Calvin's Commentaries, Vol. 21: Jeremiah and Lamentations, Part V, tr. by John King, [1847-50], at sacred-texts.com
The last chapter, as it is historical, and all its parts have been elsewhere handled, holy Calvin did not expound in his Lectures, that he might not burden the hearers with superfluous repetitions: however, to render the book complete, we here add it.
1. Zedekiah was one and twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. And his mother’s name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.
1. Viginti et unius anni erat Sedechias quando regnavit, et undecim annis regnavit in Jerusalem, et nomen matris ejus Hamutal filia Jeremiae de Libnah.
2. And he did that which was evil in the eyes of the LORD, according to all that Jehoiakim had done.
2. Et fecit malum in oculis Jehovae, secundum omnia quae fecerat Jehoiakim:
3. For through the anger of the LORD it came to pass in Jerusalem and Judah, till he had cast them out from his presence, that Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon.
3. Nempe propter furorem Jehovae qui fuit contra Jerusalem et Jehudah, donec projiceret eos a facie sua, rebellavit Sedechias contra regem Babylonis. 115
4. And it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon came, he and all his army, against Jerusalem, and pitched against it, and built forts against it round about.
4. Fuit autem anno nono regni ejus, mense decimo, decima mensis, venit Nabuchadrezer rex Babylonis, ipse et universus exercitus ejus adversus Jerusalem, et castrametati sunt contra eam, et aedificaverunt contra earn munitionem undique.
5. So the city was besieged unto the eleventh year of king Zedekiah.
5. Venitque civitas in obsidionem usque ad undecimum annum regis Sedechiae.
6. And in the fourth month, in the ninth day of the month, the famine was sore in the city, so that there was no bread for the people of the land.
6. Mense quarto, nona mensis, invaluit fames in urbe, (adeo) ut non esset panis populo terrae.
7. Then the city was broken up, and all the men of war fled, and went forth out of the city by night by the way of the gate between the two walls, which was by the king’s garden; (now the Chaldeans were by the city round about:) and they went by the way of the plain.
7. Et dirupta fuit urbs, et omnes viri bellatores fugerunt, exieruntque de urbe noete per viam portae (quoe erat) inter duos muros, qui (erant) juxta hortum regis (Chaldaei autem erant juxta urbem per circuitum) abieruntque per viam solitudinis.
8. But the army of the Chaldeans pursued after the king, and overtook Zedekiah in the plains of Jericho; and all his army was scattered from him.
8. Persecutus vero est exereitus Chaldaeorum regem, apprehenderuntque Sedechiam in desertis Jericho; quia omnis exercitus ejus dispersus est ab eo.
9. Then they took the king, and carried him up unto the king of Babylon to Riblah in the land of Hamath; where he gave judgment upon him.
9. Comprehenderunt igitur regem, et duxerunt eum ad regem Babylonis in Riblatah, in terram Chamath, qui disceptavit cure eo judiciis.
10. And the king of Babylon slew the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes: he slew also all the princes of Judah in Riblah.
10. Et jugulavit rex Babylonis filios Sedechiam in oculis ejus, et etiam omnes principes Jehudah jugulavit in Riblatah:
11. Then he put out the eyes of Zedekiah; and the king of Babylon bound him in chains, and carried him to Babylon, and put him in prison till the day of his death.
11. Oculos autem Sedechiae excaecavit, et vinxit catenis, adducique fecit eum rex Babylonis, Babylonem, et posuit eum in domo carceris 116 usque ad diem quo mortuus est.
12. Now in the fifth month, in the tenth day of the month, which was the nineteenth year of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, came Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, which served the king of Babylon, into Jerusalem,
12. Mense autem quinto, decima mensis 117 (is annus erat decimus nonus annus regis Nabuchadrezer regis Babylonis) venit Nebuzaradan princeps militum, qui stabat 118 coram rege Babylonis, in Jerusalem,
13. And burnt the house of the LORD, and the king’s house; and all the houses of Jerusalem, and all the houses of the great men, burned he with fire.
13. Et incendit domurn Jehovae et domum regis, atque cunctas domos Jerusalem, et omnem domum magnam combussit igni: 119
14. And all the army of the Chaldeans, that were with with the captain of the guard, brake down all the walls of Jerusalem round about.
14. Onmesque muros Jerusalem undique destruxerunt totus exercitus Chaledaeorum, qui erat cum magistro militum.
15. Then Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard carried away captive certain of the poor of the people, and the residue of the people that remained in the city, and those that fell away, that fell to the king of Babylon, and the rest of the multitude.
15. De pauperibus autem populi, et de reliquo populo qui remanserant in urbe, et de transfugis qui transfugerunt ad regem Babylonis, et de reliquiis multitudinis transmigrare fecit Nebuzaradan nmgister militum. 120
16. But Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard, left certain of the poor of the land for vinedressers and for husbandmen.
16. De pauperibus vero terrae reliquit Nebuzaradan magister militurn vinitores et agricolas.
17. Also the pillars of brass that were in the house of the LORD, and the bases, and the brasen sea that was in the house of the LORD, the Chaldeans brake, and carried all the brass of them to Babylon.
17. Et columnas aereas quae erant in domo Jehovae, et bases et mare aereum quod erat in domo Jehovae confregerunt Chaldaei, et detulerunt omne aes eorum Babylonem.
18. The caldrons also, and the shovels, and the snuffers, and the bowls, and the spoons, and all the vessels of brass wherewith they ministered, took they away.
18. Lebetes quoque et scopas et psalteria et pelves et cochlearia et omnia vasa aerea quibus ministrabant, tulerunt.
19. And the basons, and the firepans, and the bowls, and the caldrons, and the candlesticks, and the spoons, and the cups; that which was of gold in gold, and that which was of silver in silver, took the caprain of the guard away.
19. Et hydrias et thuribula et pelves et ollas et candelabra, et mortariola et cyathos, quae aurea, aurea, et quae argentea, argentea, 121 tulit magister militum.
20. The two pillars, one sea, and twelve brasen bulls that were under the bases, which king Solomon had made in the house of the LORD: the brass of all these vessels was without weight.
20. Columnas duas, mare unum, et boves duodecim aereos, qui erant sub basibus quas fecerat rex Solomo in domo Jehovae, non erat pondus, aeris eorum omnium (nempe) vasorum istorum.
21. And concerning the pillars, the height of one pillar was eighteen cubits; and a fillet of twelve cubits did compass it; and the thickness thereof was four fingers; it was hollow.
21. Quod ad columnas, octodecim cubitorum erat altitudo columnae unius, et filum duodecim cubitortum circuibat eam, cujus crassitudo (quoe) erat quatuor digitorum; (erat) vacua.
22. And the chapiter of brass was upon it; and the height of one chapiter was five cubits, with network and pomegranates upon the chapiters round about, all of brass. The second pillar also and the pomegranates were like unto these.
22. Capitellum autem quod erat super earn aereum; altitudo vero capitelli unius, quinque cubitorum erat, et reticulum, et malogranata super capitellum per circuiturn, omnia aerea et similia erant columnae secundae et malogranata.
23. And there were ninety and six pomegranates on a side; and all the pomegranates upon the network were an hundred round about.
23. Fuerunt autem malogranata nonaginta et sex ad plagam (unam) onmia malogranata, centum super reticulum per circuitum.
24. And the captain of the guard took Seraiah the chief priest, and Zephaniah the second priest, and the three keepers of the door:
24. Tulit quoque magister militurn Seraiah sacerdotem primum, et Sephaniah sacerdotem secundum, et tres custodes liminis.
25. He took also out of the city an eunuch, which had the charge of the men of war; and seven men of them that were near the king’s person, which were found in the city; and the principal scribe of the host, who mustered the people of the land; and threescore men of the people of the land, that were found in the midst of the city.
25. Et de urbe tulit eunuchum unum, qui erat praepositus super viros bellatores, et septem viros ex iis qui videbant faciem regis, qui inventi sunt in urbe, et scribam principem militiae, qui colligebat ad militiam populum terrae, et sexaginta viros de populo terrae, qui inventi sunt in medio urbis.
26. So Nebuzaradan, the captain of the guard took them, and brought them to the king of Babylon to Riblah.
26. Tulit, inquam, cos Nebuzaradan magister militum, et deduxit eos ad regem Babylonis in Riblatha:
27. And the king of Babylon smote them, and put them to death in Riblah in the land of Hamath. Thus Judah was carried away captive out of his own land.
27. Et percussit eos rex Babylonis, et interfecit eos in Riblatha in terra Chamath; et translatus est Jehudah de terra sua.
28. This is the people whom Nebuchadrezzar carried away captive: in the seventh year three thousand Jews and three and twenty:
28. Iste est populus quem transferre fecit Nabuchadrezer, anno septimo, Judaeos tria millia et viginti tres.
29. In the eighteenth year of Nebuchadrezzar he carried away captive from Jerusalem eight hundred thirty and two persons:
29. Anno decimo octavo Nabuchadrezer transferre fecit de Jerusalem animas octingentas triginta duas.
30. In the three and twentieth year of Nebuchadrezzar Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard carried away captive of the Jews seven hundred forty and five persons: all the persons were four thousand and six hundred.
30. Anno tertio et vigesimo Nabuchadrezer, transferre fecit Nelmzar-adan magister militum, Judaeorum animus septingentas quadraginta quinque; omnes animae quatuor millia et sexcentae. 122
31. And it came to pass in the seven and thirtieth year of the captivity of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, in the five and twentieth day of the month, that Evilmerodach king of Babylon in the first year of his reign lifted up the head of Jehoiachin king of Judah, and brought him forth out of prison,
31. Fuit autem tricesimo septimo anno transmigrationis Jehoiakin regis Jehudah, duodecimo mense, vicesima quinta mensis, elevavit Evil-merodach rex Babylonis, anno regni sui, caput Jehoiakin regis Jehudah, et eduxit eum de domo carceris;
32. And spake kindly unto him, and set his throne above the throne of the kings that were with him in Babylon,
32. Loquutusque est eum eo bolla, et posuit thronum ejus super thronum regum, qui erant secum in Babylone;
33. And changed his prison garments: and he did continually eat bread before him all the days of his life.
33. Et mutavit vestimenta carceris ejus, et comedebat panem coram eo semper omnibus diebus vitae suae.
34. And for his diet, there was a continual diet given him of the king of Babylon, every day a portion until the day of his death, all the days of his life.
34. Et portio ejus, portio perpetua dabatur ei a rege Babylonis, per singulos dies ejus, usque ad diem quo mortuus est, omnibus diebus vitae ejus.
The best rendering of this verse is by Venema, —
Therefore the height of the wrath of Jehovah (that is, the extreme wrath of Jehovah) was on Jerusalem and Judah, until he cast them from his presence: and Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon.
The same words, in 2Ki 24:20, ought to be rendered in the same way. — Ed.
Literally, “in the house of visitations,” that is, of punishments. — Ed.
It is “the seventh” in 2Ki 25:8. This discrepancy is accounted for by Blayney and others, by suppposing a typographical mistake of putting the numeral ז, seven, for י, ten, or vice versa. — Ed
It is עבד, “served,” in 2Ki 25:8; but the meaning is the same. To stand before one is phrase which designates the office of one who serves. See Lu 1:29. It would be better, in rendering this part of the verse, to change the place of the verb, to come, — “Nebuzar-adan, the prince of the executioners, who stood before the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem.” — Ed
The literal rendering is, “even every great house burnt he with fire.” This clause qualifies the former one. — Ed.
Though in the parallel passages in Jer 39:9, and in 2Ki 25:11, the words, “Some of the poor of the people,” ar3e not found, yet the Vulg., the Syr., and the Targ., retain them here, and they are found in all the MSS. except one. Some of the poor of the city were evidently left, as well as some of the poor of the land. In the following words, the Vulg. for the most part is followed, which is not correct: the words should be, “et reliquum populum,” and, “et reliquias multitudinis.” And the past words should be, “even the remnant (or remainder) of the multitude,” that is, of the people that formerly inhabited the city. See Jer 39:9. — Ed.
“Which gold, gold, and which silver, silver:” אשר, “which,” repeated, may be rendered here, “some;” and the repetition of “gold,” and of “silver,” is the same as to say, that some of the vessels were pure gold, and that some were pure silver: then the version would be this, “some gold of gold,” i.e., pure gold, “and some silver of silver,” i.e., pure silver, there being no mixture in either. — Ed
The number here given is to be restricted to the years here specified, that is, the seventh, the eighteenth, and the twenty-third of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. We read of other captives; that is, in the third year of Jehoiakim’s reign, (Da 1:1) which was the first of Nebuchadnezzar; and in the eighth year of his reign, (2Ki 24:12) when Jehoiachin was taken prisoner, and with him not less than ten thousand people, (2Ki 24:14.)
We have no account of the number in the first captivity, when Daniel was taken to Babylon. The largest number in the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign, even ten thousand. The amount of three captivities mentioned here, the last of which must have been after the murder of Gedaliah, is four thousand six hundred. All these being men, and of full age, there must have been many women and children. It has been thought that all, taken captive all these times, could not have been less than fifty thousand. — Ed.