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1. The impurity of a Brâhmana caused by the birth or death of Sapindas lasts ten days.

2. In the case of a Kshatriya (it lasts) twelve days.

3. In the case of a Vaisya (it lasts) fifteen days.

4. In the case of a Sûdra (it lasts) a month.

5. The relationship of Sapinda ceases with the seventh man (in descent or ascent).

6. During the period of impurity oblations (to the Visvedevâs), gifts and receiving of alms, and study have to be interrupted.

[XXII. 1-4. M. V, 83; Y. III, 18, 22; Âpast. I, 5, 16, 18; Gaut. XIV, 1-4.--5. M. V, 60; Âpast. II, 6, 15, 2; Gaut. XIV, 13.--25. M. V, 66; Y. III, 20; Gaut. XIV, 17.--27. Y. III, 23; Gaut. XIV, 44.--28. M. V, 69; Y. III, I.--29, 30. M. V, 67; Y. III, 23.--35. M. V, 79; Y. III, 20; Gaut. XIV, 6.--36, 37. Gaut. XIV, 7, 8.--38. M. V, 79; Y. III, 20.--39-41. M. V, 75, 76; Y. III, 21; Gaut. XIV, 19.--42. M. V, 80; Y. III, 24.--43. Y. III, 25.--44. M. V, 80, 81; Y. III, 24; Gaut. XIV, 20.--45. M. V, 82; Y. III, 25.--46. M. V, 81; Gaut. XIV, 20.--47. M. V, 89; Y. III, 21, 27; Gaut. XIV, 10-12.--48-55. M. V, 93-95; Y. III, 27-29.--48, 49. Gaut. XIV, 45, 46.--56. M. V, 89; Y. III, 21; Gaut. XIV, 12.--63-65. M. V, 103; Y. III, 26; Gaut. XIV, 31--67. M. V, 144--69. M. V, 85; Y. III, 30; Âpast. II, 1, 2, 8, 9; Gaut. XIV, 30.--70. M. V, 87.--75. M. V, 145; Y. I, 196; Âpast. I, 5, 16, 14; Gaut. I, 37.--81. M. V, 135.--82. M. XI, 95.--84. M. XI, 96.--85. M. V, 65.--86. M. V, 91.--87. M. V, 88.--88-93. M. V, 105-110; Y. III, 31-34.]

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7. No one must eat the food of one impure (unless he be a Sapinda of his).

8. He who eats but once the food of Brâhmanas or others, while they are impure, will remain impure as long as they.

9. When the (period of) impurity is over, he must perform a penance (as follows):

10. If a twice-born man has eaten (the food) of a member of his own caste, while the latter was impure, he must approach a river and plunge into it, mutter the (hymn of) Aghamarshana[1] three times, and, after having emerged from the water, must mutter the Gâyatrî[2] one thousand and eight times.

11. If a Brâhmana has eaten the food of a Kshatriya, while the latter was impure, he is purified by performing the same penance and by fasting (on the previous day).

12. (The same penance is ordained for) a Kshatriya who has eaten the food of a Vaisya, while the latter was impure.

13. (The same penance is ordained for) a Brâhmana (who has eaten the food) of an impure Vaisya; but he must fast besides during the three (previous) days.

14. If a Kshatriya or a Vaisya (have eaten the food) of a Brâhmana or a Kshatriya respectively, who were impure, they must approach a river and mutter the Gâyatrî five hundred times.

15. A Vaisya, who has eaten the food of a Brâhmana, while the latter was impure, must (go to a river and) mutter the Gâyatrî one hundred and eight times.

[10. 1 Rig-veda X, 190.-- 2 Rig-veda III, 62, 10.]

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16. A twice-born man (who has eaten the food), of a Sûdra, while the latter was impure must (go to a river and) perform the Prâgâpatya (penance).

17. A Sûdra (who has eaten the food) of an impure man of a twice-born caste must bathe (in a river).

18. A Sûdra (who has eaten the food) of another Sûdra, while the latter was impure, must bathe (in a river) and drink Pañkagavya.

19. Wives and slaves in the direct order of the castes (i. e. who do not belong to a higher caste than their lord) remain impure as long as their lord.

20. If their lord is dead (or if they live apart from him, they remain impure) as long as (members of) their own caste.

21. If Sapindas of a higher caste (are born or have died) the period of impurity has for their lower caste relations the same duration as for members of the higher caste.

22. A Brâhmana (to whom) Sapindas of the Kshatriya, Vaisya, or Sûdra castes (have been born or have died) becomes pure within six nights, or three nights, or one night, respectively.

23. A Kshatriya (to whom Sapindas of the) Vaisya or Sûdra castes (have been born or have died) is purified within six and three nights, respectively.

24. A Vaisya (to whom Sapindas of the) Sûdra caste (have been born or have died) becomes pure within six nights.

[16. Regarding the Prâgâpatya penance, see below, XLVI, 10.

18. The Pañkagavya, or fire productions of a cow, consists of milk, sour milk, butter, urine, and cow-dung.]

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25. In a number of nights equal to the number of months after conception, a woman is purified from an abortion.

26. The relatives of children that have died immediately after birth (before the cutting of the navel-string), and of still-born children, are purified at once.

27. (The relatives) of a child that has died before having teethed (are also purified) at once.

28. For him no ceremony with fire is performed, nor offering of water.

29 . For a child that has teethed but has not yet been shorn, purity is obtained in one day and night;

30. For a child that has been shorn but not initiated, in three nights;

31. From that time forward (i. e. for initiated persons) in the time that has been mentioned above (in Sûtra 1 seq.)

32. In regard to women, the marriage ceremony is (considered as their) initiation.

33. For married women there is no impurity for the relatives on the father's side.

34. If they happen to stay at their father's house during childbirth or if they die there, (their distant relatives are purified) in one night, and their parents (in three nights).

35. If, while the impurity, caused by a birth lasts,

[26. 'The meaning is, that the relatives of such children do not become impure.' (Nand.)

28. 'The meaning is, that he must not be burnt.', (Nand.)

32. The import of this Sûtra is this, that the full period of impurity is ordained on the death of women also, in case they were married, as the marriage ceremony takes with them the place of the initiation of males.]

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another impurity caused by childbirth intervenes, it ends when the former impurity terminates.

36. If it intervenes when one night (only of the period of impurity remains, the fresh impurity terminates) two days later.

37. If it intervenes when one watch (only of the last night remains, the impurity ends) three days later.

38. The same rule is observed if a relative dies during a period of impurity caused by the death (of another relative).

39. If a man, while staying in another country, hears of the birth or death (of a relative), he becomes purified after the lapse of the period still wanting (to the ten days).

40. if the period of impurity, but not a whole year, has elapsed, (he is purified in one night.)

41. After that time (he is purified) by a bath.

42. If his teacher or maternal grandfather has died, (he is purified) in three nights.

43. Likewise, if sons other than a son of the body have been born or have died, and if wives who had another husband before have been delivered of a child or have died.

[40. 'Although the general term impurity is used in this Sûdra, it refers to impurity caused by a death only.' (Nand.)

42. 'The use of the particle ka implies, that this rule extends to the death of a maternal grandmother, as ordained in the Shadasîtismriti.' (Nand.)

43. The twelve kinds of sons have been enumerated above, XV, 2-27. Of these, the three species of adopted sons, the son bought, and the son cast off cannot cause impurity, because their sonship dates from a period subsequent to their birth; but their offspring may cause impurity. (Nand.) Parapûrvâs, or 'wives who had another husband before,' are either of the punarbhû or of the svairinî kind. (Nand.) See XV, 8, 9, and Nârada XII, 46-54.]

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44. (He becomes pure) in one day, if the wife or son of his teacher, or his Upâdhyâya (sub-teacher[1]), or his maternal uncle, or his father-in-law, or a brother-in-law, or a fellow-student, or a pupil has died.

45. The impurity has the same duration (as in the cases last mentioned), if the king of that country in which he lives has died.

46. Likewise, if a man not his Sapinda has died at his house.

47. The relatives of those who have been killed by (falling from) a precipice, or by fire, or (have killed themselves by) fasting, or (have been killed by) water, in battle, by lightning, or by the king (on account of a crime committed by them), do not become impure;

48. Nor do kings (become impure) while engaged in the discharge of their ditties (such as the protection of their subjects, the trial of lawsuits, &c.)

49. Devotees fulfilling a vow (also do not become impure);

50. Nor do sacrificers engaged in a sacrificial ceremony;

51. Nor workmen (such as carpenters or others) while engaged in their work;

52. Nor those who perform the king's orders, if the king wishes them to be pure.

53. Nor (can impurity arise) during the installation of the monument of a deity, nor during

[44. 'See XXIX, 2.

49. The term vratin, 'a devotee fulfilling a vow,' may be referred to students as well, who, however, become impure by the death of their parents. (Nand.)

53. A marriage ceremony is said to have actually begun when the Nândîmukha, or Srâddha preliminary to marriage, has taken place. (Nand.)]

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a marriage ceremony, if those ceremonies have actually begun;

54. Nor when the whole country is afflicted with a calamity;

55. Nor in times if great public distress (such as an epidemic or a famine).

56. Suicides and outcasts do not cause impurity or receive offerings of water.

57. On the death-day of an outcast a female slave of his must upset a pot with water with her feet, (saying, 'Drink thou this.')

58. He who cuts the rope by which (a suicide) has hung himself, becomes pure by performing the Taptakrikkhra ('hot penance').

59. So does he who has been (in any way) concerned with the funeral of a suicide;

60. And he who sheds tears for such.

61. He who sheds tears for any deceased person together with the relations of the latter (becomes pure) by a bath.

62. If he has done so, before the bones (of the deceased) had been collected, (he becomes pure) by bathing with his apparel.

63. If a member of a twice-born caste has followed the corpse of a dead Sûdra, he must go to a river, and having plunged into it, mutter the Aghamarshana three times, and then, after having emerged from it, mutter the Gâyatrî one thousand and eight times.

64. (If he has followed) the corpse of a dead member of a twice-born caste, (the same expiation

[56. Giving or taking alms does not effect impurity in such cases. (Nand.)]


is ordained, but he must mutter the Gâyatrî) one hundred and eight times only.

65. If a Sûdra has followed the corpse of a member of a twice-born caste, he must bathe.

66. Members of any caste, who have come near to the smoke of a funeral pile, must bathe.

67. (Bathing is also ordained) after sexual intercourse, bad dreams (of having been mounted upon an ass, or the like), when blood has issued from the throat, and after having vomited or been purged;

68. Also, after tonsure of the head;

69. And after having touched one who has touched a corpse (a carrier of a corpse), or a woman in her courses, or a Kândâla (or other low-caste persons, such as Svapakas), or a sacrificial post;

70. And (after having touched) the corpse of a five-toed animal, except of those kinds that may be eaten[1], or their bones still moist with fat.

71. In all such ablutions he must not wear his (defiled) apparel without having washed it before.

72. A woman in her courses becomes pure after four days by bathing.

73. A woman in her courses having touched another woman in her courses, who belongs to a lower caste than she does, must not eat again till she is purified.

74. If she has (unawares) touched a woman of her own caste, or of a higher caste than her own, she becomes pure at once, after having taken a bath.

75. Having sneezed, having slept, having eaten,

[70. 1 See LI, 6.

75. Nand. argues from a passage of Yâgñavalkya (I, 196) and from texts of Âpastamba (not found in his Dharma-sûtra) and of Praketas, that the particle ka refers to repeated sipping of water.]

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going to eat or to study, having drunk (water), having bathed, having spat, having put on his garment, having walked on the high road, having discharged urine or voided excrements, and having touched the bones no longer moist with fat of a five-toed animal, he must sip water;

76. Likewise, if he has talked to a Kândâla or to a Mlekkha (barbarian).

77. If the lower part of his body, below the navel, or one of his fore-arms, has been defiled by one of the impure excretions of the body, or by one of the spirituous liquors or of the intoxicating drinks (hereafter mentioned), he is purified by cleansing the limb in question with earth and water.

78. If another part of his body (above the navel) has been defiled, (he becomes pure by cleansing it) with earth and water, and by bathing.

79. If his mouth has been defiled (he becomes pure) by fasting, bathing, and drinking Pañkagavya;

80. Likewise, if his lip has been defiled.

81. Adeps, semen, blood, dandruff, urine, fæces, earwax, nail-parings, phlegm, tears, rheum, and sweat, are the twelve impure excretions of the body.

82. Distilled from sugar, or from the blossoms of the Madhûka. (Mâdhvi wine[1]), or from flour: these three kinds of spirituous liquor have to be discerned; as one, so are all: none of them must be tasted by the twice-born.

83. Again, distilled from the blossoms of the

[76. Regarding the meaning of Mlekkha, see LXXXIV, 4.

82, 83. 1 How the Mâhvî, Mâdhûka, and Mâdhvîka wines differ from one another, does not become clear. Nand. explains the term Mâdhûka as denoting an extract from Madhûka blossoms (bassia latifolia), and Mâdhvî and Mâdhvîka as two different preparations from Madhu. Now Madhu might be rendered by 'honey;' {footnote p. 96} but Kullûka, in his comment on the term Mâdhvî (M. XI, 95), states expressly that it means 'Madhûka blossom,' and Hârîta (as quoted by Nand.) says that Mâdhûka, Mâdhvî and Mâdhvîka are a preparations from Madhu, i.e. Madhûka blossoms. Maireya, according to the lexicographer Vâkaspati, as quoted by Nand., is an intoxicating drink prepared from the flowers of the grislea tormentosa, mixed with sugar, grain, and water, or, according to the reading of the Sabdakalpadruma (see the Petersburg Dictionary) with sorrel.]

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Madhûka tree (Madhûka wine), from molasses, from the fruits of the Tanka (or Kapittha tree), of the jujube tree, of the Khargûra tree, or of the breadfruit tree, from wine-grapes, from Madhûka blossoms (Mâdhvîka wine), Maireya, and the sap of the cocoanut tree:

84. These ten intoxicating drinks are unclean for a Brâhmana; but a Kshatriya and a Vaisya commit no wrong in touching (or drinking) them.

85. A pupil having performed (on failure of other mourners) the funeral of his dead Guru, becomes pure after ten nights, like those (kinsmen) who carry out the dead.

86. A student does not infringe the rules of his order by carrying out, when dead, his teacher, or his sub-teacher, or his father, or his mother, or his Guru.

87. A student must not offer a libation of water to a deceased relative (excepting his parents) till the term of his studentship has expired; but if, after its expiration, he offers a libation of water, he becomes pure after three nights.

88. Sacred knowledge (see 92), religious austerities (see go), fire (see XXIII, 33), holy food (Pañkagavya), earth (see 91), the mind, water (see 91), smearing (with cow-dung and the like, see XXIII, 56), air (see XXIII, 40, (the morning and evening prayers and other) religious acts, the sun

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(see XXIII, 40), and time (by the lapse of the ten days of impurity and the like) are purifiers of animate objects.

89. Of all pure things, pure food is pronounced the most excellent; for he who eats pure food only, is truly pure, not he who is only purified with earth and water.

90. By forgiveness of injuries the learned are purified; by liberality, those who have done forbidden acts; by muttering of prayers, those who have sinned in secret; by religious austerities, those who best know the Veda.

91. By water and earth is purified what should be purified (because it has been defiled); a river is purified by its current (carrying away all slime and mud); a woman, whose thoughts have been impure, by her menses,; and the chief among the twice-born (the Brâhmanas), by renouncing the world.

92. Bodies (when defiled) are purified by water; the mind is purified (from evil thoughts) by truth; the soul (is purified or freed from worldly vanity) by sacred learning and austerities; the understanding (when unable to resolve some doubt), by knowledge.

93. Thus the directions for purifying animate bodies have been declared to thee; hear now the rules for cleaning all sorts of inanimate objects.

Next: XXIII.