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Spanish War

1On the defeat of Pharnaces and reduction of Africa, those who escaped from those battles fled to young Cn. Pompey, who had taken possession of Further Spain, while Caesar was detained in Italy in exhibiting games. Pompey began to throw himself on the protection of every state, in order the more readily to establish the means of defense against him. Accordingly, with a considerable force which had been collected, partly by entreaty, partly by force, he began to lay waste the province. Under these circumstances some states voluntarily sent him supplies, others shut the gates of their towns against him. If any of these chanced to fall into his hands by assault, although some citizen in it had deserved well of Cn. Pompey (his father), yet some cause was alleged against him on account of the greatness of his wealth, so that, he being dispatched, his fortune might become the reward of the soldiers. Thus the enemy, being encouraged by a few advantages, their forces increased much, wherefore those states which were opposed to Pompey, by continual messages dispatched to Italy, sought protection for themselves. Pharnace superato, Africa recepta, qui ex his proeliis cum adulescente Cn. Pompeio profugissent, cum . . . et ulterioris Hispaniae potitus esset, dum Caesar muneribus dandis in Italia detinetur, . . . quo facilius praesidia contra compararet, Pompeius in fidem uniuscuiusque civitatis confugere coepit. Ita partim precibus partim vi bene magna comparata manu provinciam vastare. Quibus in rebus non nullae civitates sua sponte auxilia mittebant, item non nullae portas contra cludebant. Ex quibus si qua oppida vi ceperat, cum aliquis ex ea civitate optime de Cn. Pompeio meritus civis esset, propter pecuniae magnitudinem alia qua ei inferebatur causa, ut eo de medio sublato ex eius pecunia latronum largitio fieret. Ita pacis commoda hoste +hortato+ maiores augebantur copiae. +Hoc crebris nuntiis in Italiam missis civitates contrariae Pompeio+ auxilia sibi depostulabant.
2When Caesar, now a third time dictator, and elected a fourth time, having already proceeded many marches into Spain with prompt dispatch, was coming to finish the war, he was met on the way by embassadors from Corduba, who had deserted Cn. Pompey; these informed him that it would be an easy matter to make himself master of the town by night, because the enemy as yet knew nothing of his arrival in the province, as the scouts sent out by Cn. Pompey to inform him of Caesar's approach had been all made prisoners. They alleged besides many other very plausible reasons. He, therefore, immediately sent intelligence of his arrival to Q. Pedius, and Q. Fabius Maximus his lieutenants, to whom he had left the command of the troops in the province, ordering them to send him all the cavalry they had been able to raise. He came up with them much sooner than they expected, and had not the protection of the cavalry, according to his desire. C. Caesar dictator tertio, designatus dictator quarto multis +iterante diebus coniectis+ cum celeri festinatione ad bellum conficiendum in Hispaniam cum venisset, legatique Cordubenses, qui a Cn. Pompelo discessissent, Caesari obviam venissent, a quibus nuntiabatur nocturno tempore oppidum Cordubam capi posse, quod nec opinantibus adversariis eius provinciae potitus esset, simulque quod tabellariis, qui a Cn. Pompeio dispositi omnibus locis essent, qui certiorem Cn. Pompeium de Caesaris adventu facerent . . . multa praeterea veri similia proponebant. Quibus rebus adductus quos legatos ante exercitui praefecerat Q. Pedium et Q. Fabium Maximum de suo adventu facit certiores, utque sibi equitatus qui ex provincia fuisset praesidio esset. Ad quos celerius quam ipsi opinati sunt appropinquavit neque, ut ipse voluit, equitatum sibi praesidio habuit.
3Sextus Pompey, the brother of Cneius, commanded at this time at Corduba, which was accounted the capital of the province. Young Cneius Pompey himself was employed in the siege of Ulia, which had now lasted some months. Notice of Caesar's arrival having been received, messengers having passed Pompey's guards came to him from that town and besought him to send them relief as soon as possible. Caesar, knowing that this people had deserved very well of the Romans, detached, about nine o'clock, at night eleven cohorts, with a like number of horse, under the command of L. Julius Paciecus, a man known in that province, and also well acquainted with it. When he arrived at Pompey's quarter, a dreadful tempest arising, attended with a violent wind, so great a darkness ensued that you could scarcely have distinguished even the person next you. This accident proved of great advantage to Paciecus: for being arrived at Pompey's camp, he ordered the cavalry to advance two by two, and march directly through the enemy's quarters to the town; one of their guards calling to know who passed, one of our troopers bade him be silent, for they were just then endeavoring by stealth to approach the wall, in order to get possession of the town; and partly by this answer, partly by favor of the tempest, the sentinels were prevented from examining things diligently. When they reached the gates, upon a signal being given, they were admitted; and both horse and foot raising a loud shout, after leaving some troops to guard the town, sallied in a body upon the enemy's camp. This came upon them so unexpectedly that the greater number of the men in the camps thought that they were captured. Erat idem temporis Sex. Pompeius frater qui cum praesidio Cordubam tenebat, quod eius provinciae caput esse existimabatur; ipse autem Cn. Pompeius adulescens Uliam oppidum oppugnabat et fere iam aliquot mensibus ibi detinebatur. Quo ex oppido cognito Caesaris adventu legati clam praesidia Cn. Pompei Caesarem cum adissent, petere coeperunt uti sibi primo quoque tempore subsidium mitteret. Caesar -- eam civitatem omni tempore optime de populo Romano meritam esse -- celeriter sex cohortis secunda vigilia iubet proficisci, pari equites numero. Quibus praefecit hominem eius provinciae notum et non parum scientem, L. Vibiurn Paciaecum. Qui cum ad Cn. P praesidia venisset, incidit idem temporis ut tempestate adversa vehementique vento adflictaretur; aditusque vis tempestatis ita obscurabat ut vix proximum agnoscere possent. Cuius incommodum summam utilitatem ipsis praebebat. Ita cum ad eum locum venerunt, iubet binos equites conscendere, et recta per adversariorum praesidia ad oppidum contendunt. Mediisque eorum praesidiis cum essent, cum quaereretur qui essent unus ex nostris respondit, ut sileat verbum facere: nam id temporis conari ad murum accedere, ut oppidum capiant; et partim tempestate impediti vigiles non poterant diligentiam praestare, partim illo responso deterrebantur. Cum ad portam appropinquassent, signo dato ab oppidanis sunt reccepti, et pedites dispositi partim ibi remanserunt, equites clamore facto eruptionem in adversariorum castra fecerunt. Sic in illo facto, cum inscientibus accidisset, existimabant prope magna pars hominum qui in his castris fuissent se prope captos esse.
4Ulia being relieved, Caesar, to draw Pompey from the siege, marched toward Corduba; sending the cavalry before, with a select body of heavy-armed foot; who, as soon as they came within sight of the place, got up behind the troopers. By this stratagem they could not possibly be perceived by those of Corduba. Upon their approach to the walls, the enemy sallied in great numbers to attack our cavalry; when the infantry, whom we have mentioned above, leaping down, fell upon them with such fury that out of an almost infinite multitude of men, very few returned to the town. This so alarmed Sextus Pompey that he immediately sent letters to his brother, requesting him to come speedily to his relief, lest Caesar should make himself master of Corduba before his arrival. Thus Cn. Pompey, moved by his brother's letters, quitted the siege of Ulia, which was upon the point of surrendering, and set out toward Corduba. Hoc misso ad Uliam praesidio Caesar, ut Pompeium ab ea oppugnatione deducercet, ad Cordubam contendit, ex quo itinere loricatos viros fortis cum equitatu ante praemisit. Qui simul in conspectum oppidi se dederunt, cum equis recipiuntur. Hoc a Cordubensibus nequaquam poterat animadverti. Appropinquantibus ex oppido bene magna multitudo ad equitatum concidendum cum exissent, loricati, ut supra scripsimus, ex equis descenderunt et magnum proelium fecerunt, sic uti ex infinita hominum multitudine pauci in oppidum se reciperent. Hoc timore adductus Sex. Pompeius litteras fratri misit ut celeriter sibi subsidio veniret, ne prius Caesar Cordubam caperet quam ipse illo venisset. Itaque Cn. Pompeius Ulia prope capta litteris fratris excitus cum coplis ad Cordubam iter facere coepit.
5Caesar, arriving at the river Guadalquivir, which he found too deep to be forded, sank several baskets of stones in it. Thus having formed a bridge, he transported his troops in three bodies to the camps. As I have just mentioned, the beams of the bridge stretched over against the tower in two rows. Pompey, arriving soon after with his troops, encamped directly over against him. Caesar, to cut off his provisions and communication with the town, ran a line from his camp to the bridge. Pompey did the same; so that a struggle arose between the two generals, which should first get possession of the bridge; and this daily brought on skirmishes, in which sometimes the one, sometimes the other party had the better. When these merged into a serious engagement, both sides fought hand to hand; in the heat of the struggle for this position, owing to the narrowness of the bridge, they were pressed together, and in their efforts to extend themselves toward the river-side, many fell headlong. Thus the loss was pretty equal; for on either side lay heaps of slain, and Caesar for many days used all possible endeavors to bring the enemy to an engagement on equal terms, that he might bring the war to a conclusion as soon as possible. Caesar, cum ad flumen Bacetim venisset neque propter altitudincem fluminis transire posset, lapidibus corbis plenos demisit: insuper ponit trabes; ita ponte facto copias ad castra tripertito traduxit. Tendebat adversum oppidum e regione pontis, ut supra scripsimus, tripertito. Huc cum Pompeius cum suis copiis venisset, ex adverso pari ratione castra ponit. Caesar, ut eum ab oppido comineatuque excluderet, bracchium ad pontem ducere coepit: pari idem condicione Pompeius facit. Hic inter duces duos fit contentio uter prius pontem occuparet; ex qua contentione cotidiana minuta proelia fiebant, ut modo hi, non numquam illi superiores discederent. Quae res cum ad maiorem contentionem venisset, ab utrisque comminus pugna inita, dum cupidius locum student tenere, propter pontem coagulabantur, fluminis ripas appropinquantes coangustati praecipitabantur. Hic alternis non solum morti mortem exaggerabant, sed tumulos tumulis exaequabant. Ita diebus compluribus [consumptis] cupiebat Caesar, si qua condicione posset, adversarios in aequum locum deducere et primo quoque tempore de bello decernere.
6But finding that they carefully avoided a battle, with a view to which chiefly he had quitted the route of Ulia; he caused great fires to be lighted in the night, repassed the river with all his forces, and marched toward Ategua, one of their strongest garrisons. Pompey, being informed of this by the deserters, on the same day brought back many carriages and machines by narrow paths, and betook himself to Corduba. Caesar began his attack upon Ategua, and carried lines quite round the town. Pompey, having intelligence of this, set out upon his march the same day. In order to guard against his arrival, Caesar possessed himself of many forts; partly to shelter his cavalry, partly to post guards of infantry for the defense of his camp. Pompey's arrival happened at a time when the mist was very thick, so that he found means, with some cohorts and troops of cavalry, to hem in a party of Caesar's horse, and fell upon them in such manner that very few escaped slaughter. Id cum animadverteret adversarios minime velle, quos +quoniam a avia+ retraxerat, ut in aequum deduceret, copiis flumine traductis noctu iubet ignis fieri magnos: ita firmissimum eius praesidium Ateguam proficiscitur. Id cum Pompeius ex perfugis rescisset, qua die facultatem . . . et angustias, carra complura +multosque lanistas+ retraxit et ad Cordubam se recepit. Caesar munitionibus Ateguam oppugnace et bracchia circumducere coepit. Cui de Pompeio cum nuntius esset allatus eo die proficisci, cuius in adventum praesidi causa Caesar complura castella occupasset, partim ubi equitatus, partim ubi pedestres copiae in statione et in excubitu castris praesidio esse possent, hic in adventu Pompei incidit ut matutino tempore nebula esset crassissima. Ita illa obscuratione cum aliquot cohortibus et equitum turmis circumcludunt Caesaris equites et concidunt, sic ut vix in ea caede pauci effugerent.
7The following night Pompey set fire to his camp, passed the river Rio Salado, and, marching through the valleys, encamped on a rising ground, between the two towns of Ategua and Ucubis. Caesar cast up a mound and brought forward his machines, with other preparations which were necessary for storming the town. The country all around is mountainous, and seems formed for war, being separated from the plain by the river Rio Salado, ascending on the side toward Ategua, about two miles from the river. Pompey's camp was upon these mountains, within view of both towns; he could, however, send no relief to his friends. He had the emblems and standards of thirteen legions, but of those on whom he trusted for support two were natives which had deserted from Trebonius; one was formed out of the Roman colonies in those parts; and a fourth, belonging to Afranius, he had brought with him from Africa; the rest were for the most part made up of fugitives and deserters; in light-armed foot and cavalry we far exceeded him in both courage and numbers. Insequenti nocte castra sua incendit Pompeius et trans flumen Salsum per convallis castra inter duo oppida Ateguam et Ucubim in monte constituit. Caesar +in munitionibus ceterisque+ quae ad oppidum opus fuerunt aggerem vineasque agere instituit. Haec loca sunt montuosa et natura impedita ad rem militarem; quae planitie dividuntur, Salso flumine, proxime tamen Ateguam ut flumen sit circiter passus duo milia. Ex ea regione oppidi in montibus castra habuit posita Pompeius in conspectu utrorumque oppidorum, neque suis ausus est subsidio venire. Aquilas et signa habuit XIII legionum; sed ex quibus aliquid firmamenti se existimabat habere duae fuerunt vernaculae, quae a Trebonio transfugerant; una facta ex coloniis quae fuerunt in his regionibus; quarta fuit Afraniana ex Africa quam secum adduxerat; +reliquae ex fugitivis auxiliares consistebant+: nam de levi armatura et equitatu longe et virtute et numero nostri erant superiores.
8Another reason why Pompey was enabled to protract the war was that the country was full of mountains and extremely well adapted to encampments. For almost the whole province of Further Spain, though of an extremely fertile soil, and abounding in springs, is nevertheless very difficult of access. Here too, on account of the frequent incursions of the natives, all the places remote from great towns, are fortified with towers and castles, covered as in Africa, not with tiles but with earth, on these they place sentinels, and their high situation commands an extensive view of the country on all sides. Nay, the greatest part of the towns of this province are built on mountains, and places exceedingly strong by nature, the approaches to which are extremely difficult. Thus sieges are rare and hazardous in Spain, since it is not easy to reduce their towns by force; as happened in the present war. For Pompey having established his camp between Ategua and Ucubis, as related above, and within view of both towns, Caesar possessed himself of an eminence very conveniently situated, and only about four miles from his own camp, on which he built a fortress. Accedebat hoc ut longius duceret bellum Pompeius, quod loca sunt edita et ad castrorum munitiones non parum idonea. nam fere totius ulterioris Hispaniae regio propter terrae fecundidatem inopem difficilemque habet oppugnationem et non nimis copiosam aquationem. Hic etiam propter barbarorum crebras excursiones omnia loca quae sunt ab oppidis remota, turribus et munitionibus retinentur, sicut in Africa; rudere, non tegulis teguntur. simulque in his habent speculas et propter altitudinem late longeque prospiciunt. Item oppidorum magna pars eius provinciae montibus fere munita et natura excellentibus locis est constituta, ut simul aditus ascensusque habeat difficiles. Ita ab oppugnationibus natura loci distinentur ut civitates Hispaniae non facile ab hoste capiantur. Id quod in hoc contigit bello. Nam cum inter Ateguam et Ucubim, quae oppida supra sunt scripta, Pompeius ut habuit castra constituta in conspectu duorum oppidorum, ab suis castris circiter milia passuum IIII grumus est excellens natura qui appellatur Castra Postumiana. Ibi praesidii causa castellum Caesar habuit constitutum.
9Pompey, who, from the nature of the ground, was covered by the same eminence, which was besides at a sufficient distance from Caesar's quarters, became sensible of the importance of this post; and as Caesar was separated from it by the river Rio Salado, he imagined that the difficulty of sending relief would prevent his attempting any thing of that kind in its defense. Influenced by this belief, he set out about midnight and attacked the fort, that he might bring assistance to the besieged. Our troops, upon their approach, setting up a shout, discharged their javelins in great numbers, and wounded multitudes of men. After this, when those in the camp began to resist, and when tidings of it was conveyed to the great camps to Caesar, he set out with three legions, and when he approached them, many were killed, owing to their trepidation and flight, and a great number made prisoners. Among these two * * *; and many others, having thrown down their arms escaped, so that fourscore shields were found. Quod Pompeius quod eodem iugo tegebatur loci natura et remotum erat a castris Caesaris, animadvertebat loci difficultatem et quia flumine Salso intercludebatur, non esse commissurum Caesarem ut in tanta loci difficultate ad subsidium [com]mittendum se [de]mitteret. Ita fretus opinione tertia vigilia profectus castellum oppugnare coepit [ut laborantibus succurreret nostri]. Cum adpropinquassent, clamore repentino telorumque multitudine iactus facere coeperunt, uti magnam partem hominum vulneribus adficerent. Quo facto cum ex castello repugnare coepissent maioribusque castris Caesaris nuntius esset adlatus, cum III legionibus est profectus, [ut laborantibus succurreret nostris]. Et cum ad eos adpropinquasset, fuga perterriti multi sunt interfecti, complures capti, in quibus duo [centuriones]. Multi praeterea armis exuti fugerunt, quorum scuta sunt relata LXXX.
10The next day Arguetius arrived from Italy with the cavalry, and five standards taken from the Saguntines; but was forced to quit his post by Asprenas, who likewise brought a reinforcement from Italy to Caesar. The same night Pompey set fire to his camp, and drew toward Corduba. A king, named Indus, who was bringing some troops to Caesar with a party of cavalry, following the pursuit of the enemy too briskly, was made prisoner, and slain by the Spanish legionaries. Insequenti luce Arguetius ex Italia cum equitatu venit. is signa Saguntinorum rettulit quinque quae ab oppidanis cepit. Suo loco praeteritumst quod equites ex Italia cum Asprenate ad Caesarem venissent. ea nocte Pompeius castra sua incendit et ad Cordubam versus iter facere coepit. Rex nomine Indo qui cum equitatu suas copias adduxerat, dum cupidius agmen adversariorum insequitur, a vernaculis legionariis exceptus est et interfectus.
11On the next day, our cavalry pursued those who were employed in carrying provisions from the town to Pompey's camp, almost to the very walls of Corduba, and took fifty prisoners besides horses. On the same day, Q. Marcius, a military tribune in Pompey's army, deserted to us. At midnight, a keen encounter took place in the town, and they hurled fire and every means was resorted to by which fire could be cast. When the attack was ended, C. Fundanius, a Roman knight, quitted the enemy, and came over to us. Postero die equites nostri longius ad Cordubam versus prosecuti sunt eos qui commeatus ad castra Pompei ex oppido portabant. Ex his capti l cum iumentis ad nostra adducti sunt castra. eo die Q. Marcius, tribunus militum qui fuisset Pompei, ad nos transfugit, et noctis tertia vigilia in oppido acerrime pugnatum est, ignemque multum miserunt, sic ut omne genus [telorum consumeretur] quibus ignis per iactus solitus est mitti. Hoc praeterito tempore C. Fundanius eques Romanus ex castris adversariorum ad nos transfugit.
12On the next day, two Spanish legionaries, who pretended to be slaves, were made prisoners by a party of our horse; but being brought to the camp, they were known by the soldiers, who had formerly served under Fabius and Pedeius, and deserted from Trebonius. No pardon was extended to them, and they were slaughtered by our troops. At the same time, some couriers, sent from Corduba to Pompey, entering our camp by mistake, were seized, had their hands cut off, and then were dismissed. About nine at night, the besieged, according to custom, spent a considerable time in casting fire and darts upon our soldiers, and wounded a great number of men. At day-break they sallied upon the sixth legion, while we were busy at the works, and began a sharp contest, in which, however, our men got the better, though the besieged had the advantage of the higher ground. Those who had begun the attack, being vigorously opposed on our side, notwithstanding all the inconveniences we fought under, were at length obliged to retire into the town, with many wounds. Postero die ex legione vernacula milites sunt capti ab equitibus nostris duo qui dixerunt se servos esse. Cum venirent, cogniti sunt a militibus qui antea cum Fabio et Pedio fuerant . . . et [a] Trebonio transfugerant. Eis ad ignoscendum nulla facultas est data et a militibus nostris interfecti sunt. Idem temporis capti tabellarii qui a Corduba ad Pompeium missi erant perperamque ad nostra castra pervenerant, praecisis manibus missi sunt facti. Pari consuetudine vigilia secunda ex oppido ignem multum telorumque multitudinem iactando bene magnum tempus consumpserunt compluresque vulneribus adfecerunt. Praeterito noctis tempore eruptionem ad legionem vi fecerunt, cum in opere nostri distenti essent, acriterque pugnare coeperunt. Quorum vis repressa a nostris, etsi oppidani superiore loco defendebantur. Hi cum eruptionem facere coepissent, tamen virtute militum nostrorum qui etsi inferiore loco premebantur, tamen repulsi adversarii bene multis vulneribus adfecti in oppidum se contulerunt.
13On the next day Pompey began a line from the camp to the river Rio Salado; and a small party of our horse, being attacked by a much larger body of the enemy, were driven from their post, and three of their number slain. On the same day, A. Valgius, the son of a senator, whose brother was in Pompey's camp, mounted his horse and went over to the enemy, leaving all his baggage behind him. A spy, belonging to Pompey's second legion, was taken and slain. At the same time, a bullet was shot into the town, with this inscription: "That he should set up a shield on whatever day they advanced to storm the town." This encouraging some to hope that they might scale the walls, and possess themselves of the town without danger, they fell the next day to sapping them, and threw down a considerable part of the outward wall. * * In this action, being captured and protected by the townsmen, as if they had been of their own party, they requested Caesar to dismiss in armor even those who were appointed over the city by Pompey to guard it. To this Caesar answered, "That it was his custom to give, not accept of conditions:" which being reported to the garrison, they set up a shout, and began to pour their darts upon our men from the whole circuit of the wall; which gave reason to believe that the garrison intended that day to make a vigorous sally. Wherefore, surrounding the town with our troops, the conflict was for some time maintained with great violence, and one of our engines threw down a tower belonging to the enemy, in which were five of their men, and a boy, whose office it was to observe the engine. Postero die Pompeius ex castris suis brachium coepit ad flumen Salsum; et cum nostri equites pauci in statione fuissent a pluribus reperti, de statione sunt deiecti et occisi tres. Eo die A. Valgius senatoris filius, cuius frater in castris Pompei fuisset, omnibus suis rebus relictis equum conscendit et fugit. Speculator de legione II Pompeiana captus a militibus et interfectus. Idemque temporis glans missa est inscripta: quo die ad oppidum capiundum accederent, se scutum esse positurum. Qua spe nonnulli dum sine periculo murum ascendere et oppido potiri posse se sperant, postero die ad murum opus facere coeperunt, et bene magna prioris muri parte deiecta [in oppidum intraverunt]. Quo facto ab oppidanis ac si suarum partium essent, conservati . . . missos facere loricatos qui praesidii causa praepositi oppido a Pompeio essent orabant. Quibus respondit Caesar se condiciones dare, non accipere consuevisse. Qui cum in oppidum revertissent, relato responso clamore sublato, omni genere telorum misso pugnare pro muro toto coeperunt. Propter quod fere magna pars hominum qui in castris nostris essent, non dubitarunt quia eruptionem eo die essent facturi. Ita corona circumdata pugnatum est aliquamdiu vehementissime, simulque balista missa a nostris turrem deiecit, qua adversariorum qui in ea turre fuerant, quinque deiecti sunt et puer qui balistam solitus erat observare.
14After this Pompey erected a fort on the other side of the Rio Salado, in which he met with no interruption from our men, and exulted not a little in the idea of having possessed himself of a post so near us. Also the following day, extending himself in like manner still further, he came up with our out-post of cavalry; and charging them briskly, obliged several squadrons and the light-armed foot to give ground: many of whom, owing to the smallness of their numbers and their light armor, were trodden down by the enemy's horse. This passed within view of both camps, and not a little animated the Pompeians, to see our men pushed so far: but the latter, being afterward reinforced by a party from our camp, faced about with the intention of renewing the fight. Eius praeteriti temporis Pompeius trans flumen Salsum castellum constituit neque a nostris prohibitus falsaque illa opinione gloriatus est quod prope in nostris partibus locum tenuisset. Item insequenti die eadem consuetudine dum longius prosequitur, quo loco equites nostri stationem habuerant, aliquot turmae cum levi armatura impetu facto loco sunt deiecti et propter paucitatem nostrorum equitum simul cum levi armatura inter turmas adversariorum protriti. Hoc in conspectu utrorumque castrorum gerebatur, et maiore Pompeiani exultabant gloria [quod . . . ] longiusque cedentibus nostris prosequi coepissent. Qui cum aequo loco a nostris recepti essent, ut consuessent, ex simili virtute clamore facto, aversati sunt proelium facere.
15It invariably happens in encounters of cavalry that when the troopers dismount to charge the infantry, the match proves unequal, as happened on the present occasion. For a select body of the enemy's light-armed foot, coming unexpectedly upon our horse, they alighted to sustain the charge. Thus in a very little time, from a cavalry it became an infantry engagement, and again from an infantry changed to a cavalry engagement, in which our men were driven back to their very lines; but being there reinforced, about a hundred and twenty-three of the enemy were slain, several forced to throw down their arms, many wounded, and the rest pursued quite to their camp. On our side, three were slain, besides twelve foot-soldiers and five troopers wounded. Toward the evening of the same day, the fight, as usual, was renewed before the walls: and the enemy having thrown many darts, and a great quantity of fire from the battlements, proceeded afterward to an action of unexampled cruelty and barbarity: for in the very sight of our troops they fell to murdering the citizens, and tumbling them headlong from the walls, as is usual among barbarians: no parallel to this is to be found in the memory of man. Fere apud exercitus haec est equestris proelii consuetudo: cum eques ad dimicandum dimisso equo cum pedite congreditur, nequaquam par habetur. Id quod accidit in hoc proelio. Cum pedites levi armatura electi ad pugnam equitibus nostris necopinantibus venissent, idque in proelio animadversum esset, complures ex equis descenderunt. Ita exiguo tempore eques pedestre, pedes equestre proelium facere coepit, usque eo ut caedem proxime a vallo fecerint. In quo proelio adversariorum ceciderunt CXXIII, compluresque armis exuti, multi vulneribus adfecti in castra sunt redacti. Nostri ceciderunt III, saucii XII pedites et equites V. Eius diei insequenti tempore pristina consuetudine pro muro pugnari coeptum est. Cum bene magnam multitudinem telorum ignemque nostris defendentibus iniecissent, nefandum crudelissimumque facinus sunt adgressi in conspectuque nostro hospites qui in oppido erant, iugulare et de muro praecipites mittere coeperunt, sicuti apud barbaros, quod post hominum memoriam numquam est factum.
16When night came on, Pompey sent a messenger unknown to us, to exhort the garrison to set fire to our towers and mound, and make a sally at midnight. Accordingly, having poured upon us a great quantity of darts and fire, and destroyed a considerable part of the rampart, they opened the gate which lay over against and within view of Pompey's camp, and sallied out with all their forces, carrying with them fascines to fill up the ditch; hooks and fire to destroy and reduce to ashes the barracks, which the soldiers had built mostly of reeds to defend them from the winter; and some silver and rich apparel to scatter among the tents, that while our men should be employed in securing the plunder, they might fight their way through and escape to Pompey; who, in expectation that they would be able to effect their design, had crossed the Rio Salado with his army, where he continued all night in order of battle, to favor their retreat. But though our men had no apprehension of this design, their valor enabled them to frustrate the attempt, and repulse the enemy with many wounds. They even made themselves masters of the spoil, their arms, and some prisoners, who were put to death next day. At the same time, a deserter from the town informed us that Junius, who was employed in the mine when the citizens were massacred, exclaimed that it was a cruel and barbarous action-"that they had never deserved such treatment at their hands-for that they had received them in their temples and their homes-that it was in violation of all hospitality." He added many things besides, which made such an impression upon the garrison that they desisted from the massacre. Huius diei extremo tempore a Pompeianis clam nostros ad [oppidum] tabellarius est missus, ut ea nocte turres aggeremque incenderent et tertia vigilia eruptionem facerent. Ita igne telorumque multitudine iacta cum bene magnam partem operum consumpsissent, portam quae e regione et in conspectu Pompei castrorum fuerat aperuerunt, copiaeque totae eruptionem fecerunt secumque extulerunt virgulta crates ad fossas complendas et harpagones ad casas quae stramenticiae ab nostris hibernorum causa aedificatae erant, diruendas et incendendas, praeterea argentum vestimenta, ut dum nostri in praeda detinentur, illi caede facta ad praesidia Pompei se reciperent. Nam quod existimabat eos posse conata efficere, nocta tota ultra stabat flumen Salsum in acie. Quod factum licet necopinantibus nostris esset gestum, tamen virtute freti repulsos multisque vulneribus adfectos oppido represserunt, praedam armaque eorum sunt potiti vivosque aliquos ceperunt; qui postero die sunt interfecti. Eodemque tempore transfuga nuntiavit ex oppido Iunium qui in cuniculo fuisset, iugulatione oppidanorum facta clamasse facinus se nefandum et scelus fecisse; nam eos nihil meruisse quare tali poena adficerentur, qui eos ad aras et focos suos recepissent, eosque hospitium scelere contaminasse; multa praeterea dixisse; qua oratione deterritos amplius iugulationem non fecisse.
17The next day, Tullius, a lieutenant-general, accompanied by C. Antonius of Lusitania, came to Caesar, and addressed him to this effect: "Would to Heaven I had been one of your soldiers rather than a follower of C. Pompey, and given those proofs of valor and constancy in obtaining victories for you, rather than in suffering for him. The only advantage we reap from following his banners are wretched applauses; being reduced to the condition of indigent citizens, and by the melancholy fate of our country ranked among its enemies; we, who having never shared with Pompey his good fortune, yet find ourselves involved in his disgrace; and after sustaining the attack of so many armed legions, employing ourselves day and night in the works of defense, exposed to the darts and swords of our fellow-citizens; vanquished, deserted by Pompey, and compelled to give way to the superior valor of your troops, find ourselves at last obliged to have recourse to your clemency, and implore that you will not show yourselves less placable to fellow-citizens, than you have so often been to foreign nations." "I shall," said Caesar, "prove myself the same to fellow-citizens, as I have been to conquered nations." Ita postero die Tullius legatus cum Catone Lusitano venit et apud Caesarem verba fecit: 'Utinam quidem di inmortales fecissent ut tuus potius miles quam Cn. Pompei factus essem et hanc virtutis constantiam in tua victoria, non in illius calamitate praestarem! Cuius funestae laudes quoniam ad hanc fortunam reciderunt ut cives Romani indigentes praesidii, et propter patriae luctuosam perniciem ducimur hostium numero qui neque in illius prospera acie primam fortunam neque in adversa secundam obtinuimus, vix tuarum legionum tot impetus sustentantes, nocturnis diurnisque operibus gladiorum ictus telorumque missus exceptantes, relicti et deserti a Pompeio, tua virtute superati salutem a tua clementia deposcimus petimusque ut [vitam nobis concedas'. Quibus Caesar respondit:] 'qualem gentibus me praestiti, similem in civium deditione praestabo.'
18The embassadors being dismissed, when Tiberius Tullius arrived at the gate of the town, and C. Antony did not follow him, he returned to the gate and laid hold of him, upon which drawing a poniard from his breast, he wounded him in the hand, and in this condition they both fled to Caesar. At the same time the standard-bearer of the first legion came over to our camp, and reported that the day when the skirmish happened between the horse, no less than thirty-five of his company fell; but it was not allowed to mention it in Pompey's camp, or so much as own the loss of one man. A slave, whose master was in Caesar's camp, and who had left his wife and son in the city, cut his master's throat, and deceiving the guards, escaped privately to Pompey's camp; whence by means of a bullet, on which he inscribed his intelligence, Caesar was informed of the preparations made for the defense of the place. When we had read the inscription, those who were employed to throw the bullet returning to the city, two Lusitanian brothers deserted, and informed us that Pompey in a speech made to his soldiers, had said: "That as he found it impossible to relieve the town, he was resolved to withdraw in the night from the sight of the enemy, and retire toward the sea;" to which one answered "that it was better to hazard a battle than take refuge in flight," but he who said so was instantly put to death. At the same time some of his couriers were intercepted, who were endeavoring to get into the town. Caesar sent the letters to the inhabitants, and ordered one of the messengers begging his life, to set fire to the townsmen's wooden turret, promising that if he did this he would grant him all. The enterprise was not without difficulty: he undertook it, however, but was slain in the attempt. The same night a deserter informed us that Pompey and Labienus were greatly offended at the massacre of the citizens. Remissis legatis, cum ad portam venissent, [constitit] Ti. Tullius, et cum introeuntem Catonem insecutus non esset, revertit ad portam et hominem adprehendit. Quod Tiberius cum fieri animadvertit, simul pugionem eduxit et manum eius incidit. Ita refugerunt ad Caesarem. Eodemque tempore signifer de legione prima transfugit, et innotuit quo die equestre proelium factum esset, suo signo perisse homines XXXV, neque licere castris Cn. Pompei nuntiare neque dicere perisse quemquam. Servos cuius dominus in Caesaris castris fuisset--uxorem et filios in oppido reliquerat--dominum iugulavit et ita clam a Caesaris praesidiis in Pompei castra discessit . . . Et indicium glande scriptum misit, per quod certior fieret Caesar, quae in oppido ad defendendum compararentur. Ita litteris acceptis cum in oppidum revertisset, qui mittere glandem inscriptam solebat . . . Insequenti tempore duo Lusitani fratres transfugenuntiaruntque Pompeium contionem habuisse: quoniam oppido subsidio non posset venire, noctu ex adversariorum conspectu se deducerent ad mare versum; unum respondisse, ut potius ad dimicandum descenderet quam signum fugae ostenderet; eum qui ita locutus esset iugulatum. Eodem tempori tabellarii eius deprehensi qui ad oppidum veniebant. Quorum litteras Caesar oppidanis obiecit et qui vitam sibi peteret, iussit turrem ligneam oppidanorum incendere; id si fecisset, ei se promisit omnia concessurum. Quod difficile erat factu ut eam turrem sine periculo quis incenderet. Ita fine [diei] turrem ligneam cum propius accessisset, ab oppidanis est occisus. Eadem nocte transfuga nuntiavit Pompeium et Labienum de iugulatione oppidanorum indignatos esse.
19About nine at night, one of our wooden towers, which had been severely battered by the enemy's engines, gave way as far as the third story. A sharp encounter ensued under the walls, and the besieged, assisted by a favorable wind, burned the remaining part of that tower and another. Next morning a matron threw herself from the wall, and came over to the camp, reporting, "that the rest of her family had intended the same, but were apprehended and put to death;" likewise, a letter was thrown over, in which was written" L. Minatius to Caesar; Pompey has abandoned me; if you will grant me my life, I promise to serve you with the same fidelity and attachment I have hitherto manifested toward him." At the same time deputies who had been sent before to Caesar by the garrison, now waited on him a second time, offering to deliver up the town next day, upon a bare grant of their lives: to which he replied, "That he was Caesar, and would perform his word." Thus, having made himself master of the place, on the nineteenth of February he was saluted imperator. Vigilia secunda propter multitudinem telorum turris lignea quae nostra fuisset, ab imo vitium fecit usque ad tabulatum secundum et tertium. Eodem tempore pro muro pugnarunt acerrime et turrim nostram ut superiorem incenderunt, idcirco quod ventum oppidani secundum habuerunt. Insequenti luce materfamilias de muro se deiecit et ad nos transsiliit dixitque se cum familia constitutum habuisse ut una transfugerent ad Caesarem, illam oppressam et iugulatam. Hoc praeterito tempore tabellae de muro sunt deiectae in quibus scriptum est inventum: 'L. Munatius Caesari. Si mihi vitam tribues, quoniam ab Cn. Pompeio sum desertus, qualem me illi praestiti, tali virtute et constantia futurum me in te esse praestabo'. Eodem tempore oppidani legati qui antea exierant, Caesarem adierunt: si sibi vitam concederet, sese insequenti luce oppidum esse dedituros. Quibus respondit se Caesarem esse fidemque praestaturum. Ita ante diem XI Kalendas Martias oppido potitus imperator est appellatus.
20Pompey, being informed by some deserters that the town had surrendered, removed his camp toward Ucubis, where he began to build redoubts, and secure himself with lines. Caesar also decamped and drew near him. At the same time a Spanish legionary soldier deserting to our camp, informed us that Pompey had assembled the people of Ucubis, and given them instructions to inquire diligently who favored his party, who that of the enemy. Some time after in the town which was taken, the slave, who, as we have related above, had murdered his master, was apprehended in a mine and burned alive. About the same time eight Spanish centurions came over to Caesar, and in a skirmish between our cavalry and that of the enemy, we were repulsed, and some of our light-armed foot wounded. The same night we took of the enemy's spies, three slaves and one Spanish soldier. The slaves were crucified, and the soldier was beheaded. Quod Pompeius ex perfugis cum deditionem oppidi factam esse scisset, castra movit Ucubim versus et circum ea loca castella disposuit et munitionibus se continere coepit. Caesar movit et propius castra castris contulit. Eodem tempore mane loricatus unus ex legione vernacula ad nos transfugit et nuntiavit Pompeium oppidanos Ucubenses convocasse eisque ita imperavisse ut diligentia adhibita perquirerent qui essent suarum partium itemque adversariorum victoriae fautores. Hoc praeterito tempore in oppido quod fuit captum, servus est prensus in cuniculo quem supra demonstravimus dominum iugulasse; is vivus est conbustus. Idemque temporis centuriones loricati VIII ad Caesarem transfugerunt ex legione vernacula, et equites nostri cum adversariorum equitibus congressi sunt, et saucii aliquot occiderunt levi armatura. Ea nocte speculatores prensi servi III et unus ex legione vernacula. Servi sunt in crucem sublati, militi cervices abscisae.
21The day following, some of the enemy's cavalry and light-armed infantry deserted to us; and about eleven of their horse falling upon a party of our men that were sent to fetch water, killed some and took others prisoners; among which last were eight troopers. On the next day Pompey beheaded seventy-four persons supposed to be favorers of Caesar's cause, ordering the rest who lay under the same suspicion to be carried back to the town, of whom a hundred and twenty escaped to Caesar. Postero die equites cum levi armatura ex adversariorum castris ad nos transfugerunt. Et eo tempore circiter XL equites ad aquatores nostros excucurrerunt, nonnullos interfecerunt, item alios vivos abduxerunt; e quibus capti sunt equites VIII. Insequenti die Pompeius securi percussit homines LXXIIII qui dicebantur esse fautores Caesaris victoriae, reliquos versum oppidum iussit deduci. Ex quibus effugerunt CXX et ad Caesarem venerunt.
22Some time after, the deputies from Bursavola (whom Caesar had taken prisoners at Ategua, and sent along with his own embassadors to their city, to inform them of the massacre of the Ateguans, and what they had to apprehend from Pompey, who suffered his soldiers to murder their hosts, and commit all manner of crimes with impunity), arriving in the town, none of our deputies, except such as were natives of the place, durst enter the city, though they were all Roman knights and senators. But after many messages backward and forward, when the deputies were upon their return, the garrison pursued and put them all to the sword, except two who escaped to Caesar, and informed him of what had happened. Some time after, the inhabitants of Bursavola, sending spies to Ategua to know the truth of what had happened, and finding the report of our deputies confirmed, were for stoning to death him who had been the cause of the murder of the deputies, and were with difficulty restrained from laying violent hands upon him, which in the end proved the occasion of their own destruction. For having obtained leave of the inhabitants to go in person to Caesar and justify himself, he privately drew together some troops, and when he thought himself strong enough, returned in the night, and was treacherously admitted into the town, where he made a dreadful massacre of the inhabitants, slew all the leaders of the opposite party, and reduced the place to subjection. Soon after, some slaves who had deserted informed us that he had sold all the goods of the citizens, and that Pompey suffered none of his soldiers to quit the camp but unarmed, because, since the taking of Ategua, many despairing of success fled into Baeturia, having given over all expectation of victory; and that if any deserted from our camp, they were put among the light-armed infantry, whose pay was only sixteen asses a day. Hoc praeterito tempore qui in oppido Ategua Bursavonenses capti sunt, legati profecti sunt cum nostris, uti rem gestam Bursavonensibus referrent; quid sperarent de Cn. Pompeio, cum viderent hospites iugulari; praeterea multa scelera ab iis fieri qui praesidii causa ab iis reciperentur. Qui ad oppidum [cum] venissent, nostri qui fuissent equites Romani et senatores, non sunt ausi introire in oppidum, praeterquam qui eius civitatis fuissent. Quorum responsis ultro citroque acceptis et redditis cum ad nostros se reciperent qui extra oppidum fuissent illi praesidio insecuti ex Bursavone legatos iugularunt. Duo reliqui [ex] eis fugerunt et Caesari rem gestam detulerunt . . . Et speculatores ad oppidum Ateguam miserunt. Qui cum certum conperissent, legatorum responsa ita esse gesta quemadmodum illi rettulissent, ab oppidanis concursu facto, eum qui legatos iugulasset, lapidare et ei manus intentare coeperunt: illius opera se perisse. Ita vix periculo liberatus petiit ab oppidanis ut ei liceret legatum ad Caesarem proficisci: illi se satis facturum. Potestate data cum inde esset profectus, praesidio comparato, cum bene magnam manum fecisset et nocturno tempore per fallaciam in oppidum esset receptus, iugulationem magnam facit principibusque qui sibi contrarii fuissent interfectis oppidum in suam potestatem recepit. Hoc praeterito tempore servi transfugae nuntiaverunt oppidanorum bona vendere [edictumque] ne cui extra vallum liceret exire nisi discinctum, idcirco quod ex quo die oppidum Ategua esset captum, metu conterritos conplures profugere Baeturiam; neque sibi ullam spem victoriae propositam habere, et siqui ex nostris transfugerent, in levem armaturam conici eumque non amplius XVII accipere.
23The day following Caesar removed his camp nearer to Pompey's, and began to draw a line to the river Salado. While our men were employed in the work, some of the enemy fell upon us from the higher ground, and as we were in no condition to make resistance, wounded great numbers. Here, as Ennius says, "our men retreated a little." This occurrence, so contrary to our usual custom, being perceived, two centurions of the fifth legion passed the river, and restored the battle; when, pressing upon the enemy with astonishing bravery, one of them fell overwhelmed by the multitude of darts discharged from above. The other continued the combat for some time, but seeing himself in danger of being surrounded, endeavored to make good his retreat, but stumbled and fell. His death being known, the enemy crowded together in still greater numbers, upon which our cavalry passed the river, and drove them back to their intrenchments; so that, while they too eagerly desired to slay them within their lines, they were surrounded by the cavalry and light-armed troops. Many of these would have been captured alive, had not their valor been pre-eminent, for they were so confined by the space included in the fortress, that the cavalry could not well defend itself. Many of our men were wounded in these two encounters, and among the rest Clodius Aquitius, but as the fight was carried on mostly from a distance, none of our men fell, except the two centurions who sacrificed themselves in the cause of glory. Insequenti tempore Caesar castris castra contulit et brachium ad flumen Salsum ducere coepit. Hic dum in opere nostri distenti essent, complures ex superiori loco adversariorum decucurrerunt nec detinentibus nostros multis telis iniectis conplures vulneribus adfecere. Hic tum, ut ait Ennius, nostri 'cessere parumper'. Itaque praeter consuetudinem cum a nostris animadversum esset cedere, centuriones ex legione v flumen transgressi duo restituerunt aciem, acriterque eximia virtute plures cum agerent, ex superiore loco multitudine telorum alter eorum concidit. Ita cum eius compar proelium facere coepisset, cum undique se circumveniri animum advertisset, in[teger re]gressus pedem offendit. Huius concidentis temporis aquari fortis insignia cum conplures adversariorum concursum facerent, equites nostri transgressi inferiori loco adversarios ad vallum agere coeperunt. Ita cupidius dum intra praesidia illorum student caedem facere, a turmis et levi armatura sunt interclusi. Quorum nisi summa virtus fuisset, vivi capti essent. Nam et munitione praesidii ita coangustabantur, ut eques spatio intercluso vix se defendere posset. Ex utroque genere pugnae conplures sunt vulneribus adfecti, in quis etiam Clodius Arquitius. Inter quos ita comminus est pugnatum ut ex nostris praeter duos centuriones sit nemo desideratus gloria se efferentes.
24Next day both parties withdrawing from Soricaria, we continued our works. But Pompey, observing that our fort had cut off his communication with Aspavia, which is about five miles distant from Ucubis, judged it necessary to come to a battle. Yet he did not offer it upon equal terms, but chose to draw up his men upon a hill, that he might have the advantage of the higher ground. In this respect, when both parties were seeking the superior position, our men anticipating them, drove them into the plain, which gave us the advantage. The enemy yielded on all hands, and we made immense havoc among them. The mountain and not their valor protected them; of which advantage, and of all relief, our men, though few in number, would have deprived them had not night intervened. Three hundred and twenty-four light-armed foot, and about a hundred and thirty-eight legionary soldiers of their number fell, besides those whose armor and spoils we carried off. Thus the death of the two centurions, which happened the day before, was fully revenged. Postero die ad Soricariam utrorumque convenere copiae. Nostri brachia ducere coeperunt. Pompeius cum animadverteret castello se excludi Aspavia, quod est ab Ucubi milia passuum V, haec res necessario devocabat ut ad dimicandum descenderet. Neque tamen aequo loco sui potestatem faciebat, sed ex grumo . . . Excelsum tumulum capiebant, usque eo ut necessario cogeretur iniquum locum subire. Quo de facto cum utrorumque copiae tumulum excellentem petissent, prohibiti a nostris sunt deiecti planitie. Quae res secundum nostris efficiebat proelium. undique cedentibus adversariis non parum magna in caede versabantur. Quibus mons, non virtus saluti fuit. Quo sub sidio [paulum modo restiterunt, sic] ut nisi advesperasset, a paucioribus nostris omni auxilio privati essent. Nam ceciderunt ex levi armatura CCCXXIIII, ex legionariis CXXXVIII, praeterquam quorum arma et spolia sunt ablata. Ita pridie duorum centurionum interitio hac adversariorum poena est litata.
25The day after, Pompey's cavalry advanced, according to their usual custom, to our lines; for they only dared venture to draw up on equal ground. They therefore began to skirmish with our men who were at work, the legionaries calling out to us at the same time to choose our field of battle, with a view to make us believe that they desired nothing so much as to come to blows; upon this our men quitted the eminence where they were encamped, and advanced a great way into the plain. But none of the enemy had the boldness to present themselves, excepting Antistius Turpio; who, presuming on his strength, and fancying no one on our side a match for him, offered us defiance. Upon this, as is recorded of Memnon and Achilles, Q. Pompeius Niger, a Roman knight, born in Italy, advanced from our ranks to the encounter. The fierce air of Antistius having engaged the attention of all, the two armies drew up to be spectators of the issue of this challenge, and expressed as much impatience as if the whole fortune of the war had depended upon it. The wishes on both sides for success were equal to the anxiety and concern each felt for his own combatant. They advanced into the plain with great courage, having each a resplendent buckler of curious workmanship. And doubtless the combat would have been soon decided, had not some light-armed foot drawn up near the lines, to serve as a guard to the camp because of the approach of the enemy's horse, which we have before alluded to. * * * Our horse, in retreating to their camp, being warmly pursued by the enemy, suddenly faced about with great cries; which so terrified the Pompeians, that they immediately betook themselves to flight, and retreated to their camp with the loss of many of their men. Insequenti die pari consuetudine cum ad eundem locum eius praesidium venisset, pristino illo suo utebantur instituto; nam praeter equites nullo loco aequo se committere audebant. Cum nostri in opere essent, equitum copiae concursus facere coeperunt, simulque vociferantibus legionariis, cum locum efflagitarent ex consuetudine insequendi, existimare posses paratissimos esse ad dimicandum. Nostri ex humili convalle bene longe sunt egressi et planitie in aequiori loco constiterunt. Illi tamen procul dubio ad congrediendum in aequum locum non sunt ausi descendere praeter unum Antistium Turpionem. Qui fidens viribus ex adversariis sibi parem esse neminem agitare coepit. Hic, ut fertur Achillis Memnonisque congressus, Q. Pompeius Niger eques Romanus Italicensis ex acie nostra ad congrediendum progressus. Quoniam ferocitas Antistii omnium mentes converterat ab opere ad spectandum, acies sunt dispositae. Nam inter bellatores principesque dubia erat posita victoria, ut prope videretur finem bellandi duorum dirimere pugna. Ita avidi cupidique suarum quisque ex partium virorum fautorumque voluntate habebatur. Quorum virtute alacri, cum ad dimicandum in planitiem se contulissent, laudis insignia scutorumque praefulgens opus caelatum . . . quorum [certamine] pugna esset [prope] profecto dirempta, nisi propter equitum concessum, ut supra demonstravimus . . . levem armaturam praesidii causa non longe ab opere [castra] constituit. Ut, nostri equites in receptu dum ad castra redeunt, adversarii cupidius sunt insecuti, universi clamore facto impetum dederunt. Ita metu peterriti, cum in fuga essent multis amissis in castra se recipiunt.
26Caesar, to reward the valor of the Cassian troop, presented them with thirteen thousand sesterces, distributed ten thousand more among the light-armed foot, and gave to the commander of the cavalry five golden collars. The same day, A. Bebius, C. Flavius, and A. Trebellius, Roman knights of Asta, with their horses richly caparisoned and adorned with silver, came over to Caesar, and informed him, that all the rest of the Roman knights in Pompey's camp, had like them conspired to come and join him, that, on the information of a slave they had all been seized and cast into custody; that out of this number they only had escaped. The same day letters were intercepted, sent by Pompey to Ursao, with the usual greeting, and stating, "That hitherto he had all the success against the enemy he could desire, and would have ended the war much sooner than was expected, could he have brought them to engage him upon equal terms; that he did not think it advisable to venture new-levied troops on a plain; that the enemy, depending on our supplies, as yet protract the war for they storm city after city, thence supplying themselves with provisions: that he would therefore endeavor to protect the towns of his party, and bring the war to as speedy an issue as possible: that he would send them a reinforcement of some cohorts, and that having deprived them of provisions he would necessitate the enemy to come to an engagement. Caesar ob virtutem turmae Cassianae donavit milia XIII et praefecto torques aureos V et levi armaturae milia XII. Hoc die A. Baebius et C. Flavius et A. Trebellius equites Romani Hastenses argento prope tecti [equites] ad Caesarem transfugerunt. Qui nuntiaverunt equites Romanos coniurasse omnis qui in castris Pompei essent, ut transitionem facerent; servi indicio omnes in custodiam esse coniectos; e quibus occasione capta se transfugisse. Item hoc die litterae sunt deprensae quas mittebat Ursaonem Cn. Pompeius: 'S. V. G. E. V. Etsi prout nostra felicitas, ex sententia adversarios propulsos . . . Qui si aequo loco sui potestatem facerent, celerius quam vostra opinio fert. bellum confecissem. Sed exercitum tironem non audent in campum deducere nostrisque adhuc freti praesidiis bellum ducunt. Nam singulas civitates circumsederunt ut inde sibi commeatus capiant. Quare et civi tates nostrarum partium conservabo et bellum primo quoque tempore conficiam. Cohortes [ . . . in] animo habeo ad vos mittere. Profecto nostro commeatu privati necessario ad dimicandum descendent.'
27Some time after, as our men were carelessly dispersed about the works, a few horse were killed, who had gone to a grove of olives to fetch wood. Several slave deserted at this time, and informed us that ever since the action at Soritia on the 7th of March, the enemy had been under continual alarms, and appointed Attius Varus to guard the lines. The same day Pompey decamped, and posted himself in an olive-wood over against Hispalis. Caesar, before he removed, waited till midnight, when the moon began to appear. At his departure he ordered them to set fire to the fort of Ucubis, which Pompey had abandoned, and to assemble in the greater camp. He afterward laid siege to Ventisponte, which surrendered; and marching thence to Carruca, encamped over against Pompey, who had burned the city, because the garrison refused to open the gates to him. A soldier who had murdered his brother in the camp, being intercepted by our men, was scourged to death. Caesar, still pursuing his march, arrived in the plains of Munda, and pitched his camp opposite to that of Pompey. Insequenti tempore cum nostri in opere distenti essent, equites in oliveto dum lignantur, interfecti sunt aliquot. Servi transfugerunt qui nuntiaverunt a. d. III Non. Mart. proelium ad Soricariam quod factum est, ex eo tempore metum esse magnum et Attium Varum circum castella praeesse. Eo die Pompeius castra movit et contra Spalim in oliveto constituit. Caesar priusquam eodem est profectus, luna hora circiter sexta visa est. Ita castris motis Ucubim Pompeius praesidium quod reliquit, iussit incendere, ut deusto oppido in castra maiora se reciperent. Insequenti tempore Ventiponem oppidum cum oppugnare coepisset, deditione facta iter fecit in Carrucam, contra Pompeium castra posuit. Pompeius oppidum quod contra sua praesidia portas clausisset incendit; milesque qui fratrem suum in castris iugulasset, interceptus est a nostris et fusti percussus. Hinc itinere facto in campum Mundensem cum esset ventum, castra contra Pompeium constituit.
28Next day as Caesar was preparing to set out with the army, notice was sent him by his spies, that Pompey had been in order of battle ever since midnight. Upon this intelligence he ordered the standard to be raised. Pompey had taken this resolution in consequence of his letter to the inhabitants of Ursao, who were his firm adherents, in which he told them that Caesar refused to come down into the plain, because his army consisted mostly of new-levied troops. This had greatly confirmed the city in its allegiance. Thus relying on this opinion, he thought that he could effect the whole, for he was defended by the nature of his situation, and by the position for defense of the town, where he had his camp: for, as we observed before, this country is full of hills which run in a continued chain, without any plains intervening. Sequentique die cum iter facere Caesar cum copiis vellet, renuntiatum est a speculatoribus Pompeium de tertia vigilia in acie stetisse. Hoc nuntio adlato vexillum proposuit. Idcirco enim copias eduxerat quod Ursaonensium civitati [qui sui] fuissent fautores, antea litteras miserat Caesarem nolle in convallem descendere, quod maiorem partem exercitus tironem haberet. Hae litterae vehementer confirmabant mentes oppidanorum. Ita hac opinione fretus tuto se facere posse existimabat. Etenim et natura loci defendebantur et ipsius oppido munitione ubi castra habuit constituta. Namque ut superius demonstravimus, loca excellentia tumulis contineri, interim nulla planitie edividit; id quod eo incidit tempore.
29But we must by no means omit to mention an accident which happened about this time. The two camps were divided from one another by a plain about five miles in extent, so that Pompey, in consequence of the town's elevated position, and the nature of the country, enjoyed a double defense. Across this valley ran a rivulet, which rendered the approach to the mountain extremely difficult, because it formed a deep morass on the right. Caesar had no doubt that the enemy would descend into the plain and come to a battle, when he saw them in array. This appeared evident to all; the rather because the plain would give their cavalry full room to act, and the day was so serene and clear that the gods seemed to have sent it on purpose to favor the engagement. Our men rejoiced at the favorable opportunity: some however were not altogether exempt from fear when they considered that their all was at stake, with the uncertainty of what might be their fate an hour after. He advanced however to the field of battle, fully persuaded that the enemy would do the same; but they durst not venture above a mile from the town, being determined to shelter themselves under its walls. Our men still continued before them in order of battle; but although the equality of the ground sometimes tempted them to come and dispute the victory, they nevertheless still kept their post on the mountain, in the neighborhood of the town. We doubled our speed to reach the rivulet, without their stirring from the place where they stood. Planities inter utraque castra intercedebat circiter milia passuum V, ut auxilia Pompei duabus defenderentur rebus, oppido et excelsi loci natura. Hinc derigens proxima planities aequabatur. Cuius decursum antecedebat rivus qui ad eorum accessum summam efficiebat loci iniquitatem. Nam palustri et voraginoso solo currens erat ad dextrum. Id quod Caesar cum aciem derectam vidisset, non habuit dubium quin mediae planitie in aequum ad dimicandum adversarii procederent. Hoc erat in omnium conspectu. Hoc accedebat ut locus illa planitie aequitate ornaretur, et diei solisque serenitate ut mirificum, ut optandum tempus prope ab diis inmortalibus illud tributum esset ad proelium committendum. Nostri laetari, nonnulli etiam timere, quod in eum locum res fortunaeque omnium deducerentur ut quicquid post horam casus tribuisset, in dubio poneretur. Itaque nostri ad dimicandum procedunt, id quod adversarios existimabamus esse facturos. Qui tamen a munitione oppidi longius non audebant procedere, in quo sibi prope murum adversarii constituebant. Itaque nostri procedunt. Interdum aequitas loci adversarios efflagitabat ut tali contenderent condicione ad victoriam. Neque tamen illi a sua consuetudine discedebant, ut aut ab excelso loco aut oppido discederent. Nostri pede presso propius rivum cum adpropinquassent, adversarii patrocinari loco iniquo non desinunt.
30Their army consisted of thirteen legions; the cavalry was drawn up upon the wings, with six thousand light-armed infantry and about the same number of auxiliaries. We had only eighty heavy-armed cohorts, and eight thousand horse. When we reached the extremity of the plain, the real seat of disadvantage, the enemy were awaiting us above, so that it would have been exceedingly dangerous to proceed. When Caesar perceived this, he pointed out the locality, lest any disagreeable occurrence should result from the temerity of his troops. The army murmured greatly, as if they had been kept back from a certain victory, when this was told them. The delay, however, served to enliven the enemy, thinking that Caesar's troops shrank from an encounter through fear: they therefore had the boldness to advance a little way, yet without quitting the advantage of their post, the approach to which was extremely dangerous. The tenth legion, as usual, was on the right, the third and fifth on the left, with the auxiliary troops and cavalry. The battle began with a shout. Erat acies XIII aquilis constituta, quae lateribus equitatu tegebatur, cum levi armatura milibus sex; praeterea auxiliares accedebant prope alterum tantum. Nostra praesidia LXXX cohortibus, octo milibus equitum. Ita cum in extrema planitie iniquum in locum nostri adpropinquassent, paratus hostis erat superior, ut transeundum superius iter vehementer esset periculosum. Quod cum a Caesare esset animadversum, nequid temere culpa secus admitteretur, eum locum definire coepit. Quod cum hominum auribus esset obiectum, moleste et acerbe accipiebant se inpediri quominus proelium conficere possent. Haec mora adversarios alacriores efficiebat: Caesaris copias timore inpediri ad committendum proelium. Ita se efferen tes iniquo loco sui potestatem faciebant, ut magno tamen periculo accessus eorum haberetur. Hic decumani suum locum, cornum dextrum, tenebant, sinistrum III et V, itemque et cetera [auxilia equitatus]. Proelium clamore facto committitur.
31But though our men were superior to the enemy in courage, the latter nevertheless defended themselves so well by the advantage of the higher ground, and the shouts were so loud, and the discharge of darts on both sides so great, that we almost began to despair of victory. For the first onset and shout, by which an enemy is most apt to be dismayed, were pretty equal in the present encounter. All fought with equal valor; the place was covered with arrows and darts, and great numbers of the enemy fell. We have already observed that the tenth legion was on the right, which, though not considerable for the number of men, was nevertheless formidable for its courage; and so pressed the enemy on that side that they were obliged to draw a legion from the right wing to reinforce the left, lest we should come upon their flank; but they fought so bravely that the reinforcement could not find an opportunity of entering the ranks. Upon this motion, our cavalry on the left fell upon Pompey's right wing. Meanwhile the clashing of armor mingled with the shouts of combatants, and the groans of the dying and the wounded, terrified the new-raised soldiers. On this occasion, as Ennius says, "they fought hand to hand, foot to foot, and shield to shield;" but though the enemy fought with the utmost vigor, they were obliged to give ground, and retire toward the town. The battle was fought on the feast of Bacchus, and the Pompeians were entirely routed and put to flight; insomuch that not a man could have escaped, had they not sheltered themselves in the place whence they advanced to the charge. The enemy lost on this occasion upward of thirty thousand men, and among the rest Labienus and Attius Varus, whose funeral obsequies were performed upon the field of battle. They had likewise three thousand Roman knights killed, partly Italian, partly provincial. About a thousand were slain on our side, partly foot, partly horse; and five hundred wounded. We gained thirteen eagles, and several standards, and emblems of authority, and made seventeen officers prisoners. Such was the issue of this action. Hic etsi virtute nostri antecedebant, adversarii loco superiore se defendebant acerrime, et vehemens fiebat ab utrisque clamor telorumque missu concursus, sic ut nostri prope diffiderent victoriae. Congressus enim et clamor, quibus rebus maxime hostis conterretur, in conlatu pari erat condicione. Ita ex utroque genere cum parem virtutem ad bellandum contulissent, pilorum missu fixa cumulatur et concidit adversariorum multitudo. Dextrum ut demonstravimus decumanos cornum tenuisse. Qui etsi erant pauci, tamen propter virtutem magno adversarios timore eorum opera adficiebant, quod a suo loco hostes vehementer premere coeperunt, ut ad subsidium, ne ab latere nostri occuparent, legio adversariorum traduci coepta sit ad dextrum. Quae simul est mota, equitatus Caesaris sinistrum cornum premere coepit, ita uti eximia virtute proelium facere possent ut locus in aciem ad subsidium veniundi non daretur. Ita cum clamor esset intermixtus gemitu gladiorumque crepitus auribus oblatus, inperitorum mentes timore praepediebat. Hic, ut ait Ennius, pes pede premitur, armis teruntur arma, adversariosque vehementissime pugnantes nostri agere coeperunt. Quibus oppidum fuit subsidio. Ita ipsis Liberalibus fusi fugatique non superfuissent, nisi in eum locum confugissent, ex quo erant egressi. In quo proelio ceciderunt milia hominum circiter XXX et siquid amplius, praeterea Labienus, Attius Varus, quibus occisis utrisque funus est factum, itemque equites Romani partim ex urbe, partim ex provincia ad milia III. Nostri desiderati ad hominum mille partim peditum, partim equitum, saucii ad D adversariorum aquilae sunt ablatae XIII et signa . . et fasces . . . praeterea hos habuit . . .
32The remains of Pompey's army retreating to Munda, with the intention of defending themselves in that town, it became necessary to invest it. The dead bodies of the enemy, heaped together, served as a rampart, and their javelins and darts were fixed up by way of palisades. Upon these we hung their bucklers to supply the place of a breastwork, and fixing the heads of the deceased upon swords and lances, planted them all around the works, to strike the greater terror into the besieged, and keep awake in them a sense of our prowess. Amid these mournful objects did they find themselves shut in, when our men began the attack, which was conducted chiefly by the Gauls. Young Valerius, who had escaped to Corduba with some horse, informed Sextus Pompey of what had happened; who, upon receipt of the mournful news, distributing what money he had about him to the troopers, left the town about nine at night, under pretense of going to find out Caesar, to treat of an accommodation. On the other side, Cn. Pompey, attended by a few horse and foot, took the road to Carteia, where his fleet lay, and which was about a hundred and seventy miles distant from Corduba. When he was arrived within eight miles of the place, he sent P. Calvitius his camp-marshal before, to procure a litter to carry him to the town, as he found himself unwell. The litter came, and when he entered the town, those of his party waited on him privately, to receive his orders about the management of the war. As they assembled round the place in great crowds, Pompey quitting his litter put himself under their protection. . . . ex fuga hac qui oppidum Mundam sibi constituissent praesidium, nostrique cogebantur necessario eos circumvallare. Ex hostium armis pro caespite cadavera conlocabantur, scuta et pila pro vallo. Insuper occisorum in gladiorum mucronibus capita hominum ordinata ad oppidum conversa. Universa hostium timorem . . . virtutisque insignia proposita viderent, et vallo circumcluderentur adversarii. Ita Galli tragulis iaculisque oppidum [quod vallo facto] ex hostium cadaveribus sunt circumplexi, oppugnare coeperunt. Ex hoc proelio Valerius adulescens Cordubam cum paucis equitibus fugit, Sex. Pompeio qui Cordubae fuisset, rem gestam refert. Cognito hoc negotio, quos equites secum habuit, quod pecuniae secum habuit eis distribuit et oppidanis dixit se de pace ad Caesarem proficisci et secunda vigilia ab oppido discessit. Cn. Pompeius cum equitibus paucis nonnullisque peditibus ad navale praesidium Carteiam contendit, quod oppidum abest ab Corduba milia passuum CLXX. Quo cum ad octavum miliarium venisset, P. Caucilius qui castris antea Pompei praepositus esset, eius verbis nuntium mittit, eum minus belle habere, ut mitterent lecticam qua in oppidum deferri posset. litteris missis Pompeius Carteiam defertur. Qui illarum partium fautores essent, conveniunt in domum quo erat delatus, qui arbitrati sunt clanculum venisse, ut ab eo quae vellent de bello requirerent. Cum frequentia convenisset, de lectica Pompeius in eorum fidem confugit.
33After the encounter, Caesar seeing the circumvallation of Munda completed, marched to Corduba. Those of the enemy who had escaped the slaughter, possessing themselves of a bridge, upon the approach of our men, called out to them with an air of derision- "What! we who are no more than a handful of men escaped from the battle, shall we be allowed no place of retreat?" They immediately prepared to defend the bridge. Caesar passed the river and encamped. Scapula, who had stirred up the freedmen to a revolt, escaping after the battle to Corduba, when he found himself besieged, assembled all his followers, ordered a funeral pile to be erected and a magnificent supper served up; when, putting on his richest dress, he distributed his plate and money among his domestics, supped cheerfully, anointed himself several times, and, last of all, ordered one of his freedmen to dispatch him, and another to set fire to the pile. Caesar ex proelio [Munda] munitione circumdata Cordubam venit. Qui ex caede eo refugerunt, pontem occuparunt. Cum eo ventum esset, conviciare coeperunt, nos ex proelio paucos superesse; quo fugeremus? Ita pugnare coeperunt de ponte. Caesar flumen traiecit et castra posuit. Scapula totius seditionis [familiae ac libertinorum] caput ex proelio Cordubam cum venisset, familiam et libertos convocavit, pyram sibi extruxit, cenam adferri quam optimam imperavit, item optimis insternendum vestimentis; pecuniam et argentum in praesentia familiae donavit. Ipse de tempore cenare, resinam et nardum identidem sibi infundit. Ita novissimo tempore servum iussit et libertum qui fuisset eius concubinus, alterum se iugulare, alterum pyram incendere.
34Caesar had no sooner encamped before the place than a division arose among the inhabitants, between the parties of Caesar and Pompey, till the dispute almost reached to our camps. During the contest, some legions, composed partly of deserters, partly of slaves made free by Pompey, came and surrendered themselves to Caesar. But the thirteenth legion prepared to defend the town, and with that view possessed themselves of the walls and some towers, in spite of all opposition, which obliged the other party to send deputies to Caesar for aid. Upon this those who had escaped out of the battle set fire to the place, and our men entering at the same time, slew about twenty-two thousand of them, besides those who were slain without the walls; thus Caesar obtained the town. While he was employed in this siege, those who, as we have said, were blockaded at Munda made a sally, but were driven back into the town with considerable loss. Oppidani autem, simul Caesar castra contra ad oppidum posuit, discordare coeperunt, usque eo ut clamor in castra nostra perveniret, [rixa orta] fere inter Caesarianos et inter Pompeianos. Erant hic legiones, quae ex perfugis conscriptae, partim oppidanorum servi qui erant a Pompeio Sexto manumissi. Qui in Caesaris adventum descendere coeperunt. legio XIII oppidum defendere coepit, nostri cum iam depugnarent, turres ex parte et murum occuparunt. Denuo legatos ad Caesarem mittunt ut sibi legiones subsidio intromitteret. Hoc cum animadverterent homines fugitivi, oppidum incendere coeperunt. Qui superati a nostris sunt interfecti hominum milia XXII, praeterquam extra murum qui perierunt. Ita Caesar oppido potitus. Dum hic detinetur, ex proelio quos circummunitos superius demonstravimus, eruptionem fecerunt et bene multi interfecti; in oppidum sunt redacti.
35Thence Caesar marched to Hispalis, which sent deputies to sue for pardon. Though the citizens assured him that they were able to defend the town, he sent Caninius his lieutenant thither with some troops, and encamped before the place. There was in the town a strong party of Pompeians, who, displeased to see Caesar's troops received within the walls, secretly deputed one Philo, a zealous partisan of Pompey, and well known in Lusitania, to beg assistance of Cecilius Niger, one of the barbarians, who lay encamped near Lenius, with a strong army of Lusitanians. He is received into the town of Hispalis by night, surprises the sentinels and garrison, shuts the gates, and begins to defend the place. Caesar Hispali[m] cum contendisset, legati de precatum venerunt. Ita cum ad oppidum esset ventum, Caninium cum praesidio legatum intromittit, ipse castra ad oppidum ponit. Erat bene magna manus intra Pompeianarum partium quae praesidium receptum indignaretur clam quendam Philonem, illum qui Pompeianarum partium fuisset defensor acerrimus. Is tota Lusitania notissimus erat. Hic clam praesidia Lusitaniam proficiscitur et Caecilium Nigrum hominem barbarum ad Lennium convenit, qui bene magnam manum Lusitanorum haberet. rursus Hispalim oppidum denuo noctu per murum recipitur. Praesidium, vigiles iugulant, portas praecludunt, de integro pugnare coeperunt.
36During these transactions deputies arrived from Carteia, with accounts of their having secured Pompey; hoping by this service to atone for their former fault of shutting their gates against Caesar. Meantime, the Lusitanians in Hispalis plundered the town, which, though known to Caesar, did not yet determine him to press it too hard, lest they should in despair set fire to it, and destroy the walls. It was resolved in council to suffer the Lusitanians to escape in the night by a sally, yet so that the thing might not appear designed. In this sally, they set fire to the ships that were in the river Guadalquivir, and while our men were employed in extinguishing the flames, endeavored to get off; but being overtaken by the cavalry, were mostly cut to pieces. Thence Caesar marched to Asta, which submitted. Munda having been now a long while besieged, many of those who had escaped out of the battle, despairing of safety, surrendered to us; and being formed into a legion, conspired among themselves, that upon a signal being given, the garrison should sally out in the night, while they at the same time should begin a massacre in the camp. But the plot being discovered, they were next night, at the changing of the third watch, all put to death outside the rampart. Dum haec geruntur, legati Carteienses renuntiaverunt quod Pompeium in potestatem haberent. Quod ante Caesari portas praeclusissent, illo beneficio suum maleficium existimabant se lucrificare. Lusitani Hispali pugnare nullo tempore desistebant. Quod Caesar cum animum adverteret, si oppidum capere contenderet, timuit ne homines perditi incenderent et moenia delerent. Ita consilio habito noctu patitur Lusitanos eruptionem facere; id quod consulto non existimabant fieri. Ita erumpendo navis quae ad Baetim flumen fuissent, incendunt. Nostri dum incendio detinentur, illi profugiunt et ab equitibus conciduntur. Quo facto oppido recuperato Hastam iter facere coepit. Ex qua civitate legati ad deditionem venerunt. Mundenses qui ex proelio in oppidum confugerant, cum diutius circumsederentur, bene multi deditionem faciunt, et cum essent in legionem distributi, coniurant inter sese ut noctu signo dato qui in oppido fuissent eruptionem facerent, illi caedem in castris administrarent. Hac re cognita insequenti nocte vigilia tertia tessera data extra vallum omnes sunt concisi.
37The Carteians, while Caesar was employed in reducing the other towns upon his route, began to disagree about young Pompey. One party had sent the deputies to Caesar, and another was in the Pompeian interest. These last prevailing, seized the gates, and made a dreadful slaughter of their adversaries. Pompey himself was wounded in the fray, but escaping to his ships, fled with about twenty galleys. Didius, who was at Gades with Caesar's fleet, hearing of what had happened, immediately sailed in pursuit of them; stationing at the same time some cavalry and infantry along the coast, to prevent his escaping by land. Pompey had left Carteia with so much precipitation, that he took no time to furnish himself with water, and this circumstance obliging him to stop by the way, Didius came up with him after four days' sailing, took some of his ships, and burned the rest. Carteienses, dum Caesar in itinere reliqua oppida oppugnat, propter Pompeium dissentire coeperunt. Pars erat quae legatos ad Caesarem miserat, pars erat quae Pompeianarum partium fautores essent. Seditione concitata portas occupant. Caedes fit magna; saucius Pompeius naves viginti occupat longas et profugit. Didius qui [ad] Gadis classi praefuisset . . . ad quem simul nuntius adlatus est, confestim sequi coepit. Partim pedibus et equitatu ad persequendum celeriter iter faciebant, item confestim consequentes. Quarto die navigationis quod imparati a Carteia profecti sine aqua fuissent, ad terram adplicant. Dum aquantur, Didius classe accurrit, navis incendit, nonnullas capit.
38With a few friends, Pompey escaped to a place strongly fortified by nature; of which the troops sent in pursuit of him having certain intelligence by their scouts, followed day and night. He was wounded in the shoulder and left leg, and had besides sprained his ankle, all which greatly retarded his flight, and obliged him to make use of a litter. A Lusitanian having discovered the place of his retreat, he was quickly surrounded by our cavalry and cohorts. Seeing himself betrayed, he took refuge in a post fortified by nature, and which could easily be defended by a few men, the approach to it being extremely difficult. We attempted to storm it, but were repulsed, and pursued by the enemy; and meeting with no better success after several trials, we at length resolved to lay siege to the place, it seeming too hazardous to force it. Accordingly, a terrace was raised, and lines drawn round the place; which the enemy perceiving, thought it best to betake themselves to flight. Pompeius cum paucis profugit et locum quendam munitum natura occupat. Equites et cohortes quae ad persequendum missi essent, speculatoribus ante missis certiores fiunt, diem et noctem iter faciunt. Pompeius umero et sinistro crure vehementer erat saucius. Hoc accedebat ut etiam talum intorsisset; quae res maxime inpediebat. Ita lectica ad turrem quen[dam cum] esset ablatus, in ea ferebatur Lusitanis more militari. Cum Caesaris praesidio fuisset conspectus, celeriter equitatu cohortibusque circumcluditur. Erat accessus loci difficultas. Nam idcirco [propter suo praesidio fuisset conspectus celeriter ad] munitum locum natura ceperat sibi Pompeius, quamvis magna multitudine adduct[a ut pauc]i homines ex superiore loco defendere possent. Subeunt in adventu nostri depellunturque telis. Quibus cedentibus cupidius insequebantur adversarii et confestim tardabant ab accessu. Hoc saepius facto animum advertebatur nostro magno id fieri periculo. opere circummunire instituit. Pari autem [cupiditate] ex celeri festinatione circumm[un]itiones iugo derigunt, ut aequo pede cum adversariis congredi possent. a quibus cum animadversum esset, fuga sibi praesidium capiunt.
39Pompey as we have observed above being lame and wounded, was in no condition to make a speedy retreat; and the rather, because the place was such that he could use neither horse nor litter. Slaughter was dealt on all hands by our troops, his fortress having been stormed, and his resources cut off. In this extremity he fled to a cave, where he could not easily be discovered, unless by the information of the captives. Here he was slain, his head was brought to Hispalis on the day before the ides of April, and exhibited before the people when Caesar was at Gades. Pompeius, ut supra demonstravimus, saucius et intorto talo idcirco tardabatur ad fugiendum, itemque propter loci difficultatem neque equo neque vehiculo saluti suae praesidium parare poterat. Caedes a nostris undique administrabatur. Exclusus a munitione amissisque auxiliis ad convallem exesumque locum in speluncam Pompeius se occultare coepit, ut a nostris non facile inveniretur nisi captivorum indicio. Ita ibi interficitur. Cum Caesar Gadibus fuisset, Hispalim pridie Idus Apriles caput adlatum et populo datum est in conspectum.
40After the death of young Pompey, Didius, proud of his success, retired to the nearest fortress and hauled some of his vessels on shore to be refitted. The Lusitanians, who had escaped from the battle, rallying in great bodies, advanced to Didius. Though the preservation of the fleet principally engaged his attention, he was obliged to leave his fort in order to restrain the frequent sallies of the enemy. These daily skirmishes gave them an opportunity of projecting an ambuscade; for which purpose they divided their troops into three bodies. Some were prepared to set fire to the fleet, and in the mean time others were to come to their relief. These were so arranged that they could advance to the battle without any one seeing them. Didius sallied out according to custom; when upon a signal being given, one of the parties advanced to set fire to the fleet; and another, counterfeiting a retreat, drew him insensibly into the ambuscade, where he was surrounded and slain with most of his followers, fighting valiantly. Some escaped in boats which they found upon the coast; others endeavored to reach the galleys by swimming; and, weighing anchor, stood out to sea. A great many saved themselves in this manner, but the Lusitanians got all the baggage. Caesar meanwhile returned from Gades to Hispalis. Interfecto Cn. Pompeio adulescente Didius quem supra demonstravimus, illa adfectus laetitia proximo se recepit castello nonnullasque naves ad reficiendum subduxit et quodvis essent . . . brachium ex utrisque partibus . . . Lusitani qui ex pugna superfuerunt, ad signum se receperunt et bene magna manu comparata ad Didium se reportant. Huic etsi non aberat diligentia ad naves tuendas, tamen nonnumquam ex castello propter eorum crebras excursiones eliciebatur et prope cotidianis pugnis [cum Lusitanis confligebat. tum illi] insidias ponunt et tripertito signa distribuunt. Erant parati qui naves incenderent, incensisque qui subsidium repellerent; hi sic dispositi erant ut a nullo [conspici possent. reliqui in] conspectu omnium ad pugnam contendunt. Ita cum ex castello Didius ad propellendum processisset cum copiis, signum a Lusitanis tollitur, naves incenduntur, simulque qui in castello ad pugnam processerant, eodem signo fugientes latrones dum persequuntur, a tergo insidiae clamore sublato circumveniunt. Didius magna cum virtute cum compluribus interficitur. Nonnullique ea pugna scaphas quae ad litus fuerant occupant, item complures nando ad naves quae in salo fuerunt, se recipiunt, ancoris sublatis pelagus remis petere coeperunt. Quae res eorum vitae fuit subsidio. Lusitani praeda potiuntur. Caesar Gadibus rursus ad Hispalim recurrit.
41Fabius Maximus, whom he had left to continue the siege of Munda, conducted it with great zeal; so that the enemy, seeing themselves shut up on all sides, sallied out, but were repulsed with great loss. Our men seized this opportunity to get possession of the town, and took the rest prisoners, in number about fourteen thousand. Thence they retreated toward Ursao, a town exceedingly strong both by nature and art, and capable of resisting an enemy. Besides, there is not, within eight miles of the place any spring but that which supplies the town, which was a decided advantage to the besieged. In addition to all this, the wood necessary for building towers and other machines had to be fetched from a distance of six miles. And Pompey, to render the siege more difficult, had cut down all the timber round the place, and collected it within the walls, which obliged our men to bring all the materials for carrying on the siege from Munda, the nearest town which they had subdued. Fabius Maximus quem ad Mundam praesidium oppugnandum reliquerat, operibus adsiduis [diurnis et noc]turnis circumsedit. Interclusi inter se decernere; facta bene magna . . . faciunt. Nostri ad oppidum recuperandum occasionem non praetermittunt et reliquos vivos capiunt, XIIII milia. Ursaonem proficiscuntur. Quod oppidum magna munitione continebatur, sic ut ipse locus non solum opere, sed etiam natura adiutus ad oppugnandum hostem impediret. Hoc accedebat ut aqua praeterquam in ipso oppido unam circumcirca nusquam reperiretur propius milia passuum VIII. Quae res magno erat adiumento oppidanis. tum praeterea accedebat ut aggerem . . . materiesque unde soliti sunt turris agi, propius milia passuum vi non reperiebatur. Hoc Pompeius ut oppidi oppugnationem tutiorem efficeret, omnem materiem circum oppidum succisam intro congessit. Ita necessario deducebantur nostri, ut a Munda quod proxime ceperant, materiem illo deportarent.
42During these transactions at Munda and Ursao, Caesar, who had returned from Gades to Hispalis, assembled the citizens, and made the following speech: "That when he was advanced to the quaestorship, he had chosen their province in preference to all others, and during his continuance in that office, had done them every service in his power; that during his praetorship he had obtained for them from the senate the abolition of the taxes imposed by Metellus, declared himself their patron, procured their deputies a hearing at Rome, and made himself many enemies by undertaking the defense both of their private and public rights. In fine, that when he was consul, he had, though absent, rendered the province all the services in his power; that instead of making a suitable return for so many favors, they had always discovered the utmost ingratitude both toward him and the people of Rome; as well in this last war as the preceding. "You," says he, "though no strangers to the law of nations and the rights of Roman citizens, have yet like barbarians often violated the sacred persons of Roman magistrates. You attempted in open day, in the public square, to assassinate Cassius. You have been always such enemies to peace that the senate could never suffer the province to be without legions. You take favors for offenses, and insults for benefits, are insolent and restless in peace, and cowardly and effeminate in war. Young Pompey, though only a private citizen, nay a fugitive, was yet received among you, and suffered to assume the ensigns of magistracy. After putting many citizens to death, you still furnished him with forces, and even urged him to lay waste the country and province. Against whom do you hope to be victorious? Can you be ignorant that even if I should be destroyed, the people of Rome have still ten legions, capable not only of opposing you, but even of pulling down heaven? With whose praises and virtues ... (NOTE: The end of the book is lost.) Dum haec ad Mundam geruntur et Ursaonem, Caesar ad Hispalim cum Gadibus se recepisset, insequenti die contione advocata: Initio quaesturae suae eam provinciam ex omnibus provinciis peculiarem sibi constituisse et quae potuisset eo tempore beneficia largitum esse. Insequente praetura ampliato honore vectigalia quae Metellus inposuisset, a senatu petisse et eius pecuniae provinciam liberasse simulque patrocinio suscepto multis legationibus ab se in senatum inductis simul publicis privatisque causis multorum inimicitiis susceptis defendisse. Suo item consulatu absentem quae potuisset commoda provinciae tribuisse. Eorum omnium commodorum et immemores et ingratos in se et in populum Romanum hoc bello et praeterito tempore cognosse. 'Vos iure gentium et civiumque Romanorum institutis cognitis more barbarorum populi Romani magistratibus sacrosanctis manus [semel] et saepius attulistis et luce clara Cassium in medio foro nefarie interficere voluistis. Vos ita pacem semper odistis ut nullo tempore legiones desitae populi Romani in hac provincia haberi. Apud vos beneficia pro maleficiis et maleficia pro beneficiis habentur. Ita neque in otio concordiam neque in bello virtutem ullo tempore retinere potuistis. Privatus ex fuga Cn. Pompeius adulescens a vobis receptus fasces imperium[que] sibi arripuit, multis interfectis civibus auxilia contra populum Romanum conparavit, agros provinciamque vestro impulsu depopulavit. In quo vos victores extabatis? An me deleto non animum advertebatis decem habere legiones populum Romanum quae non solum vobis obsistere, sed etiam caelum diruere possent? Quarum laudibus est virtute . . .