Letter III. To Rufinus the Monk. 23
Written from Antioch, 374 a.d., to Rufinus in Egypt. Jerome narrates his travels and the events which have taken place since his arrival in Syria, particularly the deaths of Innocent and Hylas (§3). He also describes the life of Bonosus, who was now a hermit on an island in the Adriatic (§4). The main object of the letter is to induce Rufinus to come to Syria.
1. That God gives more than we ask Him for, 24 and that He often grants us things which “eye hath not seen nor ear heard, neither have they entered into the heart of man,” 25 I knew indeed before from the mystic declaration of the sacred volumes; but now, dearest Rufinus, I have had proof of it in my own case. For I who fancied it too bold a wish to be allowed by an exchange of letters to counterfeit to myself your presence in the flesh, hear that you are penetrating the remotest parts of Egypt, visiting the monks and going round Gods family upon earth. Oh, if only the Lord Jesus Christ would suddenly transport me to you as Philip was transported to the eunuch, 26 and Habakkuk to Daniel, 27 with what a close embrace would I clasp your neck, how fondly would I press kisses upon that mouth which has so often joined with me of old in error or in wisdom. But as I am unworthy (not that you should so come to me but) that I should so come to you, and because my poor body, weak even when well, has been shattered by frequent illnesses; I send this letter to meet you instead of coming myself, in the hope that it may bring you hither to me caught in the meshes of loves net.
2. My first joy at such unexpected good tidings was due to our brother, Heliodorus. I desired to be sure of it, but did not dare to feel sure, especially as he told me that he had only heard it from some one else, and as the strangeness of the news impaired the credit of the story. Once more my wishes hovered in uncertainty and my mind wavered, till an Alexandrian monk who had some time previously been sent over by the dutiful zeal of the people to the Egyptian confessors (in will already martyrs 28 ), impelled me by his presence to believe the tidings. Even then, I must admit I still hesitated. For on p. 5 the one hand he knew nothing either of your name or country: yet on the other what he said seemed likely to be true, agreeing as it did with the hint which had already reached me. At last the truth broke upon me in all its fulness, for a constant stream of persons passing through brought the report: “Rufinus is at Nitria, and has reached the abode of the blessed Macarius.” 29 At this point I cast away all that restrained my belief, and then first really grieved to find myself ill. Had it not been that my wasted and enfeebled frame fettered my movements, neither the summer heat nor the dangerous voyage should have had power to retard the rapid steps of affection. Believe me, brother, I look forward to seeing you more than the storm-tossed mariner looks for his haven, more than the thirsty fields long for the showers, more than the anxious mother sitting on the curving shore expects her son.
3. After that sudden whirlwind 30 dragged me from your side, severing with its impious wrench the bonds of affection in which we were knit together,
The dark blue raincloud lowered oer my head:
On all sides were the seas, on all the sky. 31
I wandered about, uncertain where to go. Thrace, Pontus, Bithynia, the whole of Galatia and Cappadocia, Cilicia also with its burning heat, one after another shattered my energies. At last Syria presented itself to me as a most secure harbor to a shipwrecked man. Here, after undergoing every possible kind of sickness, I lost one of my two eyes; for Innocent, 32 the half of my soul, 33 was taken away from me by a sudden attack of fever. The one eye which I now enjoy, and which is all in all to me, is our Evagrius, 34 upon whom I with my constant infirmities have come as an additional burden. We had with us also Hylas, 35 the servant of the holy Melanium, 36 who by his stainless conduct had wiped out the taint of his previous servitude. His death opened afresh the wound which had not yet healed. But as the apostles words forbid us to mourn for those who sleep, 37 and as my excess of grief has been tempered by the joyful news that has since come to me, I recount this last, that, if you have not heard it, you may learn it; and that, if you know it already, you may rejoice over it with me.
4. Bonosus, 38 your friend, or, to speak more truly, mine as well as yours, is now climbing the ladder foreshown in Jacobs dream. 39 He is bearing his cross, neither taking thought for the morrow 40 nor looking back at what he has left. 41 He is sowing in tears that he may reap in joy. 42 As Moses in a type so he in reality is lifting up the serpent in the wilderness. 43 This is a true story, and it may well put to shame the lying marvels described by Greek and Roman pens. For here you have a youth educated with us in the refining accomplishments of the world, with abundance of wealth, and in rank inferior to none of his associates; yet he forsakes his mother, his sisters, and his dearly loved brother, and settles like a new tiller of Eden on a dangerous island, with the sea roaring round its reefs; while its rough crags, bare rocks, and desolate aspect make it more terrible still. No peasant or monk is to be found there. Even the little Onesimus 44 you know of, in whose kisses he used to rejoice as in those of a brother, in this tremendous solitude no longer remains at his side. Alone upon the island—or rather not alone, for Christ is with him—he sees the glory of God, which even the apostles saw not save in the desert. He beholds, it is true, no embattled towns, but he has enrolled his name in the new city. 45 Garments of sackcloth disfigure his limbs, yet so clad he will be the sooner caught up to meet Christ in the clouds. 46 No watercourse pleasant to the view supplies his wants, but from the Lords side he drinks the water of life. 47 Place all this before your eyes, dear friend, and with all the faculties of your mind picture to yourself the scene. When you realize the effort of the fighter then you will be able to praise his victory. Round the entire island roars the frenzied sea, while the beetling crags along its winding shores resound as the billows beat against them. No grass makes the ground green; there are no shady copses and no fertile fields. Precipitous cliffs surround his dreadful abode as if it were a prison. But he, careless, fearless, and armed from head to foot with the apostles armor, 48 now listens to God by reading the p. 6 Scriptures, now speaks to God as he prays to the Lord; and it may be that, while he lingers in the island, he sees some vision such as that once seen by John. 49
5. What snares, think you, is the devil now weaving? What stratagems is he preparing? Perchance, mindful of his old trick, 50 he will try to tempt Bonosus with hunger. But he has been answered already: “Man shall not live by bread alone.” 51 Perchance he will lay before him wealth and fame. But it shall be said to him: “They that desire to be rich fall into a trap 52 and temptations,” 53 and “For me all glorying is in Christ.” 54 He will come, it may be, when the limbs are weary with fasting, and rack them with the pangs of disease; but the cry of the apostle will repel him: “When I am weak, then am I strong,” and “My strength is made perfect in weakness.” 55 He will hold out threats of death; but the reply will be: “I desire to depart and to be with Christ.” 56 He will brandish his fiery darts, but they will be received on the shield of faith. 57 In a word, Satan will assail him, but Christ will defend. Thanks be to Thee, Lord Jesus, that in Thy day I have one able to pray to Thee for me. To Thee all hearts are open, Thou searchest the secrets of the heart, 58 Thou seest the prophet shut up in the fishs belly in the midst of the sea. 59 Thou knowest then how he and I grew up together from tender infancy to vigorous manhood, how we were fostered in the bosoms of the same nurses, and carried in the arms of the same bearers; and how after studying together at Rome we lodged in the same house and shared the same food by the half savage banks of the Rhine. Thou knowest, too, that it was I who first began to seek to serve Thee. Remember, I beseech Thee, that this warrior of Thine was once a raw recruit with me. I have before me the declaration of Thy majesty: “Whosoever shall teach and not do shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven.” 60 May he enjoy the crown of virtue, and in return for his daily martyrdoms may he follow the Lamb robed in white raiment! 61 For “in my Fathers house are many mansions,” 62 and “one star differeth from another star in glory.” 63 Give me strength to raise my head to a level with the saints heels! 64 I willed, but he performed. Do Thou therefore pardon me that I failed to keep my resolve, and reward him with the guerdon of his deserts.
I may perhaps have been tedious, and have said more than the short compass of a letter usually allows; but this, I find, is always the case with me when I have to say anything in praise of our dear Bonosus.
6. However, to return to the point from which I set out, I beseech you do not let me pass wholly out of sight and out of mind. A friend is long sought, hardly found, and with difficulty kept. Let those who will, allow gold to dazzle them and be borne along in splendor, their very baggage glittering with gold and silver. Love is not to be purchased, and affection has no price. The friendship which can cease has never been real. Farewell in Christ.
In Jeromes day this term included all—whether hermits or cœnobites—who forsook the world and embraced an ascetic life.4:24
Cf. Eph. iii. 20.4:25
1 Cor. ii. 9.4:26
Acts viii. 26-30.4:27
Priests, monks, and others who, because they would not declare themselves Arians, were banished by order of Valens to Heliopolis in Phenicia.5:29
There were two hermits of this name in Egypt, and it is not certain which is meant. One of them was a disciple of Antony.5:30
The ascetic community at Aquileia, of which Jerome and Rufinus were the leaders, had been broken up, perhaps through the efforts of Lupicinus, the bishop of Stridon.5:31
Virg. A. iii. 193, 194: v. 9.5:32
See Letter I.5:33
Hor. C. i. 3, 8.5:34
See Letter I. § 15.5:35
A freedman of Melanium.5:36
A young Roman widow who had given up the world that she might adopt the ascetic life. She accompanied Rufinus to the East and settled with him on the Mount of Olives. She is mentioned again in Letters IV., XXXIX., XLV., and others.5:37
1 Thess. iv. 13.5:38
Jeromes foster-brother who had accompanied him on his first visit to Rome. He was now living as a hermit on a small island in the neighborhood of Aquileia. See Letter VII. § 3.5:39
Gen. xxviii. 12.5:40
Matt. vi. 34.5:41
Luke ix. 62.5:42
Ps. cxxvi. 5.5:43
Nu. xxi. 9.5:44
Of this child nothing is known.5:45
I.e. the new Jerusalem. Rev. 21:2, Isa. 4:3.5:46
1 Thess. iv. 17.5:47
John 4:14, John 19:34.5:48
Eph. vi. 13-17.6:49
Rev. 1:9, 10.6:50
Gen. 3:1, Matt. 4:1.6:51
Matt. iv. 4.6:52
Literally “mousetrap.” This variant is peculiar to Cyprian and Jerome.6:53
1 Tim. vi. 9.6:54
1 Cor. i. 31.6:55
2 Cor. 12:10, 9.6:56
Philip. i. 23.6:57
Eph. vi. 16.6:58
Acts 1:24, Rev. 2:23.6:59
Jonah 2:1, 2.6:60
Matt. v. 19.6:61
Rev. xiv. 4.6:62
John xiv. 2.6:63
1 Cor. xv. 41.6:64
Quoted from Tert. de C. F. ii. 7.