Calvin's Commentaries, Vol. 4: Harmony of the Law, Part II, tr. by John King, [1847-50], at sacred-texts.com
22. And if ye have erred, and not observed all these commandments, which the LORD hath spoken unto Moses,
22. Quum erraveritis, et non feceritis onmia praecepta haec quae protulit Jehova ad Mosen.
23. Even all that the LORD hath commanded you by the hand of Moses, from the day that the LORD commanded Moses, and henceforward among your generations;
23. Omnia quae praecepit Jehova vobis per manum Mosis a die qua praecepit Jehova et postea per generationes vestras.
24. Then it shall be, if ought be committed by ignorance without the knowledge of the congregation, that all the congregation shall offer one young bullock for a burnt offering, for a sweet savour unto the LORD, with his meat offering, and his drink offering, according to the manner, and one kid of the goats for a sin offering.
24. Si inquam a congregatione procter scientiam allquid factum fluerit per errorera, immolabit universa congregatio juvencum unum filium bovis, in holocaustum in odorera quietis Jehovae, minha quoque ejus, et libamen ejus, secundum regulam, et hircum caprarum unum, in sacrificium pro peccato.
25. And the priest shall make an atonement for all the congregation of the children of Israel, and it shall forgiven them; for it is ignorance: and they shall bring their offering, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD, and their sin offering before the LORD, for their ignorance:
25. Expiabitque sacerdos universam congregationem filiorum Israel, et ignoscetur els, quia error est, et illic offerent oblationem suam, oblationem ignitam Jehovae, et oblationem pro peccato suo, coram Jehova, propter errorera ipsorum.
26. And it shall be forgiven all the congregation of the children of Israel, and the stranger that sojurneth among them; seeing all the people were in ignorance.
26. Et condonabitur universae congregationi filiorum Israel, et peregrino qui peregrinabitur in medio illorum: quia universi populi error est.
27. And if any soul sin through ignorance, then he shall bring a she-goat of the first year for a sin offering.
27. Quod si anima una peccaverit per errorem, offeret capram anniculam sacrificium pro peccato.
28. And the priest shall make an atonement for the soul that sinneth ignorantly, when he sinneth by ignorance before the LORD, to make an atonement for him; and it shall be forgiven him.
28. Expiabitque sacerdos animam quae peccaverit per errorem, quum peccaverit per errorera coram Jehova: expiabit eam, et remittetur ei.
29. Ye shall have one law for him that sinneth through ignorance, both for him that is born among the children of Israel, and for the stranger that sojourneth among them.
29. Indigence inter filios Israel, et peregrino qui peregrinatur inter illos, lex una erit vobis quoad eum qui fecerit per errorem.
22. And if ye have erred. He teaches by what kind of sacrifice the sins of the whole people or of each individual are to be expiated, although he enumerates only two of the four classes which are mentioned in Leviticus; for a special atonement is there enjoined both on the priest and the ruler. But neither is the ceremony of sacrificing here described, since Moses only wished to refresh their memories by the way as to the manner in which, either publicly or privately, they were to be reconciled to God. This word “error,” 264 as we have said, extends to incogitancy, which partakes of contempt of God, and arises from too great security, when men inconsiderately fall into the sins to which their lusts invite them; for deliberate impiety is afterwards brought into contrast with error, when men designedly rush into violations of the law. But since nothing is more easy than for men to err, this remedy was most necessary, lest they who had sinned should fall into despair. Lest, then, the people or private individuals, when they saw their guilt, should despair of pardon and throw away the pursuit of holiness, God anticipates them, and shews them by what means He is to be propitiated, so that the sins which had occurred should not interrupt His service. Since, however, Moses here only repeats what has already been explained, there is no need of dwelling largely upon it, except that in one point he seems to deliver a law different from the former one; for he there commands two bullocks to be slain for the reconciliation of the people, 265 the one as a burnt-offering, the other as a sin-offering; yet, if the second were not easily obtained, the permission was given to substitute a goat. In Leviticus, therefore, the regular and perfect rite was delivered; the permissive alteration is only added here; nor does Moses contradict himself, though, for the sake of brevity, he only refers to one of the two modes. At the end a clearer explanation is subjoined, viz., that the same law should be common to all, since it was by no means expedient to introduce any diversity.
“Ce mot d’inadvertence.” — Fr.
“This law differs from Lev. 4:13, 14. Outram thinks the bullock was to be offered under that law when the whole congregation of Israel, though in other respects retaining their own rites and following the worship of the true God, yet, led away by one common error, transgressed, without knowing it, some prohibitory precept. The kid for a sin-offering, accompanied with a bullock for a burnt-offering, (see Nu 15:24,) Outram says he apprehends to have been required when the people, neglecting their ancient rites and unmindful of the divine laws, (which often happened under wicked kings,) were seduced into strange worship. What is recorded in 2 Chr. 28:24, 2 Chr. 29:3, 21, 24, Outram thinks adds much probability to his opinion. See Outram, D. 1, ch. 14, Section 2.” — Brightwell in loco.