Sacred Texts  Christianity  Calvin  Index  Previous  Next 

Calvin's Commentaries, Vol. 23: Ezekiel, Part II, tr. by John King, [1847-50], at






1 NOW it came to pass in the thirtieth year,  296 in the fourth month, on the fifth day of the month, as I was among the captives by the river Chebar, that the heavens were opened, and I saw visions of God.

2 In the fifth day of the month, in the fifth year of the captivity of King Jehoiakim,

3 The word of Jehovah came to Ezekiel, son of Buzi the priest, in the land of the Chaldreans, near the river Chebar, and the land of Jehovah was upon him there.

4 And I looked, and, behold, tempestuous wind coming from the north; a great cloud, and a fire folding round itself, and a brightness was round about it; and out of the midst there was, as it were, the appearance of Hasmal in the midst of the fire.

5 And in the middle of this, was the likeness of four living creatures, and their aspect was the likeness of a man:

6 They had each four faces and four wings,

7 Their feet were straight, and the sole of their feet like that of a calf’s foot, (or round, volume 1,) and they cast forth sparks like the appearance of polished brass:

8 And they had human hands under their wings on their four sides; and they had four faces and wings.

9 And each wing was connected with the next wing: when they moved they did not turn back: each animal went forward in the direction of his face.

10 As to the likeness of their faces, these four had the face of a man and the face of a lion on the right side; and on the left, these four had the face of an ox and the face of an eagle.

11 Their faces, then, and their wings were extended  297 from above, and each wing was bound to its neighbor, and two covered their body.

12 And each walked in the direction of its face; and wheresoever the spirit (or will,) proceeded, they proceeded they did not return in their course.

13 As to the likeness of the living creatures, their aspect was like coals of burning fire, like the appearance of lamps passing up and down between the living creatures: and the fire was ‘bright, and lightning’ issued from it.

14 And the living creatures ran and returned like lightning.

15 While I was; beholding’ the living creatures, behold one wheel on the earth, near each living, creature, at right angles,  298 at the face of each.

16 The appearance of the wheels and their workmanship was like chrysolite: and they were all alike’ and their appearance and their form were like one wheel within another.

17 When they moved forward, they went upon their four sides: they did not turn back when they proceeded.

18 And I beheld their circumferences, and their size, and their terribleness; and their strakes were full of eyes, round about these four.

19 And when the living creatures walked, the wheels moved beside them; and when the living creatures were raised from the earth, the wheels were raised with them.  299

20 Withersoever the spirit led the living creatures, tither it also led the wheels: the wheels were raised up also with the living creatures, because their spirit was in the wheels also.

21 When the animals moved forward, the wheels did the same: they both were stationary and both elevated together; because the spirit of the animals was in the wheels.

22 Above the heads of the living creatures was the likeness of a firmament, as the appearance of terrible crystal stretched over and above their heads.

23 And under the firmament their wings were straight, each towards its neighbor: and each living creature had two wings, which covered their bodies on this side and on that.

24 And I heard the voice of their wings, like the voice of mighty waters, and like the voice of God’ the voice of their speech was like the sound of an army when they moved forward; and when they stood, they let down their wings.

25 And there was a voice from the firmament over their heads when they stood and let down their wings.

26 And above the firmament over their heads was the likeness of a throne, like the vision of a sapphire stone: and above the likeness of the throne was an image like the aspect of a man upon it.

27 And I saw, as it were, the color of amber, like the appearance of fire round about within it: from the appearance of his loins, both upwards and downwards, I saw the aspect of fire, and a brightness all round about him.

28 Like the appearance of a bow in a cloud on a rainy day, such was the aspect of his brightness round about. This was a vision of the similitude of Jehovah’s glory: and I gazed at it, and fell upon my face, and heard a voice speaking unto me. And he said unto me, —


1 Son of man, stand upon thy feet, and I will speak unto thee.

2 And the Spirit came to me when he addressed me, and placed me upon my feet: and I heard him address me; and he said unto me —

3 Son of man, I send thee to the children of Israel, To revolting tribes who have rebelled against me: They and their fathers have acted perfidiously against me, Even to this very day.

4 They are children of a hard face, and of a stiff heart. Therefore I send thee unto them; And you shall say to them — Thus says the Lord Jehovah

5 And they, whether they will hear, or whether they will not, For they are a rebellious house, Yet shall know that a Prophet has been among them.

6 And you, son of man, be not afraid of them; Fear not their words, though they are rebellious, And are thorns towards time, and you dwellest with scorpions. Be not afraid of their language; Be not dismayed at their looks, Since they are a rebellious house.

7 And you shall utter my words unto them, Whether they will hear, or whether they will forbear; For they are rebels.

8 And you, son of man, hear what I say unto thee: Be not you rebellious like that. rebellious house; Open thy mouth, and eat what I put before thee.

9 Then I looked up, and, behold, a hand extended to me; And lo! a roll of a book was in it:

10 Then he spread it before my face; And lo! The roll was written behind and before, And the writing was lamentations, and morning, and wo.


1 After that he said to me, Son of man, eat completely what you has found; namely, this roll, And go and speak to the house of Israel.

2 So I opened my mouth, and he fed me with that roll.

3 And said to me, Son of man, Feed thy belly, and fill thy bowels with this roll which I give thee. So I ate it, and it was in my mouth Like honey for sweetness.

4 Then he said to me, Son of man! Go to the house of Israel and address them in my words,

5 Since you art not sent to a people profound in lip and hard of speech, You art sent to the house of Israel:

6 Not to many peoples profound in lip and heavy in speech, Whom you canst not understand;  300 Had I sent thee unto them, they would have hearkened unto thee.

7 But the house of Israel will not hear thee; Because they will not hear me; Since the whole house of Israel are hard of front and stout of heart.

8 Lo! I have made thy face hard against their faces, And thy forehead hard, against their forehead.

9 As an adamant, harder than flint, Have I made thy forehead: fear them not: Be not broken down at their presence, For they are a house of rebellion.

10 Moreover, he said to me, Son of man! All my words which I shall speak to thee, Receive in your heart and hear with your ears:

11 And go — Judea thee to the captives, to the children of thy people, And speak unto them and tell them, — Thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Whether they will hear, or whether they will not.

12 Then the Spirit raised me up: and I heard behind me A voice of mighty rustling, which said, Blessed be the glory of Jehovah from his place!

13 1 heard also the sound of the wings of the living’ creatures, Each kissing that of its companion, And the noise of the wheels beside them — the sound of a mighty shaking.

14 Then the Spirit raised me, and took me away, And I set forth in bitterness and indignation of spirit, And the hand of Jehovah was strong upon me.

15 Then I came to the captives at Thel-abib, They were seated by the river Chebar: there they sat: And I also sat there seven days desolate in the midst of them.

16 Then it happened at the end of the seven days, Thai the word of Jehovah came to me, saying,

17 Son of man! I have appointed thee a watchman over the house of Israel; Hence you shalt hear words from my mouth, And shall warn them from me.

18 When I say unto the wicked, You shall surely die: And you warnest him not, and speakest not unto him; And warnest him not from his wicked way to save his life: That wicked man shall die in his iniquity; But his blood. will I require at thy hand.

19 Yet if you warn the wicked, and he turn not from his impious and evil way, He shall die in his iniquity; But you has freed your own soul.

20 If a just man shall turn from his righteousness, and commit iniquity: And I put a stumbling-block before his face, he shall die: Because you has not warned him, he shall die in his sins, The righteousness which he has done shall not be remembered; But his blood will I require at thy hand.

21 Then if you warn the righteous that he sin not, And he doth not sin, he shall surely live, because he is warned, You also has delivered your own soul.

22 Then the hand of Jehovah was upon me, and he said to me, Arise, go unto the plain, and there I will speak to thee.

23 Then I arose, and went to the plain, and lo! The glory of Iehovah stood there, As the glory which I had beheld by the river Chebar:

24 And I fell upon my face, and the Spirit entered into me, And placed me upon my feet, and addressed me, and said, Go — shut thyself within your house.

25 And now — son of man! — lo! they shall put chains upon thee, And shall bind thee with them, and you shall not go forth into the midst of them:

26 Then I will make thy tongue cleave to thy palate, And you shall be dumb, and be no longer a reprover to them: Because they are a house; of rebellion.

27 But when I shall speak to thee, and shall open thy mouth, You shall say unto them, Thus says the Lord Jehovah, He who hears, may hear: he who forbears, may forbear; Since they are a house of rebellion.  301


1 Thou also, son of man! take thee a tile, And put it before thy face, And paint upon it the city Jerusalem:

2 Lay siege against it, and build a tower against it: Cast a mound against it, and set a camp against it: Set battering rams against it all round.

3 Then take an iron pan, and set it for a wall between thee and the city; Strengthen thy face against it, and it shall be besieged, And you shall besiege it. This is a sign to the house of Israel.

4 He you also on thy left; side, and place the iniquity of the house of Israel upon it; According to the number of the days during which you shall he upon it You shall bear their iniquity.

5 For I have appointed unto thee the years of their iniquity, According to the number of the days, three hundred and ninety days: Thus shall you bear the iniquity of the house of Israel.

6 And when you have finished those days, Then again you shall he on thy right side, And you shall bear the iniquity of the house of Judea forty days; Each day for a year, as I have appointed thee.

7 Then you shall direct thy face toward the siege of Jerusalem, And thine arm shall be uncovered, And you shall not prophesy against it.

8 Lo! I have put cords upon thee, And you shall not turn from side to side Until you have fulfilled the days of thy sieges.

9 Take you also wheat; and barley, and beans, and lentiles, and millet, and fitches, And put them in one vessel, and make it into bread for time, According to the number of the days on which you shall he on thy side: Three hundred and ninety days shall you eat it.

10 And the food which you shall eat by weight, Shall be twenty shekels a day: from time to time shall you eat it.

11 And water shall thou drink by measure, the sixth part of a hin: From time to time shall you drink it.

12 Then you shall eat barley cake, and shall bake it With human dung before their eyes: And Jehovah said,

13 Even thus shall the children of Israel cat their defiled bread Among the Gentiles wither I have driven them.

14 Then I said, Alas, O Lord Jehovah! Lo! my soul has not been polluted, And from my youth up never have I eaten What died of itself, or was torn to pieces; And abominable flesh has never entered my mouth.

15 Then he said, See! I have given thee The dung of oxen for that of men, And you shall cook thy bread with this.  302

16 Moreover, he said to me, Son of man! Lo! I break the staff of bread in Jerusalem; And they shall eat bread by weight and with fear; And shall drink water by measure and with astonishment,

17 So that bread and water shall fail them, And they shall be astonished one with another, And consume away in their iniquity.  303


1 And you, son of man f take thee a sharp sword, Take thee a barber’s razor, and pass it over thy head and thy beard: Then take thee a just balance and divide the hair.

2 A third part you shall burn in the midst of the city, When the days of the siege are fulfilled; A third part shall you smite about with the sword; And another third shall you scatter to the wind; And I will unsheathe the sword after them.

3 Then you shall take a few of them, And bind them in thy skirts.

4 Then take some of them. and cast them into the fire, And burn them; for thence shall fire go forth Upon all the house of Israel.

5 Then says the Lord Jehovah, This is Jerusalem: In the midst of the nations and of the surrounding countries Have I placed her.

6 And she has changed my judgments into wickedness Beyond all the nations, and my statutes beyond all the surrounding people: They have despised my judgments, And have not walked in my statutes.

7 Therefore, thus says the, Lord Jehovah, Because of your multiplication more than the nations round about you, And your not walking in my statutes, and not keeping my judgments, And your not acting like the nations around you,

8 Wherefore, thus says the Lord Jehovah, Behold, I ant against thee, even I: And I will execute my judgments in the midst of thee Before the eyes of the Gentiles.

9 And I will execute against thee what I never yet have done, Nor will ever do in future, On account of all your abominations.

10 Therefore fathers shall devour their sons, And sons their fathers, in the midst of thee: I will execute judgments against thee, And disperse all thy remnants to all winds of heaven.

11 Because I live, says the Lord Jehovah, Since you has polluted my sanctuary  304 With all thy detestable and abominable things, Therefore I will break thee in pieces: My eye shall not spare, neither will I pity thee.

12 A third part shall die of the pestilence, And be consumed by famine in the midst of thee; A third part shall be consumed by the sword round about thee; A third part will I disperse towards every wind, And will draw out a sword after them.

13 Thus shall mine anger be accomplished, And I will cause my burning anger to rest upon them; And I will enjoy consolation; and they shall know that I am Jehovah, Who have spoken in my zeal, when I shall have accomplished my fury on them.

14 Moreover, I will lay thee waste, And make thee a reproach among the nations around thee In the eyes of every passer by.

15 So you shall be a reproach and a reviling, A chastisement and an astonishment to the nations round about thee, While I shall execute judgments against thee In anger and burning, and furious rebukes. I Jehovah have spoken it.

16 When I shall send upon them the evil arrows of famine For their destruction, which I shall dart upon them to destroy them;  305 Then will I add famine against them, And will break their staff of bread.

17 Then will I send against you famine and wild beasts, And they shall bereave you: and pestilence and blood shall pass through thee; And I will cause the sword to come upon thee.  306 I Jehovah have spoken it.


1 The word also of Jehovah came to me, saying,

2 Son of man! set thy face towards the mountain of Israel, And prophesy against them, and say,

3 You mountains of Israel, hear the word of the Lord Jehovah: Thus says the Lord Jehovah to the mountains and the inns, To the rivers and the valleys: Behold! I will bring the sword against you, and destroy your high places;

4 And your altars shall be desolate, Your idols shall be broken; And I will cast down your slain before your idols.

5 Then I will place the carcass of the sons of Israel Before your idols; I will scatter them before the idols. I will sprinkle your bones round about your altars.

6 In all your habitations cities shall be desolate,  307 And high places shall be reduced to devastation, That your altars may be wasted and desolated, And your idols may be broken up and abolished, And your images cut. down, and your works blotted out.

7 Then the slain shall fall in the midst of you, And you shall know that I am Jehovah.

8 Still, I will leave a remnant, that you may have some Who shall escape the sword among the nations, When you shall be scattered through the countries.

9 And the remnant shall remember me among the nations, Among which they shall become captives, Because I am. broken down with their adulterous heart, Which has departed from me, and with their eyes, Which are full of lust after their idols; And they shall loathe themselves for all the evils Which they have committed in all their abominations.

10 Then they shall know that I Jehovah said not in vain, I will cause them to suffer this evil.  308

11 Thus says the Lord Jehovah, Strike with thy hand, and stamp with thy feet, And say, Alas! for all the evil abominations of the house of Israel, For they shall fall by the sword, and famine, and pestilence.

12 He who shall be afar off shall die by the pestilence; He who shall be near shall fall by the sword;  309 He who shall remain and be besieged shall die through hunger; And I will fulfill my indignation upon them.

13 And you shall know that I am Jehovah, When their wounded shall be among their idols round about their altars, Upon every high hill, in, on all the heads of the mountains, Under every green tree and every thick oak, In the place where they offered the incense of sweet fragrance to all their idols.

14 So I will stretch out my hand upon them, And I will make the land desert and desolate — More than the desert of Diblathah, in all their dwellings; And they shall know that I am Jehovah.


1 Then the word of Jehovah came to me, saying,

2 You also, son of man, thus says the Lord Jehovah Concerning the land of Israel, All end, an end is come Upon the four quarters of the land.

3 Now an end is come upon thee, And I will send my indignation against thee, And I will judge thee according to thy ways, And I will put upon thee all your abominations.

4 Then mine eye shall not spare thee, nor will I pity thee; Because I will recompense thy ways upon thee, And thy abominations shall be in the midst of thee, And you shall know that I am Jehovah.

5 Thus says the Lord Jehovah, Lo! evil, and only evil shall come.  310

6 An end is come — an end is come; It has watched against thee; behold! it is come.

7 The morning is come upon thee, e dweller in the land; The time is come; the day of tumult is near, and not the clamor of the mountains.

8 Now I will shortly pour out my indignation upon thee, And I will accomplish my anger against thee, And I will judge thee according to thy ways, And I will put upon thee all thine abominations.

9 Mine eye shall not spare, neither will I pity; According to thy ways will I put upon thee, And your abominations shall be in the midst of thee; And you shall know that I Jehovah am smiting thee.

10 Behold the day: behold it is come; The morning has advanced, the rod has flourished;

11 Pride has flourished: violence has sprung up into a staff of impiety: None of them, nor yet their opulence, shall remain: There shall be no noise nor any lamentation for them:

12 The appointed time is come; the day has approached: The buyer shall not rejoice; the seller shall not be sorrowful; Because indignation shall be on all their multitude.

13 Since the seller shall not return to his merchandise, And their life is yet among the living; Because the vision is concerning the whole multitude,  311 It shall not return; and no man shall strengthen his soul in his iniquity.

14 They have blown the trumpet; they have prepared all things; But none is gone out to battle, because my wrath Is upon the whole multitude.

15 The sword abroad; pestilence and famine at home. He that is in the field shall die by the sword; He that is in the city shall be consumed by famine and pestilence.

16 And the escapers of them shall escape, And shall be upon the inns like doves of the valleys, All mourning,  312 every one in his iniquity.

17 All hands shall be loosened; all knees shall flow like water.

18 And they shall gird themselves with sackcloth, And dread shall cover them, And shame shall be upon all faces, And baldness upon all heads.

19 They shall east their silver into the street, And their gold shall be an unclean thing. Their silver and their gold shall not deliver them In the day of. Jehovah’s wrath: They shall neither satisfy their souls nor fill their bellies, Because it was; the stumbling-block of their iniquity.

20 As to the beauty of their ornaments, they turned it to pride, And they made the images of their abominations And of their defilement’s out of it (i.e., gold)  313 Therefore I have east it from them.

21 And I will deliver it into the hand of strangers for a prey, And of the wicked of the land for a spoil; And they shall profane it.

22 My face also will I turn from them, For they will profane my secret place: And robbers will enter into it and profane it.

23 Make a chain: — for the, land is fined With a judgment of bloods, The city, too, is full of violence.

24 For I will bring on it the wicked among the Gentiles; And they shall possess their houses: I will also cause their pride to cease, And their sanctuaries shall be polluted.

25 Destruction is come and they shall seek peace when there is none.

26 Calamity shall come upon calamity, and rumor upon rumor; Then they shall seek a vision from a prophet; But the law shall perish from the priest, And counsel from the aged.

27 The king shall mourn, and the princes shall be clothed with desolation, And the hands of the people of the land shall be troubled: According to their ways will I act towards them, According to their judgments will I judge them. And they shall know that I am Jehovah.


1 And it happened in the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day, I was sitting in my house, and the elders of Judea were sitting before my face, and there the hand of the Lord Jehovah fell upon me.

2 I looked, and behold a likeness as the appearance of fire: From the appearance of its loins downwards, fire; And from its loins upwards, as the appearance of brightness, Like the figure of Hasmal.

3 And he sent the likeness of a hand, And raised ma by a lock of my head; And the Spirit lifted me up between earth and heaven, And led me to Jerusalem in the visions of God, To the door of the inner gate looking towards the north; Where was the seat of the idol jealousy, causing jealousy.

4 Then lo! there was the glory of the God of Israel, According to the vision which I saw in the plain.

5 And said to me, Son of man, lift up your eyes now To the way of the north: So I raised my eyes towards the north, And lo! towards the north at the gate of the altar, That idol — jealousy — at the entrance.

6 And he said to me, Son of man, seest you their deeds? The great abominations which the house of Israel perpetrate here, That I should depart far from my sanctuary? But turn thee yet again, and you shall see greater abominations.

7 Then he led m, to the door of the court, And I looked, and lo! an opening in the wall. Then he said to me, Son of man, dig now into the wall; And I dug in the wall, and behold a door.

8 Then he said to me, Enter and see the evil abominations which they do.

9 Then I entered and beheld, and lo! every likeness of a reptile,

10 And abominations of animals, and, all idols of the house of Israel, Were depicted on the wall round about.

11 And seventy men of the elders of the house of Israel, And Jazaniah, son of Saphan, stood in the midst of them, Who stood before them, and to each r, censer in his hand, And a thick cloud of incense ascended.

12 Then he said to, me, Has you seen, son of mall, What the elders of the house of Israel do in darkness, Each in the hidden places of his imagery? Who say, Jehovah does not see us; Jehovah has deserted the land.

13 Then he said to me, Turn thee again, And you shall see the great abominations which they do.

14 Then he brought me to the door of the gate of Jehovah’s house, Which looks to the north: and lo! there sat women Lamenting for Thammuz.

15 Then he said to me, Son of man, turn thee again, And you shall see greater abominations than these.

16 Then he led me to the inner court of Jehovah’s house, And lo! at the gate of Jehovah’s temple, between the entrance and the altar, About five and twenty men, with their backs towards Jehovah’s temple, And their faces towards the east, worshipping the rising sun.

17 Then he said to me, Has you seen this, son of man? Is it a light thing to the house of Judea To do these abominations which they have done there? Because they have fined the land with violence, And have returned to provoke me, And lo! they put the branch to their nose.

18 I also in return will deal in my fury: Mine eye shall neither spare nor pity; And when they cry in mine ears with a loud voice I will not hear them.


1 He cried also in mine ear with a loud voice, saying, Let the rulers of the city approach, Every one with his weapon of destruction in his hand.

2 And lo! six men coming from the way of the higher gate, which is towards the north, And each had his slaughter-weapon in his hand; And one man in the midst of them clothed in linen, With a writer’s inkhorn at his side: Then they went in and stood near the brazen altar.

3 Then the glory of the God of Israel ascended from the cherubim Above which it rested, to the threshold of the house, And cried to the man clothed in linen, with the inkhorn at his side;

4 Then Jehovah said to him, Pass through the midst of the city, through the midst of Jerusalem, And make a sign upon the foreheads of the men who sigh And cry for all the abominations which they suffer in the midst of it.

5 But to the others he said in my hearing, Go you after, him through the city, and smite; Let not your eye spare, and do not pity:

6 Old and young, girl, boy, and woman slay to the death; Yet approach not any who bears the sign, And begin from my sanctuary. Then they began at the elders who were in front of the house.

7 And he said to them, Pollute the house, and fill the altars with the slain: Go you forth. And they went forth, and made a slaughter in the city.

8 And it happened while they were slaying that I was left: Then I fell upon my face, and cried out and said, Aha! Lord Jehovah, wilt you slay all the relics of Israel By pouring forth your anger upon Jerusalem?

9 Then he said to me, The iniquity of the house of Israel and Judea Is great beyond measure, and the land is full of blood, And the city is full of perversity: because they said, Jehovah has deserted the land: Jehovah regardeth it not.

10 As for me also, mine eye shall not spare them, I will not pity them their ways will I recompense on their heads.

11 And lo! the man clad in linen, who had the inkhorn by his side, Returned and made his report., saying, I have done as you did command me.


1 Then I looked, and lo! above the firmament, which was above the head of the cherubim, As it were a sapphire-stone, Like the appearance of a throne which was seen above them.

2 Then he spoke to the mall clad in linen garments, and said, Go in to the midst of the wheels under the cherub, And fill thy palms with coals of fire from the midst of the cherubim, And scatter them over the cry. And he went in my sight.

3 And the cherubim stood on the right of the house when the man came. And a cloud fined the inner court.

4 Then the glory of Jehovah was raised above the cherub towards the threshold of the house; And the house was fined with cloud, And the court was fined with the brightness of Jehovah’s glory.

5 Then the sound of the wings of the cherubim was heard to the outer court, Like the voice of the Omnipotent God when he speaketh.

6 And it happened when he had commanded the man clothed with linen, Saying, Take fire from between the wheels, from the midst of the cherubim; Then he went in and stood beside the wheel.

7 And one cherub stretched His hand from the midst of the cherubim, To the fire which was in the midst of the cherubim, And he took it, and put it into the palms of the man clothed in linen; Then he took it and departed.

8 And there appeared in the cherubim themselves, The likeness of a man’s hand under their wings.

9 Then I looked, and lo! four wheels near the cherubhis, One wheel by one cherub, another wheel near another cherub: And the appearance of the wheels was like the stone tharsis.

10 And as for their aspect, the appearance of each was the same,  314 As if a wheel was in the midst of a wheel.

11 When they moved, they went on their four sides; They did not return in going forward, Since they moved towards the direction of their head; They did not return as they went.

12 And their whole body, and backs, and hands, and wings, The four wheels, indeed, themselves were full of eyes all round.

13 He cried to the wheels in my hearing, O wheel!

14 And each living creature had four faces: The face of the first that of a cherub; The face of the second that of a. man; Of the third that of a lion; and the fourth an eagle’s.

15 And the cherubim were raised up. This is the living creature which I saw by the river Chebar.

16 Then when the cherubim moved, the wheels moved near them; And when the cherubim raised their wings aloft From the earth, The wheels did not turn away from the side of them.

17 When the living creatures stood, they stood; When they were lifted up, the wheels also were raised: Because the spirit of the living creature was in them.

18 Then the glory of Jehovah went forth from the threshold of the house, And stood over the cherubim.

19 Then the cherubim raised their wings, and went up from the earth in my sight: When they went forth, the wheels also went before them, And each stood above the threshold of the east gate of Jehovah’s house; And the glory of the God of Israel was above them.

20 It is the very living creature which I saw Under the God of Israel by the river Chebar; And I knew them to be cherubim.

21 Each had four faces apiece, and four wings; And the likeness of the hands of a man under their wings.

22 And the likeness of their faces was that which I saw at the river Chebar, Both their appearance and themselves:  315 Each moved towards his own face.


1 Then the spirit raised me up, and brought me To the eastern gate of Jehovah’s house; and lo! At the threshold of the gate, five and twenty men; Then I saw in the midst of them Jaazaniah, son of Asur; And Pelthiah, son of Benaiah, princes of the people.

2 Then he said to me, Son of man, these men divine vanity, And plan perverse counsel in this city;

3 Who say, It is not near; let us build houses: The city is the caldron, and we are the flesh:

4 Wherefore, prophesy against them, prophesy, son of man.

5 Then the Spirit of Jehovah fell upon me, and said to me, Say, Thus saith Jehovah, Thus have you spoken, O house of Israel, The mountings of your spirit, I know them:

6 You have multiplied your slain in this city, And you have fined its streets with the slain.

7 Wherefore, thus says the Lord Jehovah, Your slain, Whom you placed in the midst — they shall be the flesh, And the city the caldron; and I will cast you forth from the midst of it:

8 You have feared the sword, and I will bring the sword upon you, saith the Lord Jehovah:

9 And I will eas, you out of the midst of it. And will deliver you h, to the hand of strangers, And will exercise judgments against you.

10 Then you shall fall by the sword: in the border of Israel Will I judge you; and you shall know that I am Jehovah.

11 It shall not be your caldron, And you shall not be in the midst of it for flesh; In the border of Israel will I judge you.

12 And you shall, Know that I am Jehovah; Because you ha, re not; walked in my statutes, And have not executed my judgments; But you have done according to the judgments of the nations around you.

13 And it happened, while I prophesied, That Phalatias, the son of Benaiah, died: Then I fell upon my face, and cried with loud voice, and said, Ah! Lord Jehovah! will you consume the remnant of Israel!

14 Then the word of Jehovah came to me again, saying,

15 Son of man, thy brethren, thy brethren, Thy kindred, and all the whole house of Israel, To these the inhabitants of Jerusalem have said, Depart you far from Jehovah, the land is given as an heritage to us.

16 Wherefore say, Thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Because you have been east far away among the Gentiles, And dispersed through the lands, Therefore will I be to them a sanctuary of fewness  316 In the lands to which they have come.

17 Wherefore you shall say, Thus says the Lord Jehovah, I will gather you out of the peoples, and collect you out of the lands To which you have been driven, and I will give you the land of Israel.

18 And they shall come there, and take away all its idols, And all its abominations out of it.

19 Then I will give them one hear, and will put a new Spirit within them; And I will take away the stony heart from their flesh, And will give them a heart of flesh:

20 That. they may walk in my statutes, And keep my judgments, and do them: Then they shall be my people, and I will be their God.

21 Then I will repay on their own head the way of those Whose heart walks after, heart of foulness  317 and grossness, Saith the Lord Jehovah.

22 Then the cherubim raised their wings, and the wheels beside them, And the glory of the God of Israel was over above them.

23 And the glory of Jehovah ascended out of the midst of the city, And stood over the mount on the east of the city.

24 Then the spirit raised me, and brought me to Chaldsea, To the captivity, In a vision, in t. he Spirit of God. Then the vision which I saw went up from me.

25 And I spoke to the captivity All the words of Jehovah which he had shown me.


1 The word of Jehovah came also unto me, saying,

2 Son of man, you dwellest in the midst of a rebellious house: They have eyes to see, and they see not; They have ears to hear, and they hear not, Because their house is revoking.

3 And you, son of man, make thyself vessels for removal, And remove in the day-time before their eyes: Then you shall move from thy place to another in their sight, Since perhaps they may consider, for they are a rebellious house

4 And bring forth vessels like vessels for removal In the day-time in their sight: And you shall go forth at even in their sight, Like a departure into captivity.

5 In their sight; you shall dig thyself a wall, And carry out (thy goods) by it:

6 In their eyes upon thy shoulder shall you carry (them); In darkness shall you go forth: You shall cover thy face, and not look upon the ground, Because I have placed thee as a sign to the house of Israel.

7 Then I did as I was commanded. My vessels I carried forth like vessels for captivity In the daytime; Then in the evening I dug through the wall by my hand;  318 In the darkness I led them forth, Upon my shoulder I carried them in their sight.

8 Then in the morning the word of Jehovah came to me, saying,

9 Son of man, has not the house of Israel, the rebellious house, said to thee,

10 What doest you? Say to them, Thus saith the Lord Jehovah: This burden  319 relates to the prince in Jerusalem, And to all the house of Israel in the midst of them.

11 Say unto them, I am your portent: As I have done, so shall it be done to them: They shall be taken away and led into captivity.

12 Then the prince in the midst of them Shall carry on his shoulder in the darkness, And go forth through the wall, Through which they have dug for carrying out by it: He shall cover his face so as not to look upon the ground.

13 Then I will spread my net over him, and he shall be taken in my snare: Then I will lead him away to Babylon in the land of Chaldea; Yet he shall not see it, though he shall die there.

14 And all who are about him to help him, and all his garrison, Will I scatter to every wind, and I will unsheath my sword after them  320

15 Then they shall know that I ant Jehovah, After I shall have scattered them among the nations, And shall have dispersed them through their lands.

16 And I will make the remnant of them but few By the sword, and famine, and pestilence; That they may narrate all their abominations Among the Gentiles to whom they come; And they shall know that; I am Jehovah.

17 Moreover, the word of Jehovah came to me, saying,

18 Son of man, eat thy bread with trembling, and drink thy water With tumult and anxiety: And you shall say to the people of the land,

19 Thus says the Lord Jehovah to the dwellers at Jerusalem, And on the land of Israel, They shall eat their bread in torture,  321 And shall drink their water in desolation, That the land rosy be spoiled of its fullness, On account of the violence of all its inhabitants.

20 And inhabited cities shall be reduced to solitude, And the land laid waste; and you shall know that I am Jehovah.

21 Then the word of Jehovah came to me, saying,

22 Son of man, What is this proverb of yours in the land of Israel, saying, The days are prostrated, and all prophecy has ceased?

23 Wherefore you shall say to them, Thus says the Lord Jehovah, I will make this proverb cease, And they shall no more use this proverb in Israel; But rather say to them, The days are at hand, And the word of every vision.

24 Because there shall no longer be any lying vision, Nor any flattering divination in the midst of the house of Israel.

25 Since I Jehovah will speak: And the word which I shall speak, I will also perform; It shall no longer be prolonged: Since in your days, O exasperating house, The word which I shall speak, I will perform, says the Lord Jehovah.

26 Then the word of Jehovah came to me, saying,

27 Son of man, behold the house of Israel say, The vision which he saw is extended to many days, And he prophesieth for times afar off.

28 Wherefore you shall say to them, Thus says the Lord Jehovah, It shall not be put off any longer; All the words which I have spoken, even every word, Will I fulfill, says the Lord Jehovah.


1 And the word of Jehovah came to me, saying,

2 Son of man, prophesy against the prophets of Israel That prophesy, and say unto them that prophesy out of their own hearts, Hear you the word of Jehovah;

3 Thus says the Lord Jehovah, Wo unto the foolish prophets, Who walk after their own spirit, and have seen nothing!  322

4 Like foxes in the deserts, are thy prophets, O Israel.

5 You have not gone up to the broken places, Nor repaired the hedge around the house of Israel, To stand in the battle in the day of Jehovah.

6 They have seen vanity, they have divined a he, Saying, Jehovah says, and Jehovah has not sent them; And they caused men to hope for the confirmation of their word.

7 Have you not seen a vision of vanity, and spoken a divination of is? And yet you say Jehovah says it, and I have not spoken it.

8 Wherefore thus says the Lord Jehovah,  323 Because you have spoken vanity, and have seen a he, Wherefore behold! I am against t. hem, Says the Lord Jehovah.

9 And my hand shall be against the prophets who see vanity and divine a lie: They shall not be in the counsel of my people, And shall not be written in the catalogue of the house of Israel, And they shall not return to the land of Israel; And you shall know that I am the Lord Jehovah.

10 Because, even because, they have deceived my people, By saying, Peace, and there was no peace: And one built up a wall, and, behold, others daubed it with untempered mortar:

11 Say to those who daub it with untempered mortar, It shall fall: There shall be an inundating shower: And I will send hailstones; And the breath of whirlwinds shall rend it.

12 Lo! the wall shall fall: shall it not be said to you, Where is the daubing with which you have daubed it?

13 Besides, thus says the Lord Jehovah, I will make it fall:  324 There shall be the breath. of tempests in my wrath, And an inundating shower in my anger, And hailstones in my fury to consume them.

14 Then I will overthrow the wall which you have daubed with untempered mortar, And I will bring it down to the ground; Then its foundation shall be discovered when it shall fall, And you shall be consumed in the midst of it; And you shall know that I am Jehovah.

15 I will also satisfy mine indignation upon the wall As well as upon its daubing, and will say to them, The wall is gone, and the daubers of it are no more.

16 The prophets of Israel prophesied concerning Jerusalem, And saw a vision of peace for it; Yet there is no peace, says the Lord Jehovah.

17 Son of man, do you set thy face against the daughters of thy people, Who prophesy out of their own heart, and prophesy against them,

18 And you shall say, Thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Wo to those who sow pillows to all armholes, And make coverings for the head of every stature, To hunt souls! Will you hunt the souls of my people? And will you preserve your own souls alive?

19 Will you profane me before my people for handfuls of barley and pieces of bread, To slay the souls that were not dying, And to give life to the souls that were not alive, By deceiving my people who listen to your is?

20 Because thus says the Lord Jehovah, Behold! I am against your pillows by which you there hunt souls for their escape; And I will tear them from your arms, And set free the souls which you have hunted, that they may escape.

21 I will also rend your coverings, and deliver my people out of your hands; They shall no longer be a prey in your hands; And you shall know that I am Jehovah.

22 Because you have grieved the heart of the just by falsehood, And I have not grieved him; And you have strengthened the hands of the wicked, So that he should not be converted from his evil way

23 For saving his life: wherefore you shall not see a he Nor divine a divination any more; For I will rescue my people from your hands: And you shall know that I am Jehovah.


1 Then men came to me from the elders of Israel, And sat before my face.

2 Then came the word of Jehovah to me, saying,

3 Son of man, these men have set their idols up in their heart, And have put a stumbling block of iniquity before their face. Shall I verily be inquired of by them?

4 Wherefore speak unto them, and say, Thus says the Lord Jehovah, Every man of the house of Israel, who setteth up his idols in his heart, And has put the stumbling block of his iniquity before his face, And has come to the Prophet; I Jehovah Will answer him according to the multitude of his idols;  325

5 That I may seize the house of Israel in their own heart, Because they have entirely separated themselves from me by their idols.

6 Therefore say unto the house of Israel, Thus says the Lord Jehovah, Turn you, Even turn yourselves from your idols; And turn your faces from all your abominations.

7 For every one of the house of Israel, or of the strangers sojourning in Israel, Who is separated  326 from following after me, And has set up his idols in his heart, And put the stumbling-block of his iniquity before his face, And cometh to the Prophet to inquire of me through him; I Jehovah will answer him for myself.

8 Then will I set my face against that man, And set him for a sign and a proverb, And I will cut him off from the midst of my people; And you shall know that I am Jehovah.

9 And when a prophet is deceived in uttering his speech, I Jehovah have deceived that prophet; And I will stretch forth my hand upon him, And will blot him out of the midst of my people Israel.

10 They shall also bear their iniquity; As the iniquity of the inquirer, so shall be the iniquity of the prophet;

11 That the house of Israel may stray from me no more, Neither be polluted any more with all their wickedness; That they may be my people, and I may be their God, says the Lord Jehovah.

12 Then the word of Jehovah came to me, saying,

13 Son of man, when a land has acted wickedly against me,  327 And I shall stretch out my hand upon it, And shall break the staff of its bread, And shall send famine upon it, and cut off from it man and beast:

14 Though these three men were in it, Noah, Daniel, and Job, They shall deliver but their own souls in their righteousness, Says the Lord Jehovah.

15 If I cause an evil beast to pass through the land, And it bereave it and lay it waste, So that no man can pass through on account of the beast:

16 Though these three men were in it, as I live, says the Lord Jehovah, If they shall deliver their own souls, They alone shall be delivered, and the land shall be laid waste.

17 Or if I make a sword pass through that land, And I say to the sword, Pass through the land, So that: man. and beast may be cut off from it:

18 And these three men are in the midst of it, As I live, says the Lord Jehovah, They shall not deliver their sons and their daughters, Since they alone shall be set free.

19 Or if I shall send a pestilence upon that land, And pour out my wrath upon it in blood, To destroy from it man and beast:

20 And Noah, Daniel, and Job were in the midst of it, As I live, says the Lord Jehovah, They shall not deliver either son or daughter; They shall free their own soul in their righteousness.

21 Therefore thus says the Lord Jehovah, How much more when I send my four grievous judgments against Jerusalem, The sword, and famine, and evil beast, to destroy from it man and beast?

22 And lo! the remnant that is left in it,  328 The remnant of those who go forth, namely, sons and daughters, They shall go forth unto you: And you shall see their ways and their works, And you shall console yourselves for all the evil Which I have brought upon Jerusalem, Yea, all that I have brought upon her.

23 Then shall you be comforted when you shall see their ways and their works: And you shall know that I have not done in vain Whatever I have done in it, says the Lord Jehovah.


1 Then came the word of Jehovah unto me, saying,

2 Son of man, What is the wood of the vine Better than any branching-tree among the trees of the wood?

3 Shall wood be taken from it to form any work? Or will it make a peg to hang any vessel thereon?

4 Behold, it is east into the fire for burning; The fire devoured both ends of it, and its middle is burnt  329 Is it useful for any purpose?

5 Lo! when it was entire, it was not used for any purpose: How much less when the fire has consumed it, And it is burnt up, shall it be useful for any purpose?

6 Therefore thus says the Lord Jehovah, As the wood of the vine among the trees of the forest, Which I have cast into the fire for fuel, So have I given the inhabitants of Jerusalem:

7 Then will I set my face against them; They shall pass through fire, and fire shall consume them; And they shall know that I am Jehovah, When I have set my face against them.

8 Then will I make the land desolate, Because they have transgressed with transgression  330 Says the Lord Jehovah.


1 Then the word of Jehovah came unto me, saying,

2 Son of man, lay open to Jerusalem her abominations.

3 Thus shall you say, Thus says the Lord Jehovah unto Jerusalem, Thy source and thy birth-place was the land of Canaan; Thy father was an Amorite, thy mother a Hittite.

4 Then as to thy nativity, in the day of thy birth, Thy navel was not cut: you was not washed with water To supple thee: you was not salted with salt,  331 Nor wrapped in swaddling clothes.

5 No eye pitied thee, to do unto thee any one of these things, In considering thee; and you was cast forth On the surface of the field, to the disgrace of thy person, in the day of thy birth.

6 Then I passed near thee and saw thy defilement’s, And I said to thee in thy bloods, Live; Yea, I said to thee in thy bloods, Live.

7 Then I made thee grow as a germ of the field, And you did increase and flourish; You became remarkably beautiful;  332 Thy breasts became prominent and your hair profuse, Yet you was naked and bare.

8 Then I passed by and saw thee: and lo! the time, the time for love: Then I stretched out my skirt over thee, And covered thy nakedness; and I swore to thee, And made a covenant with thee, And you was mine, saith the Lord Jehovah.

9 Then I washed thee with water, and cleansed thy blood from thee, And anointed thee with oil. and clothed thee in a Phrygian robe;

10 Then I shod thee with badgers’ skin, and dressed thee in fine linen; Then I arrayed thee in silk, and adorned thee with ornaments,

11 And put bracelets on thy hands, and a chain round thy Deck.

12 Then I put a ring through thy nose,  333 and earrings in your ears, And a crown of comeliness on thy head.

13 I adorned thee with gold and silver, and clothed thee with fine linen, And silk and broidered work you did eat fine flour, and honey, and oil; And you was beautiful exceedingly, And you did proceed prosperously to thy kingdom.

14 Then thy fame went forth among the nations for beauty, Because you was perfect in the beauty Which I caused unto thee, says the Lord Jehovah.

15 But you did trust in thy beauty, and commit fornication through thy renown, And did pour out thy fornications to every passer by;

16 His it was. — Then you has taken of thy garments, And made thee high places sprinkled with spots, And has committed fornication upon them: They do not come, and it shall not be.  334

17 You has also taken vessels of thy beauty of my gold And of my silver which I had given thee; And you has made for thyself images of men, And has committed fornication with them.

18 Then you has taken of thy variegated garments, And has clothed them: and my oil and mine incense Has you set before them.

19 My bread also which, I gave thee, fine flour and oil, And honey with which I fed thee, You has set it before them for a sweet savor; And so it has happened, says the Lord Jehovah.

20 Then you has taken thy sons and thy daughters which you has borne to me, And has slain them to be devoured: Are then thy fornications a small thing?

21 Then you has slain my sons, and caused them to be thrown to idols.  335

22 And in all your abominations and thy lewdness You has not remembered the days of thy youth, When you was naked and bare, and defiled in thy bloods.

23 So after all thy wickedness it has happened to thee, Wo! wo! unto thee, says the Lord Jehovah.

24 Then you has built a high place for thyself, And has made thee a raised spot in every street.

25 At the head of every way you has built thy high place; Then you has made thy beauty abominable, And has spread thy feet to every passer by, And has multiplied thy lewdness’.

26 You has also committed adultery with the Egyptians Thy neighbors, great of flesh: and over and over again Has committed lewdness to irritate me.

27 Then lo! I stretched out my hand over thee, And I diminished thy portion, and delivered thee up To the lust of the daughters of the Philistines, who hated thee, And were ashamed of your abandoned ways.

28 Then you has committed adultery with the sons of Ashur, Since you was not satisfied, you has been lewd with them; Yet even then you was not, satisfied.

29 Then you has increased thy lewdnesses In the land of Canaan unto Chaldea; And even this did not satiate thee.

30 How soft is your heart, says the Lord Jehovah, Since you doest all the work of a bold abandoned woman!

31 Since you has raised your high place at the head of every way, And has made thy lofty place in every celebrated spot; And has not been like a harlot in scorning hire.  336

32 An adulterous woman receiving strangers instead of her husband!

33 To all harlots men give a reward; But you has given thy gifts to all thy lovers, And you has hired them to come to thee from all sides

34 For thy fornications — for in thy lewdness You have inverted the custom of other women; Since there is no fornication like thine: Because you has given instead of receiving a gift, Then you has acted contrary to others.

35 Wherefore, O harlot, hear Jehovah’s word!

36 Thus says the Lord Jehovah, Because thy shamelessness is poured out, And thy baseness detected in thy lewdness towards thy lovers, And towards all the idols of your abominations, And in the bloods of thy children whom you has given to them;

37 Wherefore lo! I will assemble all thy lovers Whom you has attracted, and all whom you has loved and hated; I will assemble them from all around thee, And I will lay bare thy nakedness before them, And they shall behold all thy turpitude.

38 Then will I judge thee with the judgment of adulteresses, And of those who pour out blood; and I will give thee The blood of fury and of jealousy.

39 And I will give thee into their hand, And they shall pull down thy high place, And destroy thy raised places, and shall spoil thee of thy robes; They shall also take the vessels of thy glory, And send thee away, naked and bare.

40 Then they shall stir up a crowd against thee, And stone thee with stones, and thrust at thee with swords.

41 Then they shall burn thy houses with fire, And shall execute judgments against thee in the eyes of many women: Then will I cause thee to cease from fornication, Neither shall you offer a gift any more.

42 And I will cause my fury towards thee to rest, And my jealousy shall depart from thee, And I will rest and be no longer angry.

43 Because you has not remembered the days of thy youth, But has provoked me in all those things; I will even recompense thy way upon your head, Says the Lord Jehovah; since you has taken no thought For all your abominations.  337

44 Lo! every user of proverbs shall use this proverb against thee, Saying, As the mother is, so is the daughter.

45 You art the daughter of thy mother, who has east away her husband and her sons; And the sister of thy sisters, who loathe their husbands and children; Your mother was a Hittite, and your father an Amorite:

46 And your elder sister is Samaria, and her daughters those who dwell at thy left hand; And thy younger sister, who dwells at thy right hand, is Sodom and her daughters.

47 Yet you has not walked in their ways, And you has not done according to their abominations, As if it had been a very small firing, And you has been more corrupt than they in all thy ways.

48 As I live, says the Lord Jehovah, If Sodom thy sister and her daughters have done As you and thy daughters have done.

49 Lo! this was the iniquity of Sodom thy sister, Pride, fullness of bread, and security of ease Belonged to her and her daughters and she did not lay hold Of the hand of the poor and needy; but she was haughty,

50 And did abomination before me, Hence I took them away as it pleased me.  338

51 And Samaria has not committed half of thy sins; But you has multiplied your abominations beyond them, And has justified thy sisters in all the abominations which you has done.

52 Bear you, then, thy disgrace by which you has pleaded for thy sister, By thy crimes which you has committed beyond them; They are justified more than you be you then ashamed, And bear thy disgrace, since you has justified thy sisters.

53 Yet will I turn the captivity, yea, the captivity of Sodom and her daughters, And the captivity of Samaria and her daughters, And the captivity of thy captivities in the midst of them,

54 That you mayest bear thy reproach, and mayest be ashamed Of all that you has done in consoling them.

55 And thy sisters Sodom and her daughters shall return to their former state, And Samaria and her daughters shall return to theirs, And you and thy daughters shall return to yours.

56 Then thy sister Sodom was not mentioned by thee, In the day of thy pride, before thy wickedness was detected;

57 As in the time of thy reproach from the daughters of Syria, And from all around of the daughters of the Philistines, Who despised thee round about.

58 As for thy depraved thoughts and abominations, You has borne them, says Jehovah.

59 For thus saith the Lord Jehovah, I will also do to thee as you has done, Who has despised the oath and broken the covenant.

60 Yet I will remember my covenant with thee In the days of thy youth, and I will establish a perpetual covenant with thee.

61 Then you shall remember thy ways and be ashamed, When you shall receive thy sisters, both elder and younger than thyself; And I will give them unto thee for daughters, But not by thy covenant.

62 For I will establish my covenant with thee, And you shall know that I am Jehovah.

63 That you mayest remember and be ashamed, And not open thy mouth any more because of thy disgrace, When I am propitious to thee for all thy deeds, Says the Lord Jehovah.


1 Then the word of Jehovah came to me, saying,

2 Son of man, put forth an enigma and utter a proverb to the house of Israel;

3 And say, Thus says the Lord Jehovah, A mighty eagle, with great wings, long feathers, and full of plumage, Of various colors, came to Mount Lebanon, And took the highest branch of a cedar;

4 He cropped off the top of its young twigs, And carried it into the land of the merchant; He planted it in a city of merchants.

5 He took also of the seed of the land, And put it in a fruitful field; He planted it near many waters, like a willow.  339

6 Then it grew and became a luxuriant vine, low of stature, So that its branches turned towards the eagle, And its roots were under him; and it became a vine, And brought forth branches, and sent out boughs.

7 There was also another large eagle,  340 of great wings and of copious plumage, And lo! this vine bent its roots towards him, And sent forth its branches towards him, That he might water it from the beds of his plantation.

8 In a good soil near many streams was it planted, That it should produce leaves and bring forth fruit, So as to be a magnificent vine.

9 Say you, Thus says the, Lord Jehovah, Shall it prosper? Shall not one pluck up its roots and cut down its fruits, And dry up all its branches, that it may wither? Then it shall not be for a great arm or much people To take it  341 away from its roots.

10 Yet, behold, when planed, shall it prosper? Shall it not completely wither when the east wind has touched it.? Upon the beds of its plantation shall it wither.

11 Then the word of Jehovah came to me, saying,

12 Say, I pray thee, to the rebellious house, Know you not what this means? Say, Lo! the king of Babylon is come to Jerusalem, And has taken away its king and its elders, and carried them with him to Babylon;

13 Then he took from the royal seed, and struck an agreement with him, And made him descend to an oath; Then he took also the mighty of the land;

14 That the kingdom should be low, and not raise itself up, And keep its agreement and stand in it.

15 But he rebelled against him, by sending his ambassadors To Egypt, that horses and much people might be given him: Shall he who doeth these things prosper and escape? Shall he who breaks the treaty get off?

16 As I live, says the Lord Jehovah, if he shall not die In the place of the king who made him reign, Whose oath he has despised, and whose treaty he has made vain, In the midst of Babylon.

17 Neither with a mighty army nor a great host Shall Pharaoh meet with him in battle, By throwing up a mound and by building a tower, to cut off many souls.

18 Through breaking the covenant he has despised his oath, And, behold, he has stretched forth his hand, And has done all this, and shall not escape.

19 Besides, thus says the Lord Jehovah, As I live, If I do not recompense on his own head My oath which he has despised, and my covenant which he has broken,

20 Then I will stretch my net over him, and he shall be taken in my snare; And I will lead him to Babylon, and will plead with him there, Concerning the transgression which he has transgressed against me.

21 And all his fugitives,. with all his forces, shall fall by the sword; And the remnant shall be scattered to every wind; And you shall know that I Jehovah have spoken.

22 Thus says the Lord Jehovah, I will take from the top of the lofty cedar, And I will tear off a tender branch from its twigs and will set it: And I will plant it on a lofty and elevated mountain;

23 On a lofty mountain of Israel will I plant it; And it shall bring forth a bough and bear fruit, and shall be a tall cedar;  342 Then every bird shall dwell under it; Every winged thing shall shelter itself under the shadow of its branches.

24 Then all the trees of the field shall know that I am Jehovah, Who humble the high tree and raise aloft the low tree; I dry up the green tree, and make the dry tree fruitful I Jehovah have spoken and have done it.


1 Then the word of Jehovah came to me, saying,

2 What mean you by using this proverb  343 about the land of Israel, Saying, The fathers have eaten sour grapes, And the children’s teeth are set on edge?

3 As I live, says the Lord Jehovah, You shall not hereafter Use this proverb any more in Israel.

4 Behold, all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, So the soul of the son is mine. The soul which has sinned shall die itself.

5 But if a man have been just, and done judgment and justice,

6 And have neither eaten upon the mountains, nor raised his eyes To the idols of the house of Israel, and have not polluted His neighbor’s wife, nor approached a female when separated;

7 If he have not afflicted any one, and have restored to the debtor his pledge, Have not seized the prey, have given his bread to the hungry, And have covered the naked with a garment:

8 Have not given upon usury, and have taken no increase, Have withdrawn his hand from iniquity, And have done justice faithfully between man and man;

9 Have walked in my statutes, and kept my judgments, to do the truth  344 He is just, he shall surely live, saith the Lord Jehovah.

10 But if he beget a son, who is a robber and a shedder of blood, And who doeth to his brother  345 any one of these things,

11 And has not done all these precepts of the law, But has eaten on the mountains, and defiled his neighbor’s wife;

12 Has oppressed the poor and needy, has spoiled by violence, Has not restored the pledge, has lifted up his eyes unto idols;

13 Has done abomination, has given on usury and taken increase; Shall he live? He shall not live; he has done all these abominations; He shall surely die: his blood shall be on him.

14 And lo! if he beget a son, and he see all the wickedness which his father has committed, And feared, and hath not done according to them;

15 Has not eaten upon the mountains, and has not raised his eyes To the idols of the house of Israel, and has not defiled his neighbor’s wife; Hath oppressed no one, has not taken a pledge,

16 Hath not spoiled by violence, hath given his bread to the hungry, And has covered the naked with a garment;

17 Has withdrawn his hand from the poor, Has not received increase and usury, has done my judgments, Has walked in my decrees; he shall not die Through the ]iniquity of his father; he shall surely live.

18 His father, — because by oppressing he has oppressed, And has snatched the prey from his brother, And has done that which is not good in the midst of the people, — Behold, he shall die in his iniquity.

19 And you say, Why? shall not the son bear his father’s iniquity? Because the son has done judgment and justice, And has kept all my statutes and has done them, Therefore shall he surely live.

20 The soul which has sinned, that shall die. The son shall not bear the father’s iniquity, And the father shall not bear the son’s iniquity; The righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, And the impiety of the impious shall be upon him.

21 Then, if the wicked man shall withdraw from all the wickedness which he has done, And have kept all my sayings, and have done justice and judgement, He shall surely live — he shall not die.

22 All the transgressions which he has committed Shall not come into memory to him; But in his righteousness; which he has done shall he live.

23 Do I earnestly desire the death of the wicked, says the Lord Jehovah? Do I not desire that he turn from his evil ways and live?

24 Then, if a just man turn aside from his justice, And do iniquity, according to all the abominations Which the wicked man has done, shall he live? All his righteous deeds shall not come into remembrance?  346 In the transgression which he has transgressed, And in the wickedness which he has wickedly done, In them shall he die — yet you have said —

25 The way of the Lord is not upright. Hear you then, O house of Israel, is not my way upright? Are not your ways perverse?  347

26 If the just man has turned aside from his justice, And has done iniquity, and has died in it, In his own iniquity which he has committed shall he die.

27 And if the wicked man has turned aside from the wickedness which he has done, And has done judgment and justice, he shall preserve his soul alive.  348

28 Then, if he have seen and have turned away from all the wickedness Which he has done, he shall surely live — he shall not die.

29 Yet, the house of Israel have said, The way of the Lord is not upright. Are not my ways upright, O house of Israel? Are not your ways perverse?

30 Wherefore I will judge each of you according to his ways, O house of Israel, says the Lord Jehovah. Turn you, and depart from all your transgressions, And let not iniquity be your snare.

31 Cast away from you all your iniquities whereby you have transgressed; And make you a new heart and a new spirit: For why will you die, O house of Israel?

32 Since I do not delight in the death of the dying, Says the Lord Jehovah — wherefore turn you, and live.


1 Wherefore take you up this mournful strain against the princes of Israel,

2 And say, Why did thy mother — a lioness — Lie down among lions? she brought up her whelps In the midst of lions.

3 Then she bore one of her whelps, and he was made a lion: Then he learnt to seize his prey, and he devoured men.

4 Then the Gentiles heard of him; he was taken in their pit, And they led him in chains into the land of Egypt.

5 Then she saw what she had hoped for, and how her hope had perished; And she took another of her whelps, and made him a lion.

6 Then he walked in the midst of lions, and became a lion; And he learnt to seize the prey, and devoured men.

7 Then he harassed their palaces and destroyed their cities; And the land was rendered desolate, and all its fullness, By the voice of his roaring.

8 Then the nations set themselves against him From all sides and regions, and spread their net over him. He was taken in their pitfall: and they put him in ward,

9 And brought him in chains to the king of Babylon. They led him into strongholds, that his voice Might be no longer heard in the mountains of Israel.

10 Thy mother, when she bore thee,  349 was planted like a vine near the waters: She was fruitful and branching beside many waters.

11 And the rods of her strength were for scepters for rulers, And her stature was elevated, and appeared aloft In the multitude of her branches.

12 Then she was torn in fury, and cast on the ground; And the east wind dried up her fruit; Her strong rods were broken off and dried up; The fire consumed them; and now she is planted

13 In the desert, in a land of dryness and thirst.

14 Then a fire went forth from the rod of her branches, and devoured her fruit; And there was not a rod of strength in her — a scepter for ruling. This is the lamentation, and shall be for a wailing.


1 It occurred in the seventh year, the fifth month, the tenth day of the month, Men from the elders of Israel came to consult Jehovah, And sat before my face. And the word of Jehovah

2 Came to me, saying, Son of man, speak to the elders of Israel,

3 And say unto there, Thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Are you come. to inquire of me? As I live, If I will be sought by you, saith the Lord Jehovah,

4 Wilt you judge them, wilt you judge them, son of man? Explain to them the abominations of their fathers;

5 Then you shall say unto them, Thus saith the Lord Jehovah, In the day on which I chose Israel, and lifted up my hand To the seed of the house of Jacob, and was known to them in the land of Egypt, Then I raised my hand to them, saying, I am Jehovah your God:

6 In that day I lifted up my hand towards them, To bring them from the land of Egypt into a land which I espied for them, Flowing with milk and honey, desirable beyond all lands.

7 Then I said to them, Cast you away every one the abominations of his eyes, And pollute not yourselves with the idols of Egypt: I Jehovah am your God; and they rebelled against me,

8 And were unwilling to hear me: they did not cast away The idols of their eyes: they did not desert the idols of Egypt: Then I said that I would pour out my wrath upon them; To fill up nay fury against them in the midst of the land of Egypt.

9 But, I acted for my name’s sake, that it should not be profaned in the eyes of the nations, In the midst of which they were; in whose sight I was known to them, By bringing them forth from the land of Egypt.

10 Then I led them out from the land of Egypt, and brought them into the desert.

11 And I gave them my decrees, and made known my judgments unto them, Which if a man do, he shall live in them.

12 Moreover I gave them my Sabbaths for a sign between me and them, That they might know that I am he who sanctifieth them.

13 But the house of Israel rebelled against me in the desert: They walked not in my decrees, And despised my judgments, Which if a mall do, he shall live in them. And my sabbaths they greatly violated: Then I said I would pour out my wrath in the desert to consume them.

14 Then I acted for my name’s sake, that it should not be profaned In the eyes of the nations, in whose sight I led them out.

15 Yet I lifted up my hand to them in the desert, That I should not lead them into the land which I had given them, Flowing with milk and honey, the desire of all lands,

16 Because they despised my judgments, and walked not in my decrees, And polluted my sabbaths; because their heart walked after their idols.

17 Then mine eye spared them, so that I did not destroy them, And did not consume them in the desert.

18 Then I said unto their sons in the desert, Walk you not in the decrees of your fathers, And keep not their judgments, and pollute not yourselves with their idols:

19 I Jehovah am your God, walk you in my decrees, And keep my judgments, and do them:

20 And hallow my Sabbaths; and they shall be a sign between me and you, That you may know that I Jehovah am your God.

21 Then these sons became rebels against me: They walked not in my decrees, and kept not my judgments To do them, which if a man do, he shall live in them; They profaned my Sabbaths: and I said That I would pour out my wrath upon them, To accomplish my fury against them in the desert.

22 Then I withdrew my hand, and acted for my name’s sake, That it should not be profaned in the eyes of the nations, Before whose sight I led them out.

23 I also lifted up my hand to them in the desert To scatter them among the nations, and disperse them through the lands;

24 Because they did not perform my judgments, And despised my statutes, and violated my Sabbaths; And their eyes were after their fathers’ idols.

25 I therefore gave them decrees that were not good, And judgments by which they could not live;

26 And I contaminated them in their gifts, By casting away every first-born offspring, To destroy them, that. they may know that I am Jehovah.

27 Wherefore, speak to the house of Israel, son of man, and say to them, Thus says the Lord Jehovah, Hither to your fathers Have dishonored me in this by prevaricating greatly against me:

28 For I introduced them into the land, for which I raised my hand to give it them; And they saw every high inn, and every branching tree: Then they sacrificed there their offerings, And offered there the irritation of their oblation, And placed there the odor of their sweet fragrance, And poured out there their libations.

29 Then said I unto them, What is the high place to which you approach? For its name is called “Lofty” unto this day.

30 Wherefore, say unto the house of Israel, Thus says the Lord Jehovah, Are you polluted after the way of your fathers? And do you commit adultery after their idols?

31 For in offering your gifts, and in passing your sons through the fire, You pollute yourselves in all your idols unto this day Then shall I be inquired of by you, O house of Israel! As I live, says the Lord Jehovah, if I shall be inquired of by you.

32 That also which comes it to your mind shall not happen, Since you say, We will be as the nations, as the families of the lands,

33 To serve wood and stone. As I live, says the Lord Jehovah, If I will not rule over you with a strong hand, and an extended arm, and in fury poured forth.

34 And I will lead you out from the people, and collect you from the lands Through which you were dispersed, by a strong hand, and with an extended arm,

35 And with fury poured forth. Then I will lead you into the desert of the Gentiles, And will plead with you there face to face.

36 As I pleaded with your fathers in the desert of the land of Egypt, So will I dispute with you, says the Lord Jehovah.

37 Then I will make you pass under the rod, And bring you within the bond of a covenant:

38 Then will I purge out from among you the rebels, And the transgressors against me from the land of their habitation Will I bring the impious, and they shall not enter the land of Israel; And you shall know that I am Jehovah.

39 As for you, O house of Israel, thus says the Lord Jehovah, Go you, let each serve his idols, since you do not hear me, And the name of my sanctity profane no longer

40 With your gifts and your idols, since in the mountain of my sanctity, In a lofty mountain of Israel, says the Lord Jehovah, There shall the whole house of Israel worship me; All, I say, in the land there will I be propitious to them; And there will I require your oblations, And the first-fruits of your gifts in all your purification’s.

41 In the odor of sweet fragrance will I be propitious to you, When I shall have brought you from the people, And gathered you from the lands through which you will be dispersed; And I will be sanctified in you in the eyes of the nations.

42 Then shall you know that I am Jehovah, When I shall have brought you back into the land of Israel, Into the region about which I raised my hand to give it to your fathers.

43 And there I will remember your ways, and all your works, In which you were polluted; and you shall be confused in face  350 Through all your wickedness which you have committed.

44 Then shall you know that I am Jehovah, when I shall have done among you According to. my name, not according to your evil ways, Nor according to your corrupt doings, O house of Israel, says the Lord Jehovah.

As Calvin’s Latin Translation ends here, so the version by the Translator comes naturally to a close. It has not been thought necessary to re-translate from the original the remainder of Ezekiel, as the previously quoted labors of Newcome and Rosenmuller are sufficiently accessible and explanatory.



The thirtieth year. The date at which this reckoning commences is doubful Calvin dates from a Jubilee, (vol. 1, p. 52.,) but Jerome from the 18th year of King Josiah, when the book of the law was found. Origen, Hom. I., understands it of Ezekiel’s age; and so does Gregory, Hom. II. Maldonatus interprets it of the captivity, and quotes the authority of Theodoret. Pradus, as quoted by Rosenmfiner, agrees with Jerome. The Editor refers his readers once for all to the valuable commentary of Rosenmuller on this Prophet for all kinds of valuable critical information; while the English student will find the notes to Archbishop Newcome’s version very judicious.


Or, “divided.” See vol. 1, p. 75, note.. The MSS. vary slightly. Calvin has translated very literally; and the Prophet’s language being so elliptical, it is almost impossible to present a perfectly accurate representation of “a cherub” to a modern inquirer.


Explained in a note, p. 82, vol. 1 See Jerome in Comment. ad Heseam, cap. 12, and Chrysos. Orat. 35, p. 448, ed. Morell...Rosen. in ver.


Alexander Knox, who beautifies whatever he touches upon, has applied this verse most happily in illustration of the “exquisitely regular” movements of the almighty, and the “attendant machinery of Providence.” — Remains, Eze 6:9.


See vol. 1, p. 131, note.


See vol. 1, p. 168, note.


See vol. 1, p. 186, note.


See vol. 1, p. 187, note.


The rendering according to note,vol. 1, p. 205.


See vol. 1, p. 213, note.


See vol. 1, p. 215, note.


Explained by Calvin, vol. 1, p. 224, note.


For Calvin’s sense of “evil,” see vol. 1, p. 232, note.


For another rendering, see vol. 1, p. 235, note.


Another reading proposed, vol. 1, p. 245, note,Archbishop Newcome adopts the reading of the note, which is supported by more than twenty MSS., “Lo! evil cometh after evil.”


See another rendering,vol. 1, p. 255.


See vol. 1, p. 259, note.


See vol. 1, p. 264.


See note onvol. 1, p. 330.


See vol. 1, p. 345, note.


See vol. 1, p. 362, note.


See vol. 1, p. 382, note.


See vol. 1, p. 396, note: “for myself.”


See vol. 1, p. 395, note; where Calvin explains the word “burden.”


See vol. 1, p. 402, note.


See vol. 1, p. 406, note.


See vol. 2, p. 9, note.


See vol. 2, p. 14, note.


See vol. 2, p. 22, note.


See vol. 2, p. 47, note.


See vol. 2, p. 51, note.


“By prevaricating prevarication,” vol. 2, p. 67, note.


See vol. 2, p. 79, note.


See vol. 2, p. 84, note.


See vol. 2, p. 91, note.


See vol. 2, p. 96, note.


See vol. 2, p. 100, note.


See vol. 2, p. 105, note.


The meaning of this clause is doubtful. See Calvin’s Commentary,vol. 2, p. 113. Newcome very judiciously translates, “whither you shouldst not have come, neither should it have been done.”


See vol. 2, p. 121, note.


Calvin in his comment explains the sense in which “scorning” is used, vol. 2, p. 135; but Newcome justly supposes the original word to be the Chaldee for “to gather.”


See vol. 2, p. 148, note.


See vol. 2, p. 156, note.


Newcome adopts the rendering of the Septuagint and Cocceius, “with much care,” curatio, observatio, but quotes Dathe and Golius, page 1362, for the Arabic, in the same sense as Calvin, “a willow.”


See vol. 2, p. 192, note.


See vol. 2, p. 193, note.


See vol. 2, p. 208, note.


Saying or apothegm; vol. 2, p. 213, note.


Conduct himself faithfully; vol. 2, p. 219, note.


See vol. 2, p. 231, note.


See vol. 2, p. 249, note.


Accurately balanced: vol. 2, p. 252, note.


See vol. 2, p. 256, note.


Calvin translates with the authorized version in tuo sanguine, “in thy blood,” and explains it as above, dum peperit. Capellus and Pradus, by a slight alteration of the Hebrew letters from בדמך, bedemek, to כרמן, keremen, translate “like a pomegranate.” Doederlein, in his Annotations on Grotius, prefers this sense; but Jerome, Rab. Solomon, and Rab. David, take it as Calvin does. Both Rosenmuller and Newcome discuss the point with ability.


See vol. 2, p. 342, note.

Next: List of Major Interpreters