1. A king, a priest, a learned Brâhmana, one who stops wicked proceedings, an Upâdhyâya, a paternal uncle, a maternal grandfather, a maternal uncle, a father-in-law, an eldest brother, and the parents-in-law of a son or a daughter are equal to a teacher;
2. And so are their wives, who are equal in caste to them.
3. And their mother's sister, their father's sister, and I their eldest sister.
4. A father-in-law, a paternal uncle, a maternal
[XXXII. 1. M. II, 206.--2. M. II, 210.--3. M. II, 131.--4. M. II, 130; Âpast. I, 4, 14, 11.--5, 6. M. II, 210, 211; Âpast. I, 2, 7, 27; Gaut. II, 31, 32.--7. M. II, 129,--8, 9. M. XI, 205; Y. III, 292.--10. Âpast. I, 1, 2, 20.--11, 12. M. II, 201; Âpast. I, 2, 8, 15.--13. M. II, 212; Gaut. II, 34.--14. M. II, 20.--15. M. II, 217; Gaut. II, 33; VI, 2.--16. M. II, 136; Gaut. VI, 20.--17. M. II, 135; Âpast. I, 4, 14, 25.--18. M. II, 155.
1. 1 The particle ka is used here, according to Nand., in order to include a paternal grandfather and other persons mentioned in a Smriti.
3. 1 The particle ka here refers, according to Nand., to the paternal grandmother and others mentioned in a Smriti.]
uncle, and a priest he must honour by rising to meet and saluting them, even though they be younger than himself.
5. The wives of Gurus (superiors), who are of a lower class than their husbands (such as Kshatriya or Vaisya or Mûrdhâvasikta wives), shall be honoured by (rising to meet and) saluting them from far; but he must not embrace their feet.
6. He should avoid to rub and anoint the limbs of Guru's wives, or to anoint their eyes, or to arrange their hair, or to wash their feet, or to do other such services for them.
7. To the wife of another, even though he does not know her, he must either say 'sister' (if she is of equal age with himself), or 'daughter' (if she is younger than himself), or 'mother' (if she is older than himself).
8. Let him not say 'thou' to his Gurus (superiors).
9. If he has offended one of them (by saying 'thou' to him, or in some other manner), he must keep a fast and not eat again till the end of the day, after having obtained his forgiveness.
10. He must avoid to quarrel with his spiritual teacher and to argue with him (from emulation).
11. And he must not censure him;
[5. Sûdra wives are exempt from this rule; he should rise to meet, but not salute them. (Nand.)
8. 1 Other insulting language, as e. g. if he says hush or pish to them, is also included in this term. The use of the particle ka indicates that other persons entitled to respect are also intended in this Sûtra. (Nand.)
10. 'The particle ka is used in order to include Brâhmanas in general in this prohibition.' (Nand.)
11. 'The use of the particle ka shows that defamatory speeches are also intended.' (Nand.)]
12. Nor act so as to displease him.
13. (A pupil) must not embrace the feet of a Guru's young wife, if he has completed his twentieth year, or can distinguish virtue from vice.
14. But a young student may at pleasure prostrate himself before a young wife of his Guru, (stretching out both hands) as ordained (see XXVIII, 15), 'I, N. N. (ho! salute thee).'
15. On returning from a journey he shall (once) embrace the feet of the wives of his Gurus (superiors), and daily, salute them, remembering the practice of the virtuous.
16. Wealth, kindred, age, the performance of religious observances, and, fifthly, sacred knowledge are titles to respect; each subsequent one is superior to the one preceding in order.
17. A Brâhmana, though only ten years old, and a member of the kingly caste, though a hundred years old, must be considered as father and son; and of these two, the Brâhmana is the father.
18. The seniority of Brâhmanas is founded upon sacred knowledge; of Kshatriyas, upon valour in arms; of Vaisyas, upon grain and (other) wealth; of Sûdras, upon (priority of) birth.