrifices which have to be performed in the one household fire, as opposed to those for which a Tretâ or triad of sacred fires is required (see Stenzler, note on Âsv. I, 1, 2). Gautama (VIII, 18) enumerates seven Pâkayagñas, among which, however, the Vaisvadeva is not included. The Vaisvadeva is described in LXVII. Regarding the other Pâkayagñas, see the Grihya-sûtras.--2 'Or in the fire kindled at the division of the family estate, or in the fire kindled on his becoming master of the house.' (Nand.) See Sânkh. I, 1, 3-5.]

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(small or domestic offerings) in the fire kindled at the time of marriage[2].

2. He must offer the Agnihotra (or daily oblations of clarified butter) every morning and evening (in the Tretâ fires).

3. He must offer burnt-oblations to the gods (in case the Agnihotra cannot be performed).

4. Let him offer the two Darsapurnamâsas on the days of conjunction and opposition of the sun

and moon.

5. Once in each half of the year, (at the two solstices, let him offer) the Pasubandha (animal sacrifice).

6. In autumn and summer let him offer the Âgrayana (oblation of first-fruits);

[2. The three Tretâ fires have been enumerated above (XXXI, 8). Regarding the Agnihotra and the sacrifices mentioned in 4-8, see Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 328-337, 343-349, 352-396.

4. 'One who has performed the ceremony of Agnyâdhâna (kindling the sacred fires) must perform these two offerings in the Tretâ fires, one who has not done so, in the household or nuptial fire.' (Nand.) This remark applies equally to the sacrifices mentioned in 5-7.

6. 'If the Âgrayana is offered in the household fire, it must consist of a Sthâlîpâka (cooked offering of grain).' (Nand.) See the Grihya-sûtras above cited. Nand. further explains that in autumn the first-fruits of rice, and in summer the firstlings of {footnote p. 192} barley, or, according to Âpastamba, of Venuyava, have to be offered, and he infers from another text of the same author that the particle ka here refers to an oblation of Syâmâka grain, which has to be offered in the rainy season. The two passages in question are not found in Âpastamba's Dharma-sûtra, but Weber, loc. cit., quotes them from Kâtyâyana.]

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7. Or when rice and barley are ripening (in winter and spring).

8. He who has a sufficient supply of food for more than three years (shall perform the Soma-sacrifice)[1].

9. (He shall perform) the Soma-sacrifice once a year (in spring).

10. If he has not wealth (sufficient to defray the expenses of the Pasubandha, Soma, Kâturmâsya, and other Srauta sacrifices), he shall perform the Ishti Vaisvânarî.

11. Let him not make an offering of food obtained as alms from a Sûdra.

12. If he has begged articles for a sacrifice (and obtained them), let him employ them all for that purpose (and never for himself).

13. Every evening and morning let him offer up the Vaisvadeva;

14. And[1] let him give alms to an Ascetic (afterwards).

15. For giving alms and showing due honour to the recipient (by pouring water on his hands both before and afterwards) he obtains the same reward as for giving a cow.

[8. 1 According to Nand., the Soma-sacrifices here referred to are of the kâmya species (offered in order to obtain the gratification of a special desire).

14. 1 Nand. infers from the use of the particle ka, and from a text of Parâsara, that an injunction to give alms to a student is also intended here.]

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16. If there is no ascetic (or other person worthy to receive alms), he must give a mouthful to cows;

17. Or he must cast it into fire.

18. If there is food in the house, he must not reject a mendicant, (who arrives) after he has taken his meal himself.

19. A householder has five places where animals are liable to be destroyed: his wooden mortar, his slab to grind wheat or condiments upon, his fireplace, his water-pot, and his broom.

20. For the sake of expiating offences committed (by ignorantly destroying life) in those places, he must perform the (five) sacrifices addressed to the Veda, to the gods, to all created beings (or 'to the goblins'), to the manes, and to men.

21. Privately reciting (and teaching) the Veda is the sacrifice addressed to the Veda.

22. The regular burnt-oblation (Vaisvadeva) is the sacrifice addressed to the gods.

23. The Pitritarpana (refreshing the manes with food and water) is the sacrifice addressed to the manes.

24. The Bali-offering is the sacrifice addressed to all creatures (or 'to the goblins').

25. The sacrifice addressed to men consists in honouring a guest.

26. He who does not give their share to these five, the gods, his guests, (his wife and children and others,) whom he is bound to maintain, his manes, and himself, is not alive, though he breathes.

[18. 'The expression, "if there is food in the house," indicates that he is not bound to cook a fresh meal for his guest.' (Nand.)]

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27. These (three), the student, the hermit, and the ascetic, derive their existence from the order of householders; therefore must a householder not treat them with disdain, when they have arrived (at his house at the proper time for begging alms).

28. The householder offers sacrifices, the householder practises austerities, the householder distributes gifts; therefore is the order of householders, the first of all.

29. The Rishis[1], the manes, the gods, all creatures (dogs, &c.), and guests beg householders for support; therefore is the order of householders the best of all.

30. If a householder is intent upon pursuing the three objects of life (virtue, love, and wealth), upon constantly distributing presents of food, upon worshipping the gods, upon honouring the Brâhmanas, upon discharging his duty of privately reciting (and teaching) the Veda, and upon refreshing the manes (with oblations of balls of rice, water, and the like), he will attain the world of Indra.

Next: LX.