23 Or, "carried along" (Roeper).
24 Or," that which is divine." See Clemens Alexandrinus, Strom., v. pp. 461, 463 (Heinisus and Sylburgius' ed.). Thales, on being asked, "What is God?!" "That," replied he, "which has neither beginning nor end."
25 Or, "see."
26 Or, "nature."
27 "And arithmetic" (added by Roeper).
28 Or, "and he first."
29 Or, "physiognomy."
30 Or, "in conformity with his hypothesis."
31 Or, "the third."
32 Or, "an everlasting nature;" or, "having the roots of an everlasting nature in itself," the words "as it were" being omitted in some MSS.
33 Or, "production."
34 1t should be probably, "monad, number." The monad was with Pythagoras, and in imitation of him with Leibnitz, the highest generalization of number, and a conception in abstraction, commensurate with what we call essence, whether of matter or spirit.
35 Kobisqh in text must be rendered" multiplied." The formulary is self-evident: (a2)2 = a4, (a2)3 = a6, (a3)3 = a9.
36 Or Thallis, Aethalides, a son of Hermes, was herald of the Argonauts, and said never to have forgotten anything. In this way his soul remembered its successive migrations into the bodies of Euphorbus, Hermotimus, Pyrrhus, and Pythagoras. (See Diogenes' Lives, book viii. chap. i. sec. 4.)
37 No name occurs more frequently in the annals of Greek literature than that of Diodorus. One, however, wiih the title "of Eretria," as far is the translator knows, is mentioned only by Hippolytus; so that this is likely another Diodorus to be added to the long list already cxisting. It may be that Dioclorus Eretriensis is the same as Diodorus Crotnniates, a Pythagorean philospher. See Fabricius' Biblioth. Grac., lib ii. cap. iii., lib. iii. cap. xxxi.; also Meursius' Annotations, p. 20, on Chalcidius' Commentary on Plato's Timaeus. The article in Smith's Dictionary is a transcript of these.
38 Aristoxenus is mentioned by Cicero in his Tusculan Questions, book i. chap. i. xviii, as having broached a theory in psychology, which may have suggested, in modern times, to David Hartley his hypothesis of sensation being the result of nerval vibrations. Cicero says of Aristoxenus, "that he was so charmed with his own harmonies, that he sought to transfer them into investigations concerning our corporeal and spiritual nature."
39 Zaratas is another form of the name Zoroaster.
40 Or, "is a nature according to musical harmony" (preceding note); or, "The cosmica system is a nature and a musical harmony."
41 Zaras, or Zoroaster, is employed as a sort of generic denomination for philosopher by the Orieintals, who, whatever portions of Asia they inhabit, mostly ascribe their speculative systems try a Zoroaster. No less than six individuals bearing this name are spoken of. Arnobius ( Contr. Gentes., i. 52) mentions four-(1) a Chaldean, (2) Bactrian, (3) Pamphylian, (4) Armenian. Pliny mentions a fifth as a native of Proconnesus ( Nat. Hist.., xxx. 1), while Apaleius ( Florida, ii. 15) a sixth Zoroaster, a native of Babylon, and contemporar with Pythagoras, the one evidently alluded to by Hippolytus. (See translator's Treatise on Metaphisics, chap. ii.)
42 Or, "that it was hot and cold," or "hot of moist."
43 Or it might be rendered, "a process of arrangement." The Abbe Cruice (in his edition of Hippolytus, Paris, 1860) suggests a different reading, which would make the words translate thus, "when the earth was an undigested and solid mass."
44 [See book vi. cap. xxii., infra, and note. But Clement gives another explanation. See vol. ii. p. 385, this series.]
45 Or, "Zametus."
46 Or, "leading them down into cells, made them," etc.; or, "made his disciples observe silence," etc.
47 Or, "and beast," more in keeping with the sense of the name; or "a lamb" has been suggested in the Gottingen edition of Hippolytus.
48 Or, "traveller into the sea;" or, "mute ones from the sea;" or, "from the sea a glittering fish."
49 Or, "being the instructor of this (philosopher)."
50 Proclus, in his commentary on Plato's Timaeus, uses almost the same words: "but Heraclitus, in asserting his own universal knowledge, makes out all the rest of mankind ignorant."
51 Or, "and among these, Socrates a moral philosopher, and Aristotle a logician, originated systems."
52 Or, "men."
53 Or, "moist."
54 Or, "congealed snow."
55 That is, Antipodes. Diogenes Laertius was of the opinion that Plato first indicated by name the Antipodes.
56 Or, "727 times," is an improbable reading.
57 "In moisture" is properly added, as Plutarch, in his De Placitis, v. xix., remarks that "Anthimander affirms that prinmiary animials were produced in moisture."
58 This word seems requisite to the sense of the passage.
59 B.C. 610. On Olympiads, see Jarvis, Introd., p. 21.]
60 Or, "revolutionary motion."
61 Plutarch, in his De Placitis Philosophorum, attributes both opinions to Anaximenes, viz., that the sun was moved both under and around the earth.
62 [ B.C. 556.]
63 Aristotle considers that Anaxaporas was the first to broach the existence of efficient causes in nature. He states, however, that Hermotimus received the credit of so doing at an earlier date.
64 Or, Hegesephontus.
65 Simplicius, in his Commentary on Aristotle's Physics, where (book i. c. 2) Anaxagoras is spoken of, says that the latter maintained that "all things existed simultaneously-infinite things, and plurality, and diminutiveness, for even what was diminutive was infinite." (See Aristotle's,Metaphysics, iii. 4, Macmahon's translation, p. 93.) This explains Hippolytus' remark, while it suggests an emendation of the text.
66 Or, "in the Antipodes; " or, "from the snow in Aethiopia."
67 Or, "overpowered by the sun," that is, whose light was lost in the superior brilliancy of the sun.
68 Or, "were generated."
69 [Died B.C. 428 or 429.]
70 [ B.C. 440.]
71 Or, "both many of the rest of the animal kingdom, and man himself." (See Diogenes Laertius' Lives, ii. 17.)
72 There is some confusion in the text here, but the rendering given above, though conjectural, is highly probable. One proposed emendation would make the passage run thus: "for that each body employed mind, sometimes slower, sometimes faster."
73 [ B.C. 500]
74 The next sentence is regarded by some as not genuine.
75 [ B.C. 37O.]
76 Or, "when again mutually connected, that different entities were generated." (See Diogenes Laertius' Lives, ix. 30-32.)
77 [Died in his hundred and ninth year, B.C. 361.]
78 Or, "Audera."
79 [Born 556 B.C.]
80 [Incredible. Cyrus the younger, fell at Cunaxa B.C. 401. Cyrus the elder was a contemporary of Xenophanes.]