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1. Now[1] (the following persons) must be avoided:

[16. Sâma-veda II, 1,87.

17. Sâma-veda, I, 91.

18. Sâma-veda I, 122.

19. The same text as in the preceding Sûtra.

20. Sâma-veda I, 350. Nand. infers from a passage of Vâsishtha (XXVIII, 12) that ka refers to Sâma-veda II, 812, and I, 153.

21. Kâthaka XVII, 11--16, &c.

22. 'The text beginning with the words, brahmâ devânâm prathamah sambabhûva, "Brahman rose first among the gods."' (Nand.) The Atharvasira Upanishad has the words, very near the beginning, aham ekah prathamam âsît. See the Calcutta edition.

23. Taitt. Ârany. X, 48-50.

24. Sâma-veda I, 91.

25. Taitt. Ârany. X passim.

26. Rig-veda X, 90, 1. Nand. infers from a passage of Vâsishtha (XXVIII, 13) that ka refers to Rig-veda X, 71, and I, 90, 6-8.

27. 1 Sâma-veda I, 67.--2 Sâma-veda I, 233.--3 Sâma-veda I, 27.--4 Sâma-veda I, 169.--5 Sâma-veda I, 234.

LVII. 1, 2. M. II, 39; Y. I, 38.--3. M. XI, 182-185; Y. III, 295; Âpast. I, 10, 28, 6-8; Gaut. XX, 1.--4. Âpast. I, 1, 2, 5.--6, 7. M. IV, 186.--8. M. IV, 190.--9. M. IV, 186; Y. I, 213.--10. M. IV, 247, 250; Y. I, 214; Âpast. I, 6, 18, 1; I, 6, 19, 11; Gaut. XVII, 3.--11, 12. M. IV, 248, 249; Âpast. I, 6, 19, {footnote p. 187} 14.--13. M. IV, 251; Y. I, 216; Gaut. XVII, 4.--14. M. IV, 213; Y. I, 215.--15, 16. M. IV, 252, 253.--16. Y. I, 166; Gaut. XVII, 6.]

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2. Vrâtyas (i. e. those for whom the ceremony of initiation has not been performed)

3. Outcasts;

4. Descendants within the third degree' of an outcast mother or father, if they (or their outcast ancestors) have not been purified (by a penance).

5. (As a rule) the food of all such persons must not be eaten, nor gifts be accepted from them,[1].

6. He must avoid accepting repeated gifts from those whose presents must not be accepted[1].

7. By accepting such gifts, Brâhmanas lose their divine lustre.

8. And he who, not knowing the law regarding acceptance of gifts, accepts (illicit) gifts, sinks, to hell together with the giver.

9. He who, being worthy to receive gifts, does not accept them, obtains that world which is destined for the liberal-minded (after death).

10. Firewood, water, roots, fruits, protection, meat, honey, a bed, a seat, a house, flowers, sour

[1. 1 'There are two classes of sinners, the repentant and the unrepenting. The penances to be performed by the former having been enumerated, he goes on in the present chapter to state that the latter must be avoided.' (Nand.)

3. See XXXV, 1-5.

4. 1 Nand. refers the term 'in the third degree' to the three ascendants of the parents. The same infers from a passage of Gautama (XX, 1) that the particle ka is used in order to include a murderer of a king also.

5. 1 Nand. infers from another text of Gautama (XX, 8) that it is also forbidden to converse with them.

6. 1 'It is no sin then, in one who is in distress, to accept a present once from them.' (Nand.) See 14.]

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milk, and vegetables he must not disdain to accept when they are offered to him.

11. Even if an offender (but not a mortal sinner) has beckoned and offered alms to him, which had been brought previously for the purpose, the lord of creatures has declared that they may be accepted from him.

12. Neither will the manes eat (his funeral oblations offered to them) for fifteen years, nor will the fire convey his burnt-offerings (to the gods) if he rejects such alms.

13. If he wishes to provide for his (parents or other) Gurus or for (his wife or other) such persons as he is bound to maintain, or if he wants to worship the manes or the gods, he may accept gifts from any one; but he must not satisfy himself with them.

14. But even in those cases, and though he be worthy to receive presents, let him not accept them from a dissolute woman, from a eunuch, from an outcast, or from an enemy.

15. And if his parents are dead, or if he is living apart from them in a house of his own, he must never, while seeking to obtain food for himself, accept alms from any other persons but those who are of respectable descent (and belong to a twice-born caste).

16. One who ploughs the ground for half the crop (and gives the other half to the king or a private person, who is the owner), a friend of the family, a (house-)slave, a herdsman, a barber, and

[11. 1 The use of the particle ka implies that Kusa grass &c. is likewise intended, as Yâgñavalkya (I, 214) says.' (Nand.)

16, The reason of this rule, according to Nand., lies in this, that {footnote p. 189} all the castes mentioned in this Sûtra are not properly Sûdras, but the offspring of unions between parents of a different caste, herdsmen being, according to Parâsara, the offspring of a Kshatriya with a Sûdra damsel, &c. The same considers the use of the particle ka to imply that potters are also intended. See Gaut. XVII, 6.]

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one who announces himself (with the words 'I am your slave'): the food of all such may be eaten, although they are Sûdras.

Next: LVIII.