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Levels, Plumbs, Appurtenances, and Records

INASMUCH as the Geodetic Survey was extended through space by means of right angles, regardless of any other method of determination of a straight line, and regardless of the consequences, it is obvious that it was not extended by any leveling process.

By reference to cut No. 4, Plate 1, it will be seen that the rectiline would vary from the water level in ever-increasing angles from the beginning to the end of the line. If the earth were convex, the line at the end of 4 miles would be higher than at the beginning, and the angles would be divergent from the beginning; if concave, convergent from the beginning. We used levels for two purposes: First, to level the first section; second, to ascertain and record the variation of the sections from the water horizontal at given points along the coast.

By reference to the "Comprehensive View of the Air Line" (diagram 4, Plate 1), the reader will understand how the plumbline should hang with reference to the right-angled bars, first, if the earth were convex; second, if it were flat; and third, on the basis of the concavity.

The leveling of the first section was the point for the exercise and application of the greatest skill and accuracy; the first section must be accurately leveled. For this purpose we applied one of the finest and most sensitive spirit levels obtainable. In connection with this we had our 12-foot mercurial geodetic level, invented specially for this survey. Being 12 feet in

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length, it was susceptible of being used with great accuracy and precision.

Applied to the first section, the spirit and mercurial levels agreed. The plumb was also applied to the cross-arms of the first section as additional corroboration. The horizon was also observed in relation to the long straight-edge formed by a number of adjustments, and the straight-edge was perfectly parallel with the clear-cut water line of the Gulf of Mexico, viewed from a point three or four rods back of the apparatus, so as to place the under edge of the straight-edge and the water line in apparent contiguity.

The leveling was a careful, painstaking, and successful work, witnessed by every member of the Staff, and finally pronounced perfect at 8:50 on the morning of March 18, 1897. From thence the line was projected on the basis of the principles which we have demonstrated.

A convenient chest was moved along the line as the work progressed, with thermometer, microscope., calipers, rules, compass, spirit level, triangles, pro-tractor, telescope, thumb bolts, adjusting gauges, celluloid test card, etc., and the books of the Staff for the purpose of making the most accurate observations and measurements, and recording the same on the field of operations in the presence of all the witnesses.

Every item of adjustment, test, observation, and measurement was checked in the check record book, and described in detail in the daily record book, to which are appended the signatures of all operators and witnesses. The facts of preparation, measurements, and survey contained in this work are taken from the records, attested and sworn to by the entire Geodetic Staff and the investigating committee.

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Personnel of the Staff, Investigating Committee, and Corps of Witnesses

In our line of argument it is necessary to intro-duce the operators and witnesses, that the reader may judge of the character of the testimony concerning the facts observed; and to this end we publish the names of all those connected in any way with the experiments and survey conducted on the Florida coast. The operations and observations were not witnessed by the Operating Staff alone.

Appended to this work are the statements of the visiting and investigating committee, concerning the facts observed when the air line was projected into the water on May 5, 1897, and the repetition of the same on May 8; also the sworn statements of the operators and watchmen concerning the precautions taken to prevent any one tampering with the apparatus or its adjustments. In the list of the Operating Staff we briefly mention the position each occupied, and the class of work to which each was assigned:

U. G. Morrow, Geodesist, inventor of the Rectilineator; in charge of field operations, experiments, and observations; tested adjustments and measurements, and checked same in Record Books.

*L. M. Boomer, General Manager.

Rev. E. M. Castle, of the University System of the Koreshan Unity; inventor of the System of Reversals of sections of the Rectilineator.

G. T. Ordway, Operator; manipulated set screw No. 1; detached each rear section, and transferred same for forward adjustment; made reversals in accordance with the formula of the Castle System; signaled tide measures from stationary caisson.

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J. J. Williamson, Assistant Operator; manipulated set screw No. 2; assisted in detachment of each rear section, and in the reversals; watchman.

*H. B. Boomer, Secretary.

George W. Hunt, Engineer; directed emplacement of the 8-foot platformed standards, and adjustment of castings which received the sections of the Rectilineator; in charge of all excavations, and setting of Tide Staffs.

P. W. Campbell, Mechanic and First Assistant Engineer; Assistant Watchman.

Allen H. Andrews, Second Assistant Engineer; Assistant Watchman.

Corps of Staff Assistants

Gustave Faber

Leroy L’Amoreaux

Charles Mealy

Laurence Bubbett

Visiting and Investigating Committee

Victoria Gratia, Pre-Eminent of the Koreshan Unity.
Rev. E. M. Castle, of the Koreshan University, Estero, Fla.
Prof. O. F. L’Amoreaux, A. M., Ph. D., Estero, Fla.
C. Sterling Baldwin, M. D.
Mrs. Ada Welton.
T. R. Ehney, Postmaster at Naples, Fla.
W. D. Puerifoy, Naples, Fla.
S. L. Green, M. D., Marco, Fla.

Other Witnesses and Visitors

Hugh McDonald, Covington, Ky.
Mrs. Hugh McDonald, Covington, Ky.
Miss Ann Haldeman, Louisville, Ky.
Miss Lucy Lemon, Louisville, Ky.
Miss Elsie Frederickson, Louisville, Ky.
J. T. Smith, Springfield, Ill.
Mr. Strauss, of Louisville Courier-Journal.

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Capt. Robert Gilbert, Estero, Fla.
Richard Gilbert, Punta Rassa, Fla.
Mrs. Elizabeth Robinson, Chicago, Ill.
R. B. Gilbert, Punta Rassa, Fla.
Mrs. Esther Stotler, Estero, Fla.
Miss Rose Welton, Estero, Fla.
Carl Luettich, Estero, Fla.
Lester Wintersgill, Estero, Fla.
G. R. Calhoun, Plant City, Fla.
Thos. E. Hart, Marco, Fla.
D. N. Walker, Marco, Fla.
N. Walker, Marco, Fla.
Miss K. M. Large, Naples, Fla.
Neal Harris, Marco, Fla.

*Called to Chicago by telegram announcing the death of their father, Mr. L. S. Boomer, before Survey began; assisted in preparations.

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