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Vowel Sounds.--ă, almost like u in fur; ai, like i in high; ä, as in palm; e, like a in late; ï as e in he; ō, as in shore; ü, as in pull; u, as in sun.

Abhimanyu (ăb-hi-mun´yoo), son of Arjuna and Subhadra, 228; marries Uttara, Princess of Virata, 269; in great war, 286 et seq.; fall of, 298, 299; in vision of the dead warriors, 320, 321; in Paradise of Indra, 327.

Achaens (a-kē´ans), burial rites of, xxxvi; as pork eaters, 136.

Achilles (a-kēl-es), contrasted with Indian hero, xlviii, 17.

A´dad, the "hammer god", 3.

"Adam's Bridge", apes construct for Rama, 418.

Aditi (ă-dee-tee), mother of the Adityas, 32, 58, 148.

Adityas (ä-deet´yas), early group of deities, 28; Mitra and, 29, 30, 32; Surya and, 33; sustained by soma, 36; in Varuna's heaven, 58, 59, 148.

Africa, Garden of Eden in, xxiv.

Afro-Eurasian languages and peoples, xxiv.

Afro-European languages, xxiv.

Ages (Historical), Vedic, Brahmanical Buddhist, Brahmanical Revival, 119.

Ages of the universe (Yugas), doctrine of and relation to castes, xxv, xliii; in Indian, Greek, and Irish mythologies, xliv; traces of in Egyptian mythology, xliv; Indra-Vritra conflict in Krita age, 7 et seq. See World's Ages.

Agni (ăg´nee), god of fire, in Vedic age, xxxi; tribal worship of, xxxii; messenger between gods and men, xxxiii; the Teutonic Heimdal and, xlv, 20, 21, 22; Brihaspati and, 10; harvest-offerings to, 14; as winner of god's race, 14, 15; as Indra's brother and as Brahma, 19; myths regarding origin of, 20 et seq.; identified with Mitra, 22, 28; as sire of three human sons, 22; worshipper of like Martin Elginbrodde, 23, 24; as ministrant of sacrifice, 23; Indra's attributes absorbed by, 24; rain god and, 26; supplants Varuna in Indra's service, 28, 29; not a Mitanni god, 31; in Nara story, 31; in rival group of deities, 32; "sun has nature of", 36; vows before a fire, 37; as "vital spark", 37; why worshippers of burned their dead, 38, 39, 116; non-Babylonian character of, 41; as enemy of demons of disease, 67; Vishnu as a phase of, 122, 123; subject to Brahma, 134; Shiva absorbed attributes of; 148; as father of Kartikeya, 152; cursed by Daksha, the rishi, 154; "of the Bharatas", 155; as a suitor of Damayantí, 332 et seq.; appears at ordeal of Sita, 425.

Agriculture, early Ayro-Indians had knowledge of, 76, 77.

Ahi (ă´hee), the demon, "the confiner", 66.

Ahura (ă´hür´ă), signifies god in Persian.

Ahür´a-Maz´da (Ormuzd), supreme Persian deity, xxxiii, 62.

Ainus of Japan, xxvii.

Airavata (ai´ra-vät-a), Indra's elephant, 18; origin of, 144.

"Air of Life", Indra source of, 19; spirit as, 37.

Akhenaton (a-khen-ä´ton), Mitanni Aryans and, xxx.

Ale, the "sura" of the early Ayro-Indians, 77.

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Algebra, the gift of ritualistic Brahmans, 83.

Allabad. See Varanavartha.

"All-tamer", King Bharata as, 161. Alphabetic signs, introduced by Semites, 78.

Alpine race, identified with Celts, xxii; an inconclusive theory, xxiii; distribution of, xxvii; Turki and Ugrians xxix; Patriarchal customs of, xxxi; identified with Celts, xxxv.

Amazons, Arjuna's experiences with, 313.

Amba (äm´ba), Princess, captured by Bhishma, 170; rejected by Rajah of Sanva, 170, 171; her revenge, 171 n; Sikhandin, incarnation of, helps to slay Bhishma, 295.

Ambrosia, Amrita as, 36; in Teutonic and Indian mythologies, 142 et seq. See Amrita.

Amenhotep (a-men-hō´tep) the Magnificent, Mitanni Aryans and, xxx.

Amrita (ăm´rïta), soma as, 36; the Indian Ambrosia, 142; in "Churning of the Ocean" myth, 143 et seq.; Garuda captures, 145, 146.

Amvika (ăm´vikă), the goddess, sister of Rudra, 150.

Ananta (ăn´anta), the serpent, 143.

Ancestors, worship of, 61; the "fathers" and patriarchs, 102. See Pitris.

Andhaka (ăn´dhăk-ă) (Darkness), the Asura, 151.

Anglo-Saxons, Pope Gregory on pagan practices of, 135.

Animals, domesticated, charms to protect, 86.

Antaka (ăn´tak-a), "life-ender", Yama is, 42.

Apes, Solomon got from India, 84.

Apes, demi-gods, Hanuman and Bhima meet, 106 et seq.; why gods assumed forms of, 177; Sita drops jewels on Mountain of, 407; Rama and Lakshmana in kingdom of, 410; Rama slays Bali for Sugriva, 411, 412, 413; invasion of Ceylon, 418; colours of the chief, 418; battles of with Rakshasas, 419 et seq.; the ordeal of Sita, 424, 425.

Apsaras (ăp´săräs) or Apsarasas, Menaka one of the, 43; temptation of Vishwamitra, 159, 160; in Indra's heaven, 58; in Kuvera's heaven, 59; Indian fairies, 68; dancers and lovers, 69; sun maiden contrasted with, 71; origin of in "Sea of Milk", 144; Urvasa woos and curses Arjuna, 256; at horse sacrifice, 316.

Apsaras, the water nymph, 69.

Ăran´yäkas, the "forest books", 88.

Ăran´yäni, the forest nymph, 74, 75.

Archæological Ages, xxxv.

Arjuna (ăr´joo-na or arjoo´na), xlviii; Indra's affection for, 17; wooed by Apsara in Indra's heaven, 69; Gandharva's story told to, 71; "Divine Song" repeated by Krishna to, 125 et seq.; story of wrestling of with Shiva, 146 et seq.; son of Queen Pritha and Indra, 176; his feats of skill at the tournament, 188; Karna rivals, 189, 190; challenged to single combat, 190, 191 et seq.; in battle against Drupada, 195, 196; the first exile, 198 et seq.; wins Draupadi at swayamvara, 216, 217; drives back Karna, 218, 219; his exile from Indra-prastha, 225; the serpent nymph Ulupi and birth of Iravat, 226; marries princess of Manipur and birth of Chitrángadá, 226; wooing of Subhadra, sister of Krishna, 227, 228; expedition against Jarasandha, 229-231; at gambling match, 238 et seq.; penance performed by, 255; wrestles with the god Shiva, 255, 256; spirit of celestial weapon appears before, 256; in Indra's heaven, 256; expedition against Danavas and Daityas, 256, 257, 258; rescues Duryodhana from Gandharva, 259; Karna vows to slay, 261; temporary death of, 263 et seq.; as dancing and music teacher in Virata, 266; defeats Kauravas at Virata, 268; son of marries Uttara, 269; secures Krishna as an ally, 273; great war begins, 280 et seq.; armed with celestial bow, 286; Krishna's instruction to, 287, 288; feats of in great war, 290 et seq.; the fall of Bhishma, 295, 296; sorrow for Abhimanyu, 299; miracle on battlefield, 300; fights with and slays Karna, 303-305; performs funeral rites for Karna, 312; accompanies horse to be sacrificed after "great war", 313; meets with Amazons, 314; horse becomes mare, then lion, 314: father and son combat, 314; slain by son and restored to life, 315; sacrifice

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performed, 316 et seq.; rescues women from Dwaraka, 323; journey of towards Paradise, 324 et seq.

Arjuna's sons. See Abhimanyu, Babhru-váhana, Chitrángadá, Iravat.

Ark, Manu's, in "Story of the Deluge", 140 et seq.

Armenians, Kurds contrasted with, xxii, xxvii.

Arnold, Professor E. V., on Mitra and Varuna, 28, 29, 39 n, 41.

Arrowsmith's translations of hymns, 16; rain-charm hymn, 37.

Artisan, the world, Indra as, 10.

Artisan god of Babylon, 12.

Artisans, referred to in Vedic hymns, 77.

Artisans (Divine), the Ribhus as, to; Egyptian Khnumu and Germanic elves as, 77.

Artisans of nature. See Twashtri and Ribhus.

Arya, a racial designation, xx.

Aryaman (är´ya-man), associated with Mitra and Varuna, 28.

Aryan problem, history of, xviii; the language links, xix; Vedic Period problem, xx; the racial cradle, xxi et seq.; "broad heads" and "long heads", xxii, xxvi; Max Müller's views, xxiii, xxiv; African origin of mankind, xxiv; racial type to-day, xxv; Mediterranean or "Brown race" theory, xxvii, xxxix; Turki tribes among, xxix; father and mother deities, xxxi; the "Aryans" of archæology, xxxv; the cremating people invade Europe, xxxv; as military aristocracies, xxxvi; the Palestine evidence, xxxvii; philological theories narrow regarding, xxxviii; influence of disease on race types, xli; Vedic and post-Vedic modes of thought, xlv; in Vedic Age recognize "father right", xxx; conquest of Babylon, 3; late doctrines of transmigration and the world's ages, 103; invasion of the "Middle Country" by Kurus, Panchalas, and Bharatas, 155.

Aryan tribes, sects among, 103; Epic wars of, 156.

Aryans, Hindus and, xvii; early influence, racial and cultural, xviii; late invasions of India by, xxxix; enter Punjab, 1; cattle lifters like Gauls and Scottish Highlanders, 4, 15; nature and ancestor worship among early, 61; folk movements from the Punjab, 76; rise of caste system, 79; seaward migrations of, 83.

Aryas, Max Müller's definition of, xxiii et seq.

Asceticism, god of, Shiva as, 146.

Äshur, Assyrian god, the Asura theory, 62.

Ăsh´wa-med″hă (horse sacrifice), 88. See Horse Sacrifice.

Ashwattaman (ăsh-wat-thă´män), son of Drona, a worshipper of Shiva, 147, 180; at the tournament, 185 et seq.; sorrow of for father's death, 302; night-slaughter in Pandava camp, 307-309; great jewel of seized, 311.

Asia Minor as Aryan racial cradle, xix; Aryan gods in, xxxi, 62; theory that Kassites came from, 155.

Asoka tree (ă-sok´a), the holy, addressed by Damayanti, 348, 349.

Ass, Creator assumes form of, 95; early Aryans had the, 76; the goddess Shitala rides on, 153; Rakshasas ride the in battle, 419.

"Ass of the East", domesticated horse called, xxix, 156.

Assur-banipal (ashur-bän´ipal) of Assyria, 3.

Assyrians, xxix; Mitanni Aryans overlords of, xxx, 31, 62; Mitra as a rain god of, 30; influence of on mythology of Persians, 62; souls as birds, 75.

Asura, the Buffalo, Durga slayer of the, 265, 266.

Asura (ă-shoo´ra) Andhaka (Darkness), the, 151.

"Asura fire", like world-fire in Teutonic mythology, 65.

Asuras, first gods, then non-gods, 61; Ahuras signifies gods in Persian language, 62; Varuna as one of the, 62; enemies of the gods in epics, 63, 64; Kesin as leader of and conflict with Indra, 64; Daityas and Danavas as, 64, 65; Rakshasas as, 66; priests enable Indra to overcome, 84; in horse-sacrifice myth, 94; created by Prajapati, 101; Vishnu wins the universe from, 123; Manu as creator of, 141; Shiva dances on one of the, 147, 148; Vales, king of, slain by Bhima, 207, 208, 209.

Aswapati (ash´wa-päti), King of Madra, the princess Savitri a daughter of, 45.

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Ä´swins, twin gods of morning, 32; Babylonian aspect of, 41; Saranyu as mother of, 149; Nakula and Sahadeva sons of, 176.

Atharvaveda (ät´hăr-vă-ve-da), Asuras are demons in, 61; Agni enemy of demons of disease in, 67; spirits of good and evil in, 74; metrical charms in, 85 et seq.; meaning of "Yuga" in, 104.

Atman (ät´măn) Self, 98. See Brahmă.

Atri (ăt´rï), the rishi, father of Durvasas, the master curser, 154; as eponymous ancestor of the Bharatas, 157.

Aurora, Ushas the Indian, 34.

Austria, aristocratic cremations in, xxxvi.

Autumn burial customs among Burials, xxxiv.

Avataras (ăv-ă-tär-ăs) of Vishnu, the lion, 135; the boar, 135, 136; the horse, 137; the tortoise, Kurma, 143; Dasaratha's sons as, 377. See Balarama, Kalki, Krishna, Parasu-rama, Rama, and Vishnu.

Avestan deities. See Persian Mythology.

Axe, the lightning, 2.

Ayodhya (ă-yōd´hya), in myth regarding the descent of the Ganges, 152; Nala as a charioteer in, 342 et seq.; in the Rámáyana, et seq.


Babhru-váhana (băb-hroo´-vä″han-a), son of Arjuna and Chitrángadá, father and son combat, 314, 315.

Babylon, burial customs in, xxxiii; Aryans influenced by, 3; Yama myth in, 41; invaded by Kassites and Aryans, 62; Kassites and Kasis of Benares, 155; horse called the "ass of the east" in, 156.

Babylonian mythology, "hammer god" in, 3; story of creation in, 9, 90; the artisan god, 12; Mitra in, 29, 30; influence of in India, 61.

Balarama (băl-ă-räh´mă), an Avatara of Vishnu, 125; an incarnation of the world serpent, 128; Juggernaut and, 136, 137; at swayamvara of Draupadi, 215 et seq.; anger at Arjuna's capture of sister, 227; at Pandava imperial sacrifice, 232 et seq.; at meeting of Pandava allies, 270 et seq.; refuses to help Duryodhana, 273; anger of at fall of Duryodhana, 307; death or, 323.

Bali (bä´lï), the demon, slain by Vishnu, 123.

Balor (bä´lor), Irish night demon, his herd of black pigs, 136; Shiva compared with, 146.

Baluchistan, Dravidians in, xxvi.

Barbers, referred to in Vedic period, 77.

Bargains, concluded by spitting, by using blood, and before fire, 37.

Barley and wheat, Ayro-Indians grew, 77.

Barnett, Professor, on Vishnu, 123.

Basque language, xix.

Bats, Homer's ghosts twitter like, 75.

Bears, the, allies of apes, 418.

Beech, the, in Aryan languages, xxi.

Bel Merodach, slays Tiawath, 9.

Beli (be-lï), Irish god of night and death, 111.

Beliefs, influenced by habits of life, xlv, xlvi.

Belus. See Bel Merodach.

Benä´res, Kasi tribe at, xxxix, 155; Bhishma captures three daughters of king of, 169.

Bengal, human sacrifices in, 88.

Beowulf (bā´ō-wulf), Agni and Scyld myth in, 21; the hag of like the Indian, 380 n.

Berbers, Brahmans resemble, xxvii; blonde types of, xxix.

Berchter, Teutonic patriarch, 23.

Bhagavad-gita (bhă´ga-văd-gïtä) (Divine Song), the, 125; doctrines of, 125 et seq.; heroic narrative interrupted by, 138, 139.

Bháradwäja, father of Drona, 179.

Bharata (bäh´ră-tă or bhäh´ra-ta) as son of King Dushyanta and Shakuntala, story of, 157 et seq.; the eponymous king and patriarch, 156; named by the gods the "cherished", 163.

Bhă´rătă (of the Rámáyana), 378; hunch-back and mother of plot to raise, 384; loyalty of to Rama, 396; renounces throne, 197; pleads with Rama to return, 398, 399; Rama's sandals, 400; welcomes Rama to Ayodhya, 425.

Bhäratas, tribe of, xxxix; as "late comers ", xl; invasion of and change of beliefs, xliv; river goddess of, xl, 148, 149; union of with Kuru Panchalas, 155, 156; of "the lunar race", 157 et seq.; tribal name of given to all India, 164.

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Bhă´ratavär″sha, Hindustan and then all India called, 164.

Bhă´ratï, river goddess of the Bharatas, identified with Saraswati, 148, 149, 155.

Bhïls, the Prince of, story of, 182, 183.

Bhima (bhee´mă), the Pandava hero, like Siegfried, Dietrich, Beowulf, and Finn-mac-Coul, 66, 67; his search for celestial lotuses, 105; meeting with Hanuman, 106; Hanuman describes the four Yugas to, 107, 108, 109; son of Queen Pritha and Vayu, wind god, 176; youthful Duryodhana attempts to kill, 178; receives draught of strength from Nagas, 179; at the tournament: combat with Duryodhana, 187; ridicules Karna at the tournament, 193; in battle against Drupada, 195, 196; burning of "House of Lac", 200; flight of Pandavas, 201; wooed by Rakshasa woman, 202, 203; slays Hidimva, 204, 205; his Rakshasa bride, 206; his Rakshasa son, 206; Vaka, the Asura king, slain by, 206 et seq.; combat at Draupadi's swayamvara, 218, 219; Draupadi at feast in potter's house, 220; expedition against Jarasandha, 229-231; at gambling match, 238 et seq.; vows to slay Duhsasana and Duryodhana, 244 et seq.; the helper in exile, 250; accuses Yudhishthira of weakness, 254, 255; rescues Duryodhana from Gandharvas, 259; scornful message of to Kauravas, 261; punishes rajah Jayadratha, 262, 263; temporary death of, 263 et seq.; in Virata, 266; slays Kichaka, 267; Duryodhana taunts regarding his vows, 285; feats of in great war, 292 et seq.; slays Duhsasana and drinks his blood, 303, 304; fights with and mortally wounds Duryodhana, 306-307; Dhritarashtra seeks to slay, 311; slays horse for sacrifice, 318.

Bhima, rajah of Vidarbha, father of Damayantí, in story of Nala, 328 et seq.

Bhishma (bheesh´mă), xlviii; the Vasus and, 17, 166, 327; the son of goddess Ganga and King Shantanu, 166; his vow of renunciation, 168; as regent, 168; capture of three daughters of King of Kasi, 169, 170; vow of the Princess Amba, 171 and 171 n; rears Pandu, Dhritarashtra, and Vidura, 172; employs Drona as preceptor of Pandavas and, Kauravas, 181; at the tournament, 185 et seq.; at division of raj, 224; at Pandava imperial sacrifice, 232 et seq.; at the gambling match, 240 et seq.; advises Duryodhana to recall Pandavas, 260, 261; declares Pandavas' exile has ended, 268; at Hastinapur conference, 274 et seq.; as leader of Kaurava army, 286 et seq.; fall of, 295; return of from Paradise, 320, 321.

Bhrïgü, the tribal patriarch a celestial Rishi, 102; the priestly family of, 153; as sire of goddess Lakshmi, 154; Agni cursed by, 154.

Bhrigus (bhree´goos),tribe of, fire brought to, 22, 23.

Bibhishana (bib-hish´ana), the Ceylon Rakshasa, 416; becomes ally of Rama, 417 et seq.; made King of Ceylon, 424.

Birch tree, horses sacrificed tied to, 93.

Birds as spirits, cuckoo and cremation rite, xxxiv; as messengers of death, 41; beliefs in Europe, Africa, and Asia, 75; Rishis appear as, Shakuntala nursed by, 159, 160; love messengers in Nala story, 329, 330; king of vultures (see Jatayus).

Black Age, the Kali Yuga, 108, 109; in Greek mythology, 109, 110; in Celtic mythology, 110 et seq.

Black dwarfs, Dasyus and, 70.

Black fairies, 70.

Black pigs, Irish night demon's herd of, 136.

Blessings, for houses, &c., 86 n.

Blonde types in Europe, xxviii; in Asia and Africa, xxix.

Blood, the life, spirit identified with, 37.

"Blood of trees", sap as, 37.

Bloomfield, Professor, 87 n.

Blue demons, 71.

Boar, the wild, Rudra the "Howler" rides, 26.

Boar, the, incarnation of Vishnu, 135, 136; treatment of in Egypt and Europe, 136.

Body, the celestial, 57.

Boghaz Köi, Asia Minor, Indra referred to at, xxxi, 3.

"Bold and the Brown", Indra's steeds, 5.

Bopp's Comparative Grammar, xix.

Boulder throwers, giants as, 70. 31

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Bow of Shiva, Rama breaks, 382, 383.

Brahmă (brăm´hă or brăh-mă), the "World Soul", 88, 96, 97; Brahmä the divine incarnation of, 100; the soul's being, 99; salvation through knowledge of, 100; release obtained through, 117, 118.

Brahmä, the Creator, greater than Vedic gods, xl; river goddess wife of, xl; as "the grandsire", 7; Agni as, 19; the two wives of, 44, 98; the divine incarnation of Brahmă (World Soul), 100; emerges from chaos egg like Egyptian Ra, 101; identified with Purusha, 102; celestial Rishis are mind-born sons of, 102; Kalpa, or day, of, 105; length of "year" of, 105; the sleep; of, 105; universal destruction at end of day of; 113; Creator in the Trinity, 119; Vishnu identified with, 123; Indra and Agni become subject to, 134; as the fish in the deluge story, 139 et seq.; as the chaos boar, 136; Manu associated with at creation, 140; Vedic gods appeal to, 143; Saraswati becomes the wife of, 149; Valmiki and, 374; at Dasaratha's horse sacrifice, 376, 377; Indra's appeal to, 377; curse of on Ravana, 412; appears to Rama, 427.

Brahman, a Celtic, 111.

Brahman Caste, 79. See Caste.

Brähm´ănăs, the, the soul as "the man in the eye" in, 42; "it is sorrowful to have a daughter", 60; evidence regarding Asuras in, 62, 63 et seq.; ritualism of sacrifice, 81; expositions of Vedic hymns, 88; the "Ka" of, 98; Yugas in, 104; transmigration doctrine, 116; begun before Bharatas joined Kurus, 155; Vishnu's rise in, 123.

Brahmanical Age, religious revolution in, xxxix; growth of ritualism and pantheism, 119, 120; religious revolts in, 120, 121; bold pantheism of, 122.

Brahmanism, post-Buddhistic rival of, xl, 134, 135; during the Buddhist Age, 132, 138; goddesses prominent after reform of, 148.

Bräh´mans, the "white", xxv; as members of Mediterranean race, xxvii; rise of organized priesthood, 80; four periods of lives of; 81; as hermits, 82; what culture owes to, 82; algebra the gift of, 83; as "human gods", 84; powers derived from penance, 85; ceremonies of riddance by, 86, 87; centre of ancient culture of, 88; pantheistic doctrines of, 88; Upanishadic doctrine of the world soul, 99; teaching of, 102; concessions by to popular opinion, 103; systematized religion, 116; the modern, 119; gods and men depend upon, 121; supremacy over Kshatriyas, 121; struggle with Kshatriyas, 136; Kuru Panchala country the centre of, 155.

Brahmaputra, a male river, 152.

Breath of life. See Air of Life.

Bretons, Celts and, xxxv; Normans mix with, xxxvi.

Brihaspati (brï-hăsh´păt-ï), "Lord of Prayer" in Vedic creation myth, 10.

Britain, cremation custom in, xxxvi, xxxvii; early people and invaders in, xxxviii; reversion to type in, xlii; folk customs of compared with Indian, xlii.

British Isles, cremating invaders in, xxxv.

Brittany, Alpine race in, xxvii.

"Broad heads" in India, xxv, xxvi: burial customs of, xxxv; identified with Celts, xxxv.

Bronze age, burial customs in Europe, xxxiii; European cremation rites in, xxxv et seq.; late in Scandinavia, xlv; Aryan invasion of Punjab in, 77.

Bronze age (mythical), in Indian, Greek, and Celtic mythologies, 107 et seq.

Brown race, Mediterranean peoples of, xxviii; recognition of "mother right" by, xxx; in "Aryan blend", xxxi, xxxix; Bharatas of the, xl; Dravidians and, xlii; transmigration belief in communities of, xliii, xliv; beliefs and habits of life, xlvi.

Buddha (büd´hă), as an incarnation of Vishnu, 129; early life of, 129, 130; one of the world's great teachers, 130; his doctrines, 130 et seq.; missionaries of visit other lands, 133.

Buddhism, professors of in India, xviii, eastward spread of, xl; Upanishadic teaching and, 120; decline of, 122, 134; Vishnu prominent before rise of, 124; Brahmanic attitude towards, 129; in China, Japan, &c., 133.

Buddhist Age, in Indian history, 119;

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[paragraph continues] Brahmanism supplanted, 120; Brahmanism during, 138.

Buffalo Asura, Durga the slayer of the, 265, 266.

Bull, Dyaus as, 13; Agni as, 22; Mithra, "corn god" as, 30; Shiva as, 147.

Burial customs in Vedic Age, xxxii; in Babylon and Egypt, xxxiii; Buriat dead on horseback, xxxiv; cremation in Europe, xxxvi et seq.; cremation in Palestine, xxxvii, xxxviii; "house of clay" in Varuna hymn, 38; why dead were cremated, 38; goat slain to inform gods, 91; transmigration doctrine and, 115 et seq.; cremation of Kauravas and Pandavas after war, 312.

Buriats, the, a Mongolian people, xxxiii; cremation and inhumation practised by, xxxiv, xxxix; horse sacrifice among, 90; description of, 91; sacrifice horse like Spartans, 93; birch trees at sacrifices of; 93.

Burning of erring wives, in Egyptian and Scottish tales, xxxvii.

Burning of widows. See Suttee.

Burrows, Professor, xxxviii n.


Cæsar, Julius, on widow burning in Europe, xxxvii; on Gaulish belief in transmigration, 118.

Cailleach (cal´yach), the Scottish, compared with Indian and Egyptian deities, xli.

Caithness, man-devouring demon in, 208 n.

Cakes, offerings of, 14; early Ayro-Indians make, 77.

Camels, Rakshasas ride in battle, 419.

Campbell's West Highland Tales, reference to wife burning, xxxvii.

Carniola, burial customs in, xxxvi.

Carpenters, referred to in Vedic hymns, 77.

Caste system, at present day, xvii; physical or mythological origin of, xxv; Vedic gods as Kshatriyas, 14; relation to occupation, 79; in Yajur-vedic period Brahmans supreme, 84; Purusha doctrine of, 89; in the Kali Age, 113; Buddhism and Jainism as social revolts, 120; Brahmans as highest caste, 121; Vishwamitra raised from Kshatriya to Brahman, 154.

Castor and Pollux, 32.

Cat, Hanuman as a, 414.

Cat goddess, Sasti the, 152, 153.

Cataclysm, the universal, 141, 142.

Cattle, charms to protect, 86.

Cattle lifting, hymn to aid, 15, 16.

Celestial credit, obtained by penance, 85.

Celestial Rishis. See Rishis, the Celestial.

Celtic mythology, otherworld, compared with Indian heavens, 59; the Fomorians of, 64; Tuan Mac Carell legend in, 111 et seq.; transmigration of souls doctrine, 103, 116, 118; doctrine of world's ages, in, 110 et seq.; treatment of the pig in, 136; Indian and Gaelic magic food pots, 249; the thunder horn, 258; demons in weapons, 381 n.

Celts, Aryan affinities of, xx; identified with "broad heads", xxii; racial theory, xxiii; Max Müller on, xxiv; identified with cremating invaders, xxxv; customs of in Ireland, Wales, and Scotland, xlii.

Ceremonies of riddance, 85, 86.

Ceylon, Ravana demon king of, 65; Rakshasas are Asuras in, 66. See Lanka.

Chandra (chăn´dră, ch as in charge), the moon god, 35; as ancestor of the Bharatas, 164.

Chandra Shekara, the "moon crested", Shiva as, 146.

Chaos hoar, Vishnu as, 135; Brahmā or Prajapati as, 136.

Chaos egg, in Indian and Egyptian mythologies, 101.

Chaos giant, the Indian, Egyptian, Chinese, and Teutonic, 89, 90; symbolism in myth of, 95, 96.

Chaos goose, the creation egg myth, 101.

Chaos horse myth, 94 et seq.

Chariots in Vedic period, 77.

Charms against demons of disease, 67, 85, 87; for love, 86.

Chedï (chay´dee), Sishupala rajah of, slain at Pandava imperial sacrifice, 232, 233; Damayantí's sojourn in, 352, 356, 357.

Cheese, early Ayro-Indians made, 77.

"Cherished, the", King Bharata as, 163.

Children, souls of dead, xliii; the female exposed, 60.

China, Dravidian type in, xxvi; Hammer god of, 2; "foreign devils", 70; chaos giant of, 90.

Chitrángadá (chit-răng-ad´ä), son of

p. 436

[paragraph continues] Arjuna and Manipur princess, 226; son of slays Arjuna, 314.

Chivalry of Indian heroes, xlvi.

Christians, number of in India, xviii.

Churning of the ocean, the, 142 et seq.

Circulating of villages, xliii.

Clans, the Ayro-Indian, 77; feuds were frequent, 77.

Cloud-compeller, Indra as, 331.

Cloud cows, 4 et seq., 67.

"Cloud rocks", 5 et seq.

"Cloud shakers", Maruts as, 5 et seq.

Cobras, the demoniac Nagas, 65.

Coins called after necklets, 78.

Colour, caste and. See Caste.

Comparative philology, Bopp and, xix.

Copper age, invasion of Europe in, xxxv.

Corn gods, Agni and Indra as, 14, 15; Mithra as, 30.

Cornwall, Dravidian-like customs in, xlii.

Cough, charm for, 87.

Cow, Creator assumes form of, 95, 102; of Vasishtha, 154.

Creation, Hymn of, the Rigvedic, 97, 98.

Creation myths, the Babylonian, 9; the Indian "World House" made by Indra, to; sacrificial origin of life and the world, 89; the giants of, 89, 90; the Purusha doctrine, 89, 90; in Egypt, China, Babylon, &c., 90; horse sacrifice in, 94 et seq.; first man and woman, &c., 95; "creative tears", too; Prajapati like Horus, 101; Brahma sun-egg like Egyptian Ra sun-egg, 101; Brahma's tree, 102; Markandeya's account of Yugas, 112 et seq.; gods and doctrines existed before, 118; Narayana and Brahma, 124.

Cremation in Vedic age, xxxii; not practised by Persians, Babylonians, or Egyptians, xxxiii; seasonal rites among Buriats, xxxiv; migratory peoples practised, xxxv; in ancient Austria, Greece, &c., xxxvi; evidence of Palestine, xxxvii; origin of, xxxviii, xxxii, 38, 39; practised by Agni worshippers, 116; ceremony of after "great war", 312.

Crete, cremation introduced into, xxxviii; reversion to type in, xlii.

Cronus, Indra like, 13.

Crooke, Mr., view on Aryan influence, xli.

Crops, human sacrifices for, 89.

Cuckoo and burial rites, xxxiv.

Culture, wealth brings leisure and, 82.

Curds, early Ayro-Indians made, 77.

Curses, power of, the Rishis, 153, 154, 155; Damayantí kills huntsman by cursing, 346; Narada curses Karkotaka, 353; Brahman's wife cursed and rescued by Arjuna, 313; in tale of the hermit's son, 394, 395; Brahma's curse on Ravana, 413.

Cyclops (ky´klops), the Indian. See Vartikas.

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