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Vignette: A seated statue of Ani, the scribe, upon which the ceremony of opening the mouth"[4] un re, is being performed by the sem[5] priest, clad in a panther's skin and holding in his right hand the instrument Ur heka[6] i.e., "mighty one of enchantments." In front of the statue are: the

[1. Var. arit xeperuf.

2. The Papyrus of Nebseni has the better reading ufa pu tep ta, "he shall be in a good state upon earth."

3. Brugsch renders em shes maat by "sicut oequum et justum est"; Wörterbuch (Supp.), p. 1203.

4. For a description of this ceremony, see above, pp. 264-270.

5. Compare ### Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 34. In British Museum papyrus No. 10,470, sheet 8, the god Horus performs this ceremony upon the deceased, who is upon a stool.

6. See above, p. 264.]

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sepulchral chest, the instruments Seb-ur, Tun-tet, and Temanu, and the object Pesh-en-kef.[1]

Text [CHAPTER XXIII.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF OPENING THE MOUTH OF OSIRIS, THE SCRIBE ANI. To be said:[2] "May Ptah open my mouth, and may the god of my town[3] loose the swathings, even the swathings[4] which are over my mouth (2). Moreover, may Thoth, being filled and furnished with charms, come and loose the bandages, the bandages of Set which fetter my mouth (3); and may the god Tmu hurl them' at those who would fetter [me] with them, and drive them back. May my mouth be opened, may my mouth be unclosed by Shu[6] (4) with his iron[7] knife, wherewith he opened the mouth of the gods. I am Sekhet,[8] and I sit upon the great western side of heaven. (5) 1 am the great goddess Sah[9] among the souls of Annu. Now as concerning every charm and all the words which may be spoken against me (6), may the gods resist them, and may each and every one of the company of the gods withstand it them."[10]

Text [CHAPTER XXIV.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF BRINGING CHARMS UNTO OSIRIS ANI [IN NETER-KHERT]. [He saith]: "I am Tmu[11]-Khepera, who gave birth unto himself upon the thigh of his divine mother.[12] Those who are in Nu[13]are made wolves, and those who are among the godlike rulers (3) are become

[1. See above, p. 264.

2. Var. "he saith."

3. Var., "By Amen, the god of my town"; Lepsius, Todtenbuch, Pl. xiv.

4. Var., netiu.

5. Var., May Tmu give me my hand to shoot them at those who fetter [me]. May my mouth be given to me, may my mouth be opened."

6. Var., O Ptah.

7. Literally " iron of heaven " (baat en pet = Copt. ###); for discussions on the word, see Dümichen, Aeg. Zeit., 1874, p. 49, and the authorities quoted by Brugsch, Wörterbuch (Suppl.), p. 416.

8. The papyrus of Nebseni adds Uatchit.

9. Var., ###.

10. Var., "Them may the gods resist, and all the company of my gods, and all the company of their gods."

11. Many papyri omit Tmu.

12. Birch, "on the lap of his mother"; Pierret, "en haut de la cuisse de sa mère."

13. I.e., the sky.]

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hyenas.[1] Behold, I gather together the charm from every place where it is and from every man with whom it is,[2]' swifter than greyhounds and fleeter than light. (4) Hail thou who towest along the makhent boat of Ra, the stays of thy sails and of thy rudder are taut in the wind as thou sailest over the Lake of Fire in Neter-khert. Behold, thou gatherest together the charm (5) from every place where it is and from every man with whom it is, swifter than greyhounds and fleeter than light, [the charm] which createth the forms of existence from the (6) mother's thigh (?) and createth the gods from (or in) silence, and which giveth the heat of life unto the gods.[3] Behold, the charm is given unto me from wheresoever it is [and from him with whom it is], swifter than greyhounds and fleeter than light," or, (as others say), " fleeter than a shadow."

Appendix: The following chapter, which generally appears in other early copies of the Book of the Dead, is closely connected with the preceding chapter. It is here taken from the Papyrus of Nebseni.

(1) [CHAPTER XXV.] THE CHAPTER OF CAUSING THE DECEASED TO REMEMBER HIS (2) NAME IN NETER-KHERT. [He saith]: "May my name be given unto me in the great Double House, and may I remember my name in the House of Fire on the (3) night of counting the years and of telling the number of the months. I am with the Holy One, and I sit on the eastern side of heaven. If any god advanceth unto me, (4) forthwith I proclaim his name."

Vignette: The scribe Ani, clothed in white, and with his heart in his right hand, addressing the god Anubis.[4] Between them is a necklace of several rows of

[1. Var. behiu, an animal which is identified with the hyaena croenta by Hartmann (see Aeg. Zeit., 1864, p. 12, Col. 2).

2. Reading with the Nebseni papyrus ###.

3. Here the text is different from any given by Naville. The chief variants are ###, "which createth the gods from (or in) silence, and which maketh them powerless"; and ### "which maketh the gods to speak [from being] silent, and which maketh them speechless."

4. In the vignettes of this chapter published by M. Naville (Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 38) the deceased is represented: (1) seated, and addressing his heart, which stands on a support; (2) standing, holding in his hands a heart, which he offers to three deities. Another vignette represents a priest tying a heart on to a statue of the deceased; and in the late recension of the Book of the Dead published by Lepsius (Bl. 15) the deceased holds a heart to his left side and addresses a human-headed hawk emblematic of the soul.]

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coloured beads, the clasp of which is in the shape of a pylon or gateway, and to which is attached a pectoral bearing a representation of the boat of the sun, wherein is set a scarab, emblematic of the Sun.[1]

Text [CHAPTER XXVII: (1) CHAPTER OF GIVING A HEART UNTO OSIRIS ANI (2) IN THE UNDERWORLD. [Ani saith]: "May my heart be with me in the House of Hearts.[2] May my heart be with me, and may it rest in [me], or I shall not eat of the cakes of Osiris on the eastern[3] side of the Lake of Flowers,[4] (3) [neither shall I have] a boat wherein to go down the Nile, and another wherein to go up, nor shall I go forward in the boat with thee. May my mouth be given unto me that I may (4) speak with it, and my two feet to it walk withal, and my two hands and arms to overthrow my foe. May the doors of heaven be opened unto me[5](5); may Seb, the Prince of the gods, open wide his two jaws unto me; may he open my two eyes which are blinded; may he cause me to stretch out my (6) feet which are bound together; and may Anubis make my legs firm that I may stand upon them. May the goddess Sekhet make me to rise (7) so that I may ascend unto heaven, and there may that be done which I command in the House of the Ka of Ptah.[6] I know my heart, I have gotten the mastery over (8) my heart, I have gotten the mastery over my two hands and arms, I have gotten the mastery over my feet, and I have gained the power to do whatsoever my ka pleaseth. (9) My soul shall not be shut off from my body at the gates of the underworld; but I shall enter in peace, and I shall come forth in peace."

[1. A very fine set of examples of blue, green, and yellow glazed faïence pectorals inlaid with scarabs is exhibited in the Fourth Egyptian Room.

2. I.e., the judgment hall of Osiris, in which hearts were weighed.

3. Var. "West."

4. On the word ### see Brugsch, Wörterbuch (Suppl.), p. 1289, and Stern, Glossarium, p. 19, col. 2, where the various kinds of this sweet-smelling plant are enumerated.

5 Var. ### "May my two hands open [my] mouth in the earth": Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. 11., Bl. 90.

6. I.e., the heavenly Memphis.]

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Text: [CHAPTER XXXB.]. (I) THE CHAPTER[1] OF NOT LETTING (2) THE HEART OF OSIRIS, THE SCRIBE OF THE SACRED OFFERINGS OF ALL THE GODS, ANI, TRIUMPHANT, BE DRIVEN FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. Ani saith: "My heart, my mother; my heart, my mother (3). My heart whereby I come into being. May there be nothing to withstand me at [my] judgment; may there be no, resistance against me by the Tchatcha; may there be no parting of thee from me in the presence of him who keepeth the Scales! Thou art my ka within (4) my body, [which] knitteth and strengtheneth my limbs. Mayest thou come forth in the place of happiness [to which] I advance. May the Shenit,[2] who make men to stand fast, not cause my name to stink."[3]

Vignette: Ani holding his soul in the form of a human-headed bird.

Text: [CHAPTER LXI.] (I) CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE SOUL OF A MAN BE TAKEN AWAY FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris the scribe Ani saith: "I, even I, am he (2) who came forth from the water-flood which I make to overflow and which becometh mighty as the River [Nile]."

Appendix; In many early papyri the text of Chapter LXI. forms part of a longer composition which M. Naville calls Chapters LXI.,[4] LX.,[5] and LXII.,[6] and which reads:--

(1) CHAPTER OF DRINKING WATER IN THE UNDERWORLD. [He saith]: "I, even I, am he who cometh forth from (2) Seb. The flood hath been given unto him,

[1. This chapter is usually accompanied by a vignette. In that in the papyrus of Nebseni the deceased is being weighed against his own heart; an ape, "Thoth, lord of the Balance," seated on a pedestal, holds the tongue of the balance. In British Museum Papyrus No. 9964 the deceased is also weighed against his own heart, but at the same time a figure of himself is also watching the process. In the papyrus of Sutimes a square weight lies in each pan of the scales. Other vignettes have simply a scarab, or the deceased addressing his heart, which rests on a standard. See Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 43.

2. A class of divine beings.

3. The chapter as here given is incomplete; the missing words are: "pleasant for us, pleasant is the hearing, and there is gladness of heart at the weighing of words. Let not lies be spoken against me near the god, in the presence of the great god, the lord of Amentet. Verily, how great shalt thou be when thou risest up in triumph!"

4. The vignette represents the deceased on his knees embracing his soul.

5. Vignette: a man kneeling and holding a lotus.

6. Vignettes: the deceased scooping water with his hands out of a tank.]

and he hath gotten power over it as Hapi. I, even I, open the (3) two doors of heaven: and the two doors of the watery abyss have been opened unto me by Thoth and by Hapi, the divine twin sons of heaven, (4) who are mighty in splendours. O grant ye that I may gain power over the water, even as Set overcame his foes on the day(?) (5) when he terrified the world. I have passed by the great ones shoulder against shoulder, even as they have passed by that great and splendid god who is (6) provided [with all things] and whose name is unknown. I have passed by the mighty one of the shoulder. (7) The flood of Osiris hath been passed through by me, and Thoth-Hapi-Tmu, the lord of the horizon, hath opened unto me the flood in his name, 'Thoth, the cleaver of the earth.' (8) I have gained power over the water, even as Set gained power over his foes. I have sailed over heaven. I am Ra. I am the Lion-god. I am the young bull (9). I have devoured the Thigh, I have seized the flesh. I have gone round about the streams in Seket-Aru. Boundless eternity hath been granted unto me, and, behold, (10) I am the heir of eternity; to me hath been given everlastingness."

Closely connected with the above chapter are the two following short chapters:--[1]

Vignette: The deceased drinking water from a running stream.

Text [CHAPTER LXIIIA.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF DRINKING WATER AND OF NOT BEING BURNED IN THE FIRE. [The deceased] saith: "Hail, Bull of Amenta. I am brought unto thee, I am the oar of Ra (3) wherewith he ferried over the aged ones; let me not be buried nor consumed. I am Beb,[2] (4) the first-born son of Osiris, who doth wash every god within his eye in Annu. I am the Heir, (5) the exalted (?), the mighty one, the Still [of Heart]. I have made my name to flourish, and I have delivered [it], that I may make myself to live [in remembrance] on this day."

Vignette: The deceased standing near flames of fire.

Text [CHAPTER LXIIIB.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF NOT BEING SCALDED WITH WATER. [He saith]: "I am the oar (2) made ready for rowing, wherewith Ra ferried over the Aged godlike ones. (3) I carry the moistures of Osiris to the lake away from the flame which cannot be passed (4); he is turned aside from the path thereof and he is not burned in the fire. I lie down with the hamemu; (5) I come unto the Lion's lair, killing and binding; and I follow the path by which he came forth."

Vignette: Ani carrying a sail, emblematic of breath and air.

Text [CHAPTER LIV.]: (1) CHAPTER OF GIVING BREATH IN THE UNDERWORLD. Saith Osiris Ani: "I am the Egg of the Great Cackler, and I watch and guard that

[1. For the texts see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bll. 73, 74.

2. The variants are ### and ###.]

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great place[1] (2) which the god Seb hath proclaimed upon earth. I live; and it liveth; I grow strong, I live, I sniff the air. I am (3) Utcha-aab,[2] and I go round behind [to protect] his egg. I have thwarted the chance of Set, the mighty one of strength. (4) Hail thou who makest pleasant the world with tchefa food, and who dwellest in the blue [sky]; watch over the babe in his cot when he cometh forth unto thee."

Appendix: The two following chapters, which are closely connected with the preceding chapter, are respectively supplied from Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., 131. 67, and the Nebseni Papyrus.

Vignette: Anubis leading the deceased into the presence of Osiris.

Text: [CHAPTER LV.]: (I) ANOTHER CHAPTER OF GIVING BREATH. [He saith]: "I am Sabsabu. I am Shu. (2) I draw in the air in the presence of the god of sunbeams as far as the uttermost ends of heaven, as far as the ends of the earth, as far as the bounds of Shu (3); and I give breath unto those who become young [again]. I open my mouth, and I see with mine eyes."[3]

Vignette: A man holding a sail in his left hand.

Text [CHAPTER LVI.]: CHAPTER OF SNIFFING THE AIR UPON EARTH. [He saith]: "(2) Hail, Tmu, grant thou unto me the sweet breath which is in thy two nostrils. I embrace the mighty throne which is in Unnu,[4] and I watch and guard the Egg of the Great Cackler. I grow, and it groweth; it groweth, and I grow; I live, and it liveth; I sniff the air, and it sniffeth the air."

Vignette: Ani standing, with a staff in his left hand.

Text [CHAPTER XXIX.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF A MAN BE TAKEN AWAY FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. Saith Osiris Ani, triumphant: "Turn thou back, O messenger of all the gods. (2) Is it that thou art come to carry away[5] this my heart which liveth? My heart which liveth

[1. The text of Lepsius gives "I guard that great egg," etc.

2. The variant text given by Naville indicates by that these words are the name or title of a god. Birch translates them by "Discriminator of Purity," and Pierret by "le sauvé dont le nom est pur."

3. For the texts see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bll. 67, 68, 69.

4. Hermopolis.

5. In a variant vignette given by Naville the deceased holding his heart in both hands offers it to three gods; and in another a man is about to fasten a necklace with a pendent heart to the statue of the deceased.]

shall not be given unto thee. (3) [As I] advance, the gods give ear unto my supplications, and they fall down upon their faces wheresoever they be."

Next: Plate XVI.