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1. The law of castes and of orders has been declared. 1

2. Now, indeed, man (in) this (world) is polluted by a vile action, such as sacrificing for men unworthy to offer a sacrifice, eating forbidden food, speaking what ought not to be spoken, neglecting what is prescribed, practising what is forbidden. 2

3. They are in doubt if he shall perform a penance for such (a deed) or if he shall not do it. 3

4. (Some) declare, that he shall not do it,

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5. Because the deed does not perish. 5

6. The most excellent (opinion is), that he shall perform (a penance). 6

7. For it is declared in the Veda, that he who has offered a Punastoma (may) again come to (partake of) the libations of Soma, 7

8. Likewise he who has offered a Vrâtyastoma. 8

9. (The Veda says) further: 'He who offers a horse-sacrifice, conquers all sin, he destroys the guilt of the murder of a Brâhmana; 9

10. Moreover: 'He shall make an Abhisasta perform an Agnishtut sacrifice.' 10

11. Reciting the Veda, austerity, a sacrifice, fasting, giving gifts are the means for expiating such a (blamable act). 11

12. The purificatory (texts are), the Upanishads, the Vedântas, the Samhitâ-text of all the Vedas, the (Anuvâkas called) Madhu, the (hymn of) 12

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[paragraph continues] Aghamarshana, the Atharvasiras, the (Anuvâkas called the) Rudras, the Purusha-hymn, the two Sâmans (called) Râgana and Rauhineya, the Brihat (Sâman) and the Rathantara, the Purushagati (Sâman), the Mahânâmnîs, the Mahâvairâga (Sâman), the Mahâdivâkîrtya (Sâman), any of the Gyeshtha Sâmans, the Bahishpavamâna (Sâman), the Kûshmândas, the Pâvamânîs, and the Sâvitrî.

13. To live on milk alone, to eat vegetables only, to eat fruits only, (to live on) barley-gruel prepared of a handful of grain, to eat gold, to eat clarified butter, and to drink Soma (are modes of living) which purify. 13

14. All mountains, all rivers, holy lakes, places of pilgrimage, the dwellings of Rishis, cow-pens, and temples of the gods (are) places (which destroy sin). 14

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15. Continence, speaking the truth, bathing morning, noon, and evening, standing in wet clothes, sleeping on the ground, and fasting (are the various kinds of) austerity. 15

16. Gold, a cow, a dress, a horse, land, sesamum, clarified butter, and food are the gifts (which destroy sin).

17. A year, six months, four (months), three (months), two (months), one (month), twenty-four days, twelve days, six days, three days, a day and a night are the periods (for penances).

18. These (acts) may be optionally performed when no (particular penance) has been prescribed, 18

19. (Viz.) for great sins difficult (penances), and for trivial faults easy ones.

20. The Krikkhra and the Atikr.ikkhra, (as well as) the Kândrâyana, are penances for all (offences). 20


274:1 XIX. Haradatta, thinks that the object of this Sûtra is to assert that in the following chapter the laws given above for castes and orders must be kept in mind. Thus penances like offering a Punastoma are not intended for Sûdras, who have no business with Vedic rites, but other penances are. He also states that another commentator believes that the Sûtra is meant to indicate that the following rules refer not merely to those men who belong to castes and orders, but to the Pratilomas also, who have been declared to stand outside the pale of the sacred law. Haradatta's opinion appears to be preferable.

274:2 'Ayam purushah, "man (in) this (world)," indicates the universal soul which is dwelling in the body. Yâpya, "vile," i.e. despicable (kutsita).'--Haradatta.

274:3 'They, i.e. the theologians (brahmavâdinah).'--Haradatta.

275:5 I.e. the guilt (adharma) contracted by the deed is not effaced before it has produced its result in the shape of punishment in hell and in other births, see also Manu X1, 45.

275:6 'Apara, "most excellent," means that which nothing surpasses, i.e. the settled doctrine.'--Haradatta.

275:7 The Punastoma is one of the Srauta-sacrifices belonging to the class called Ekâha. Regarding its efficacy, see also Lâtyâyana Srauta-sûtra IX, 4, 5.

275:8 The Vrâtyastoma is another Ekâha-sacrifice. Regarding its efficacy, see Yâgñavalkya I, 38; Lâtyâyana Srautra-sûtra VIII 6, 29.

275:9 Satapatha-brâhmana XIII, 3, 1, 1.

275:10 The Agnishtut is an Ekâha-sacrifice. Regarding its efficacy, see Manu XI, 75.

275:11 Manu XI, 46, 228; Âpastamba I, 9, 26, 12-I, 9, 27, 11.

275:12 'Those parts of the Âranyakas which are not (Upanishads) are called Vedântas. In all the Vedas (khandas), i.e. in all Sâkhâs (pravakana), the Samhitâ-text, not the Pada-text, nor the Krama-text. Another commentator says, "One Samhitâ is to be made p. 276 with all the metres, i.e. the Gâyatrî and the rest, and to be recited according to the manner of the Prâtaranuvâka."'--Haradatta. According to the same authority, the Madhus are found Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 38, the hymn of Aghamarshana Rig-veda X, 190, the Rudras Taittirîya-Samhitâ IV, 5, 1-11, and in the corresponding eleven chapters of all other Yagus-sâkhâs, the Purushasûkta Rig-veda X, 90, the Kûshmândas Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 3-5, the Pâvamânîs Rig-veda IX, while by Atharvasiras the Upanishad, known by that name, is meant. As regards the Sâmans mentioned in the Sûtra it suffices to refer to Professor Benfey's Index, Ind. Stud. III, 199, and to Dr. Burnell's Index of the Ârsheya-brâhmana.

276:13 According to Haradatta the word iti, which appears in the text at the end of the enumeration, is intended to include other similar kinds of food, as 'the five products of the cow.' Eating gold means eating small particles of gold which have been thrown into clarified butter and the like.

276:14 The word iti used in the text is, according to Haradatta, again to be taken in the sense of 'and so forth.' The translation of parishkanda, 'a temple,' not parishkandha, as Professor Stenzler p. 277 reads, is based on Haradatta's explanation. Etymologically it seems to mean 'a place for circumambulation,' and to denote the platform on which the temples usually stand, and which is used for the Pradakshina ceremony.

277:15 The word iti in the text is explained as in the preceding Sûtras.

277:18 These (acts), i.e. the recitation of the Veda and so forth, which have been enumerated above, Sûtras 11-16.

277:20 Regarding these penances, see chapters XXVI and XXVII. Haradatta again takes the word iti, which occurs in the text, to include other difficult penances.

Next: Chapter XX