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Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers, by Kathleen Freeman, [1948], at


Twofold Arguments (Debates)

An anonymous sophistical essay written in literary Doric after the end of the Peloponnesian War, and setting out to show that there are two sides to every question.

Examples: good and bad, honourable and dishonourable, just and unjust, true and false are (1) the same, (2) not the same. Madmen and sane, wise and ignorant (1) do and say the same things, (2) do not. Wisdom and virtue can, or cannot, be taught. Offices should not be awarded by lot. It belongs to the same man to be politician, speaker, scientist.

Rules are given for aiding memory, most useful of powers.