Sacred Texts  Confucianism  Index  Previous 
Buy this Book at

The Ethics of Confucius, by Miles Menander Dawson, [1915], at


p. 306

p. 307


ART OF LIVING: Deemed the highest, 6; abiding "in the highest excellence," 7; self-development, 7; its pursuit possible for all, 7; advance independent of others, 8; learning in order to attain, 8; cultivating one's capabilities, 8; exemplifying virtue, 8; order of development, 10; rules of conduct, 10; path open for ordinary as well as superior man, 10; scheme of adaptation, 11; not finished until death, 11; as conceived by Confucius, 14; preparation for practice of, 29

ARTS: Seek relaxation and enjoyment in, 52; cultivation of, 249; beneficial for state to encourage, 251

ARTS, FINE IN GENERAL, 248-251: Patronage by central government, 248; rulers should make pleasure common to all, 248; power to enjoy beauty should be general, 249; Confucius’ recognition of art, 249; relaxation and enjoyment, 249; Odes arouse the mind, 249; recreation in the arts, 249; frequent theme of discourse by the Master, 249; æsthetic subjects, 250; painting, 250; ornament, 251; the Book of Poetry, 251; the Book of Music, 251

ASPIRATION: To become superior man, 1; true aspiration, 85; contrasted with its opposite, 85; working for that which other men cannot see, 85; portrait of him one should aspire to be, 86; to hear, to learn, to practise, 86, 87; desire for gain, 87; distinction and notoriety defined, 88


BUSINESS: Its management, 63


CEREMONIES: To find enjoyment in, 52; not to be neglected, 263; music within, ceremonies without, 264; short and few as possible, 264; constitute a language, 264; highest style of elegance, 265; an understanding of, 265; perfection of, 265; transforming power of, 265; forming an inter-relationship between the seen and unseen, 266; power to elevate, 266

CLASS DISTINCTIONS: Abolished by learning, 23

COMFORT: Contrary of virtue,

p. 308


[paragraph continues] 3, 39, 40; Hwuy, paragon of virtue, often in want, 93; superior man not concerned about poverty, 94; To be poor without murmuring is difficult, 94

CONDUCT, 120-126: The golden rule, 120; reciprocity, 120; set forth in "The Great Learning," 120, 121; serve men, not spiritual beings, 121; men of perfect virtue, 122; superior man loves because of merit, 122; man's desire to teach, 122; not blind to the faults of others, 123; forgetting wickedness, 123; charity towards all, 123; obligations, 123; the Masters' rule of recompense, 124; only the truly virtuous know how to love or hate, 124; what persons the superior man hates, 125; love for all, 125; in order to be loved, 125; benevolence, 126

CONFUCIUS: Did not claim inspiration, Introduction, xi; works of, and of his disciples, Introduction, xiii; life of, xvii; central idea of, 1; personal development, 11; divined that the mind must first be honest with itself, 14; pursuit of learning, 23; not born in possession of knowledge, 28; memorizing, 29; content with poverty, 47; faults, 55; not equal to superior man, 55, 56; knowing why, 60; study of Yi, 74; would make faults few, 74; expressions of humility, 80; to be mentioned with honour in future ages, 88; his demeanour, 108; observance of sportsman's ethics, 113; practises polite evasion, 119; charity towards all, 123; feelings towards those who possess sharp tongues, 125; how his disciples considered he would govern, 183; loss of office, 239, 249; "The Odes" a frequent theme, of discourse, 249; counsels his son to learn "The Odes," 252; equality with other men, 253; reforms the music, 258; appreciation of best music, and value placed upon it, 258; condemnation of music he considered unworthy, 260; counsels his son about the study of classical music, 261; his skill upon the musical stone, 261; raises a mound over the grave of his parents, 270; sacrificing to the dead, 271; consciousness of presence of invisible forces, 286; commendation and practice of prayer, 288; "I do not murmur against Heaven," 290; consciousness of the protection of Providence, 291; belief in his mission, 291

CONSTANCY: Impossible, if, keeping up appearances, 56


DEATH AND IMMORTALITY, 267-271: Belief accepted by Confucius, 267; soul can go anywhere, 267; spirit issues forth in condition of glorious brightness, 268; scientific investigation, 268; value of man's words as he approaches death, 268; sanitary precautions at time of death, 268; method employed to ascertain if death had taken place, 268; care with which bodies are guarded lest burial takes place before life is extinct, 269; repugnance

p. 309


at death, 269; ethics of burial, 269; raises a mound over the grave of his parents, 270; calling back the spirit, 270,271; purpose and significance of the ceremony, 271

DEMEANOUR, 106-113: Should be grave, 106, 107; insinuating appearance, 107; insincerity, 107; demeanour of Confucius, 108; of superior men, 108

DEPARTED ANCESTORS: Communion with, 271-284; served the dead, 271; sacrificed to the dead, 271; accumulating goodness, 272; small acts of goodness, 272; disembodied spirits enjoyed offerings, 273; man, when dead, in ghostly state, 274; to be treated as neither wholly living nor wholly dead, 274; presentation of offerings constitute union with the disembodied, 274; intercourse with spiritual intelligences thus maintained, 274; mischief of miscellaneous seeking after communication with departed spirits, 275; consciousness after death, 275; general sacrifices, 276; sacrifices should not be frequently repeated, 276; liberties should not be taken with spiritual beings, 277; in communion desire for personal gratification should not enter, 277; serving spiritual intelligences, 277; method of preparing for, and conducting ceremonies, 278; sincerity absolute necessity, 278; reward, the perfecting of self, 279; object, to bring down spirits from above, 279; ceremonies, 279; the spell of music, 280; the third day of discipline appear those for whom it has been exercised, 280

DEPORTMENT, 108-112: Virtuous manners, 108; bad manners, 109; affable and adulatory deportment, 110; deportment not subserviency, 110; good and bad manners, 110, 111; avoidance of display, 111; behaviour to girls and servants, 111; respect to elders, 112; reserve of superior man toward his son, 112; friendship, 112

DEPOSING A RULER, THE RIGHT OF, 245-247: Attitude toward one's ruler, 245; privilege of a minister, 246; remonstrance should not be too frequent, 246; observance of the rules of propriety, 246; a great minister, 247; to depose a prince, 247; the tyrant Chow example of unworthy sovereign, 247

DEVELOPMENT OF GOOD IN OTHERS: Accomplished by sincerity, 33; not by "correcting" them, 78; requirements, 94; qualities to be sought, 95; real qualities exhibited, 103; exacting in employment, 103; enlarging self, 122; developing admirable qualities, 122; teachers of others, 122

DIVORCE, 146-151: Process of divorce, 147, 148; disabilities and disadvantages, 149; recognized causes, 150; not a court proceeding, 151; rule for the relation of husband and wife, 151


EARNESTNESS, 76-80: Going with one's heart, 76; earnest effort necessary to achievement, 77; giving one's self

p. 310


earnestly, 78; uninstructed earnestness, 78; "He who aims at complete virtue is earnest," 79; the youth should be earnest, 79; an essential of perfect virtue, 80; result of, 80

EDUCATION, UNIVERSAL, 221-231: Necessity for general education, 221; obliterates distinction of classes, 221; rank determined by training, 221; pre-natal education, 222; value and potency of, 222; relation of education to government, 222; uninstructed men, 223; education necessary to him who would lead others, 223; attention paid to education in filial and fraternal duties, 223; education test of political preferment, 224; perfection of manners and customs must start in schools, 224; established means of, 224; competitive examinations, 224; the object of teaching, 225; understanding requisite of teaching, 225; care exercised in choice of teacher, 226; the skilful teacher, 226; "I do not open the truth to one who is not eager for knowledge," 227; rote learning, 228; teacher not treated as a subject, 229; objects to be sought in education, 229; desirability of class work, 229; method of Confucius, 229; importance of popular education, 231

EMOTIONS AND DESIRES: If swayed by, conduct is wrong, 13, 35, 36, 37; abuses of, 37, 38; must reduce, in order to maintain resolution, 45, 46; delusion to "wreck one's life" in anger, 51

ENJOYMENT: When injurious, when advantageous, 52; in worthy friends, 126

ETHICS OF THE MIND: Mind must be honest with itself, 14: spirit and teaching of Confucius, 14; design of the Book of Poetry, 14; predetermination of course, 15; the open mind, 15, 16; when mind not dominant, 35

EXAMPLE, 126-131: Advantageous and injurious friendships, 126; frequent the company of men of principle, 126; youth should cultivate friendship of the good, 126; friendship of dissolute, 126; intimacy with flatterers, 127; distinction between the superior and inferior man, 127; when and to whom to speak, 127; figurative admonition, 127; the value of good example, 128; proper associates, 129; virtuous manners constitute virtue of a neighborhood, 129; evil man useful for instruction, 129; must associate with all mankind, 130; "virtue is not left to stand alone," 131


FAME: Report of the multitude not decisive, 88, 89; to be loved by the good and hated by the bad, 89; man of exalted aim, 90; indifference toward worldly reward or failure, 90; desire to rightly die, 90; "object of dislike at forty," 95

FAMILY REGULATION, 137-139: Regulation of one's own family, 137; self-development necessary, 138; respect and love necessary to service, 138; love leads to

p. 311

Family RegulationCont’d 

strictness, 138; essential mutuality of union of hearts, 138; woman counselled to follow man, 139; introduction of licentious associates, 139; a happy union, 139.

FAULTS: Perception of one's own, 44; do not fear to abandon, 54; do not try to defend or conceal, 54; do not make them crimes, 54; inferior man sure to gloss, 55; fortunate that people know them, 55, 74; not reforming, 74; study of the Yi, 74; Confucius anxious to make his few, 74; virtues may be known by observing 75

FEAR: Way of superior man threefold, 55; rise superior to, 57; disgrace to be unnecessarily distressed, 57; superior man has nothing to, 57; freedom from, 57; why be anxious when internal examination discloses nothing? 58

FILIAL PIETY, 156-165: Beginning of, 156; end of, 156; origin of term, 156; of Romans and Greeks, 156; filial duty, 157; lack of self-respect injury to parents, 157; detailed statement from the "Li Ki," 157, 158; mutual duties of parent and child, 158; effectiveness of, 158, 159; as tribute of gratitude dares not but do his utmost, 159; no greater offence than to be unfilial, 159; constant requirement of Heaven, 159; of all man's actions, none greater than, 159; degrees of, 159, 160; nature of, 160; son's wealth not his own, 160; personal sacrifice necessary even for lowest order of, 160; reverence necessary as well as support for physical needs 161; true rule of conduct laid down by Confucius, 162; errors of father not to be magnified, 162; right of son to reprove limited, 162; five things recognized as unfilial, 163; Shun, filial piety of, 163; greatest of unfilial things, 163; not more required than one is able to do, 164; test of, 164; King Wu condemns unfilial behaviour, 164; all generous conduct flows from, 164, 165; cannot exist without benevolence, 165; son's care for aging parents should be like that of mother, 165; son must not go abroad during life of parents, 165

FORTITUDE, 53-58: Want of 54; boldness may be result of ignorance as well as of knowledge, 56; not valour only, if unobservant of propriety, 56; men of principles possess, but others may also, 57; need of 57; shame of moral cowardice, 57; noble attributes adverted to by Confucius, 58

FRIENDSHIP: Advantageous and injurious, 126; enjoyment in having many worthy, 126; youth should cultivate, of the good, 126; frequent reproof between friends makes distant, 128; friends should be shown sincerity, 128; "have no friends not equal to yourself," 129; house of a friend, 131; practise of virtue, 131; observance of propriety, 131


GAIN: Love of, 40; rewards of, 41; love of riches demoralizing, 41, 42; complete man in

p. 312


view of gain thinks of righteousness, 50; mind of ordinary man conversant with, 71; nine things enumerated by Confucius as regards which man must keep watch over-himself, 72; "wealth got by improper means," 94; avarice, the old man's vice, 94; who acts with view to his own advantage, 94

GENIUS AND INSPIRATION, 27-29: Its possessors, 28

GOD, 293-298: Does He hate? 293; appellation which indicates personality, 293; said to King Wang, 294; rise from primitive barbarity to the worship of, 294; "to serve the spirits of the departed and God," 295; exalted conception of, 295; liberties with spiritual beings, 295; seeking Divine enlightenment, 296; basis for the "Yi," 296; mention of personal name, 297; did not use private judgment in serving, 297; "Do not try to fathom what has not yet arrived," 297; Confucius’ own view of, clearly enunciated, 298

GOVERNMENT, ESSENTIALS of GOOD, 183-189: Requisites, 183; root and fruit of, 184; people's confidence necessary, 184; kingly government described by Mencius, 184, 185; attainment of imperial sway, 185; Confucius commends the conception of Yen Yuan, 186; five blessings and six calamities, 186; consequences of perversion of government related in the "History of Han," 186, 187, 188; Confucius lays bare cause creating such consequences, 188

GOVERNMENT, FOR BENEFIT OF THE GOVERNED, 176-183: When good government obtains, 176; people important element, 176; government should be fraternal and parental, 176; attracts remote people, 177; first step in kingly government, 177; regulation of livelihoods, 178; attraction of, 178; centralization of wealth, 179; admonition of Mencius, 180; a people prosperous or in want, so the king must be, 180; responsibility for evil conditions, 180, 181; relation between superiors and inferiors, 181; attitude toward guilty, 181; attitude toward the aged and the young, 182; when right principles prevail, 182; requisite for attainment of anti-poverty aspirations, 182; how his disciples considered Confucius would govern, 182, 183

GOVERNMENT, FOUNDATION OF, 172-174: Where lessons of statecraft may be learned, 172; significance of such basis for government, 173; results deduced from three primary functions of family, 173; practical character of this application, 173; Confucius cites Book of Odes as elucidation, 174; causal relations between filial piety and beneficent government, 174

GOVERNMENT, FUNCTION OF, 174-176: Meaning of, 174; lessons insisted upon by Chinese sages, 174; cause and effect in the operation of, 175; modes by which this may be accomplished, 175


p. 313


concerning, 241; that Kee and Chow lost the empire, due to loss of people, 241; the truly royal ruler, 242; sage does not commend acts of demagogue, 242; reward for serving people, 242; moral sense of common people, 242; no invariable model of virtue, 243; conformity to common consciousness, 243; people sole source of power, 243, 244; merit produces confidence of people in ruler, 244; divine right of kings, 244; noble birth, 245; existence of hereditary monarchy deplored, 245


HEAVEN: Sincerity the path to, 35; though awful, helps the sincere, 35, 292; when about to confer great office disciplines, 52, 291; superior man waits the appointments of, 68, 289; subjects of which the Master seldom spoke, 92; riches and honours depend upon, 92, 291; a ternion, 145, 288; alone cannot produce a man, 145; anyone may be called the son of, 145; is to use your Master, 239; does not speak, 244; gave Shun the empire, 244; sees and hears as my people, 244; like unto, 280; in order to know men, 284; if there were no intercommunication between earth and, 285; descents of spirits ceased because he commissioned . . . to end communication between earth and, 285; "all things are being continually produced," 285; display of powers of spiritual beings, 285, 286; "presence of invisible witnesses," 286; knows me, 286; greatest of joint offices of earth and, 286; and earth separate yet work together, 286; man product of attributes of earth and, 286; theory of dual forces of nature, 287; addressed in prayer, 287; he who offends against, 287; Confucius’ commendation of prayer, 287; the peer of, 288; only person having greatest sincerity that can exist under, who can comprehend processes of, 288; without recognizing ordinances of, impossible to be superior man, 288; see also Providence

HIGH AIM: Essential to great merit, 43

HUMILITY, 80-85: Superior man concerned with making himself worthy, 80; spirit of humility which is essential to self-development, 81; injunction accredited to I Yin, 81; the way to lose goodness, 81; considering in all, how to avoid errors, 81; difficult to receive reproof, 82; ruinous consequences of false pride, 82; giving first place to others, 82; Confucius admonishes how to regard superior and inferior men, 82, 83; difficulty of meeting this test, 83; avoidance of thought of personal success, 83; desirability of being willing to work without acclaim of others, 84; tribute to Hwuy, 84


IDLENESS: Even gaming preferable, 39

p. 314


KINGLY QUALITIES, 210-216: Potency of being a man, 210; when people imitate great ruler, 210; Shun an example of, 211; like majesty ascribed also to Yu, 211; power of character in enforcing beneficent government, 211; necessity of correct conduct, 212; he who exercises government by means of virtue compared to north star, 212; people respond to calls for service, 212; superior man rules without rewards or force, 213; consequences of qualities opposite to those of virtue, 213; picture of worthy ruler, 213; qualities characterizing great minister defined, 214; qualities necessary to constitute one an officer, 214; qualities recounted, 214, 215; success as measured by Confucius in reference to Chinese history, 216; power of attraction in, 216


LANGUAGE: That of superior man firm and decided, 64; sufficient that it convey meaning, 115; without knowing force of words impossible to know men, 115; virtuous will be sure to speak aright, 115; style prized in conversation, 255; "Yi King" written in symbolic, 283; superior man requires that in, there be nothing inaccurate, 254

LAW AND ORDER, 231-238: Government good when each is in his place, 231; when good, ceremonies, music, etc., proceed from emperor, 231; perils of private wealth and power, 232; destructive consequences of inherited riches, 233; consequences of disorder, 233; duty of care in selection of administrative officers, 233; discrimination in recognition and employment of men, 234; virtuous prince does not neglect relatives, 234; to be thinking only of one's salary either in good or bad government, shameful, 234; better to wait for death before conferring honours, 235; elemental principles of right and wrong applicable alike to prince and minister, 235; "affairs of state should not be privately discussed," 235; rule for a judge, 235; criminality is in intent, 236; better to err than put innocent person to death, 236; compensation of public officers, 236; restriction of military defence and equipment, 237; the superior man governs men according to their nature, 237; application to business essential, 237; actions should be lofty and bold, 238; manner in which a state may crumble, 238

LEARNING, 20-27: Without thought, 20; essential in all things, 21; Confucius’ eager pursuit of, 22; superior man loves, 22; requirements essential to, 22; one must be modest as to ability, 22; may learn from humblest, 23; abolishes class distinctions, 23; knowledge not to be imparted to all, 23; persistent devotion to, 24; the foundation for virtue, 24, 25; not foundation for idle

p. 315


speculation, 25; all knowledge its field, 26; great and all important place of, 27; anciently "with a view to improvement," now "to the approbation of others," 89

LIFE: Not valued above virtue, 50; never saw one die "by treading the path of virtue," 51

LONG LIFE: Not for those who seek pleasure, 38


MAN, THE GREAT: He who does not lose his child heart, 31; those who follow great part of themselves are, 46; speaks and does what is right, 78; is in harmony with spiritual operations of Providence, 293

MAN, THE SINCERE: IS a superior man, 31; will choose the good, 32; will develop his character, 32; alone can fully do so, 32; develops the good in others, 33; alone can transform, 33; readily discerns and even foreknows, 33, 34; absolutely essential, 35; helped by Heaven, 35

MAN, THE SUPERIOR: Learns for what special purpose? 2; is self-centred; 2; enjoined to emulate, 2; is sincere and thorough, 3, 31; is truthful and truth-loving, 3; is broadminded 3, 6; thinks of virtue 3, 4; is composed, 4; avoids sycophancy, 5; is frank, 5; is benevolent, 5; is temperate, 6; observes golden rule, 6; what constitutes, 8; loves learning and to learn, 22; progress upward, 37; not self-indulgent, 40; free from anxieties, perplexities, and fear, 55, 56; waits for appointments of Heaven, 68; not always virtuous, inferior man never, 71; made greater by propriety, loo; influence of, 106; his demeanour, 108; values his word, 114; loves on ground of merit, 122; hatreds of, 125; not niggardly toward parents, 160; will overlook errors of father, 162; filial piety of, 173; requires in his language that there be nothing inaccurate, 254; meets friends on literary grounds, 255; without recognizing ordinances of Heaven, impossible to be, 288

MEAN, PATH OF (Moderation), 64-69: Hold fast to, 64; not walked in, 64; defined, 65; virtue perfect which is according to, 65; why it is not walked in, 65; difficulty in keeping, 66; course cannot be attained to, 66; not far from man, 66; "the path of duty lies in what is near and is easy," 66; not hard to find, 66; utmost reach shines brightly, 67; doing the proper thing in all situations, 67; lies before every man, 68; only in perfect virtue can all its courses be realized, therefore superior man honours virtuous nature, 68; qualities of man who follows, 68, 69; marvellous reward of following, 69

MENTAL DEFORMITY: When mind is deformed does not know that he should be dissatisfied, 13

MENTAL MORALITY OR HONESTY: Essential of all morality, 12; mind must first be honest with itself, 14

p. 316

MILITARY EQUIPMENT, 207-210: To lead uninstructed people to war, 207; Confucius’ references to war, 207; let a good man teach the people, 207; requisites of a military leader, according to Confucius, 208; China the only one of the great nations which has maintained real continuity for itself, 208; necessity for the spirit of patriotic devotion, 208; military forces should not be such as to overawe a people, 209; prosperity and virtue of the people essential to military success, 209; material advantages do not compensate for absence of spiritual union of men, 210

MUSIC, 255-263: Indispensable to human nature, 255; blossoming of virtue, 255; tradition of Chinese, 256; virtue and, 256; expression of joy, 256; at meals, 256; most significant of traditions, 256, 257; source of, 257; evil forms of, 257; relation of evil spirits to evil notes, 257; relation of good spirits to good notes, 257; labours of Confucius in perfecting, 258; in an age of disorder, 258; discrimination in, 258; Confucius’ appreciation of "The Shaou," 258; "The Kwan Ts‘eu" and Confucius’ liking for it, 259; style of, 259; Confucius rebukes demoralizing musical orgies, 260; "Are bells and drums all that is meant by music?" 260; distinction between sound and, 260; purity of taste in, 260; Confucius admonishes his son to study, 261; Confucius a performer upon the musical stone, 261; description of orchestral, 261; harmony principal things sought in, 261; occasions upon which Confucius would accompany with his own voice, 262; preference for methods of ancient masters, 262; three things in which may be found advantageous enjoyment, 262; affecting the moral nature, 262; the mastery of, 263; should be neglected by no one, 263


OFFICE, DUTY RESPECTING ACCEPTANCE OF, 238-241: When right principles prevail, 238; informing a new minister of the conduct of government, 238; in good government, in office; in bad, keep your own counsel, 239; part of wise man to quit badly governed state, 239; Hwuy's answer to suggestion that he quit the country, 239; Confucius to be used as a "wooden-tongued bell," 239; when called to office undertake its duties, 240; one not in office has nothing to do with its administration duties, 240; Confucius commends refusal to accept even exalted official position, 240; ambition for public service recommended by Confucius to his disciples, 240; when conscious of ability to render service, not to take office is wrong, 241

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE, Power of, 216-221: Ruler must be possessed of qualities he requires of people, 217; what superior man loves, his inferiors will also love, 217; he who is in authority should be

p. 317

Official ExampleContinued 

careful about what he likes and dislikes, 217; connection with filial piety, 217, 218; government dependent upon personal conduct of prince, 218; reason for greater potency of deed than command in a ruler, 219; Confucius deprecates niggardliness, 219; too much must not be expected from a good official when government has been long in state of demoralization, 219; Confucius urges that ruler rely upon persuasion rather than penalties in ruling, 219; desiring what is good, 220; Confucius’ rule for suppressing thieves, 220; three principles of conduct for men of high rank, 220; where the real responsibility rests, 220, 221


PARENTHOOD, 151-156: Affection of father and mother, 151, 152; justice and discrimination of superior man in, 152; reciprocal relations, 152; extent of its application 152; cultivation of filial qualities in children brings happiness to parents, 153; cultivation of opposite qualities, 153; youth to be regarded with respect, 153; one of three things Confucius especially enjoins, 154; responsibilities of father, 154; parent should maintain reserve toward son, 154; father should keep himself hero in eyes of son, 154; should not be son's tutor, 155; should be no reproving admonitions between father and son, 155; all men sons of God, therefore father has not absolute power over son, 156

PARENTS, PIOUS REGARD AFTER DEATH OF, 165-171: Filial piety displayed in carrying forward undertakings of forefathers, 166; when son may be called filial, 166; deep sorrow better than punctilious observance in mourning, 166; origin of burial, 166; avenging one's father, if slain, 167; complete duty of living men, 167, 168; occasions of mourning disclose a son's character, 168; comment upon mere show in mourning, 168; period of mourning, 168; after expiration of term of retirement, 169; greatest of all obligation to parents, 169; importance of this phase of the Confucian conception of filial piety, 169; son watches actions that bad name may not be handed down, 170; constant reverence for parents, 171

PARENTS, PIOUS REGARD FOR LIVING, 159-165: Three degrees of filial piety, 159, 160; nature of filial piety toward, 160; duty to support, 160; superior man will not be niggardly toward, 160; sacrifice of personal comforts, 160; relieving them of toil, 161; respect and obedience necessary, 161; when warranted a son should not refrain from remonstrating with his father, 162; should persist with reverence if met with opposition, 162; superior man will not magnify errors of father, 162; reproof between father and son hindrance to tenderness, 162; five unfilial acts, 163; apocryphal

p. 318


story of filial piety of Shun, 163; greatest of unfilial acts, 163; tests of unfilial piety, 164; unfilial crime to fail in reverence and wound a father's heart, 164; root of all benevolent actions, 165; man trained to benevolence never forgets his parents, 165; while parents are living son must remain near them, 165

PEOPLE, NOURISHMENT OF THE, 189-199: Well governed, poverty, ill governed, wealth a disgrace, 189; sage, if ruler, will cause gain to be abundant, 190; how the old may be well provided for, 190; conservation, 190; gain not to be considered prosperity, but righteousness, 191; no happiness if ruler seeks own profit, 191; picture of demoralization following unscrupulous government, 191; Mencius rebukes rich king who impoverished the people, 192; reforms should be made slowly, 192; "wants are limitless; the supply can never be adequate," 193; prevent the rich from despoiling the poor, 193; discontented man will rebel, 193; aphorisms of Mencius upon ruler sharing the people's lot, 194; Confucius says contrary means disloyalty, 194; account of "Rite of District Drinking," 195; Mencius view of what good government should provide, 195; consequences of evil government, 195, 196; people in hard straits cannot cultivate righteousness, 196; certain livelihood for the people necessary, 197;

good government must be parental, 197; he who confers benefits and assists all is a sage, 198; story of widow weeping at Mount Thai, 198

PHENOMENA, INVESTIGATION OF, 16-20: Necessity for careful research, 16; the inquiring mind, 17, 19; loss of early commentary, 18; Commentator Ch‘ing's substitute, 18; benefit of painstaking research, 20

POETRY AND LETTERS, 251-263: If men are "mild, gentle, sincere, and good," they have been taught from the Book of Poetry, 251; designs of the Book of Poetry, 251; the Odes serve to stimulate the mind, 252; considering men of antiquity, 252; must know the Odes in order to be "fit to converse with," 252; if unable to make practical application of the Odes, though able to repeat all, of what use are they? 253; literary taste of Confucius, 253; "of language, it is sufficient that it convey meaning," 253; necessity for correct names, 253, 254; accuracy in language, 254; diction, 254; Confucius’ knowledge of the subtleties of style, 254; accepted manner of elegant speech, 255; style prized in conversation, 255; usefulness of letters, 255; inadequacy of written and spoken word, 255

POISE: What superior man seeks is in himself; ordinary men in others, 58; would do nothing merely to secure fame, 58; stands alone, 59; reward of this attainment, 59; mode and manner of

p. 319


such attainment, 59; who may be called intelligent? 60; superior man does not anticipate deceit, but apprehends it, 60; above the power of riches to corrupt and poverty to swerve, 60; indispensable, 60; examples of Shun and Yu, 61; dignified ease without pride, 64; to Shun, Confucius attributed perfect, 211

POLITICAL ECONOMY, MIDDLE PATH IN, 199-201: The universal principle, 199; Tolstoian theory presented to Mencius, 199, 200; exchange of products and division of labour, 200; he who does not command should obey, 200; discussion of communistic and anarchistic plans, 200

PREJUDICE, freedom from, 15, 16

PROPRIETY, 98-106: When respectful of, 98; rules of, on same order as ordinary man's system of morality, 98; character established by the rules of, 99; how they establish the character, 99; depraved state of men who have no conception of, 99; tribute to the superlative utility of, 100; foundation for sense of, 100; Chinese tradition concerning rules of, 100; rules, embodied expression of what is right, 101; "good form" not, 101; consequences if rites of, are neglected, 101; nine things worthy of "thoughtful consideration," 101; is seen in humbling one's self, 103; "allows no contemptuous familiarity," 103; humility and dignity has ever characterized Chinese conception of, 103; character of greater importance than, 104; urgent need of, 104; should not be over-emphasized, 104, 105; not to be neglected, 105; the man conversant with, 105; influence of such a man, 106

PROVIDENCE, 288-293: Impossible to be superior man without recognizing, 288; consequences of knowledge of these laws, 289; awaiting the appointments of, 289; justice of, 289; gives length of days to just, 289; superior man does not murmur at decrees of, 289, 290; no interposition of, 290; men ruin themselves, it is not the impartial dealing of, 290; "Calamities sent by Heaven may be avoided," but not self-caused, 290; Confucius’ conception of, 290, 291; "If Heaven had wished to let this cause of truth perish," . . . 291; riches and honours depend upon, 291; "What Heaven confers, when once lost, will not be regained," 291; discipline of, 291; constant requirement of, 291; "Awful though Heaven be it helps the sincere," 292; intimate co-operation with, 292; same harmony and graduation as between Heaven and Earth, 292; "Things that have their origin in Heaven tend upward," 293; great man is he who is in harmony with the spiritual operations of, 293

PRUDENCE: "If a man take no thought about what is distant, he will find sorrow near at hand," 91; caution necessary, 91; let there be adequate preparation, 91; "Do not commence or abandon anything hastily," 91; Confucius

p. 320


pleads for, 91, 92; sordid pursuit of wealth to be avoided, 93; competence insured by industry and, 92, 93; should not degenerate into avarice, 94; to guard against speech and conduct which cause dislike, part of, 95; self-examination as matter of, 95; application of study of cause and effect which sage enjoins upon his disciples, 96; advantages which attend this course, 97; need for caution in giving commands, 114; as regards conversation, 127

PURPOSE AND DESIRE, rectification of, 1, 13, 14, 35, 37


RICHES AND HONOURS: If acquired by unrighteousness, a floating cloud, 47; when sages distributed, 188; depend upon Heaven, 291

RIGHTEOUSNESS, 69-76: "What is life's object?" 69; if not upright, 70; if, on self-examination, I find I am upright, 70; "if the will be set on virtue," 70; should reign in men's hearts and lives, 70; a hard case if men talk not of, 70; not external, 71; to achieve well spent life, attainment of, necessary, 71; mind of superior man conversant with, 71; by superior man held of highest importance, 71; in all things essential, 72; normal attitude of, 72; nine things as regards which man must keep watch over himself, 72; elements of, described, 73; in symbolism, 73, 74; self-righteousness, 74; must coexist with shortcomings, 75; to be considered in view of gain, 75; despairs of constant, 76


SELF-CONTROL: Want of, 61; need of, 61; he who has formed worthy conceptions must not let himself be led astray in unguarded moments, 61, 62; think twice or thrice before acting, 62; act before speaking and speak according to act, 62; prudence of this course, 63; portrait of man following this course, 64; dignity accompanies, 64; average man cannot attain to it, 96

SELF-DEVELOPMENT: What man should strive for, 7; through renunciation, 7; what constitutes the superior man? 8; as revealed in "The Great Learning," 8, 9; order of, 10; universal standards for, to; Confucius’ account of his own, 11; based on sincerity, 32, 33; depends upon rectification of purpose, 35; without, cannot regulate one's family, 138; Chapter II., pp. 48-97

SELF-EXAMINATION: Requisite to explain disappointments, 42, 43, 44, 45; if it discovers nothing wrong . . what is there to fear? 58; if on, I find I am upright, 70; examines his heart that there may be nothing wrong there, 74; when we see men of worth, 83; required before assuming responsibilities, 95

SEXUAL PURITY, 131-136: "The scholar keeps himself free from all stain," 131; passages illustrating the Master's

p. 321

Sexual PurityContinued 

insistence upon, 131; "a sage only can satisfy the design of his physical organism," 132; disorder would follow were no distinction made between male and female, 133; male and female separate but seek same objects, 133; rules governing the relations of, 133; separation of sexes maintained to guard people, 134; special precautions to guard the people sexually, 134; young people should await mediation of parents, 135; "a woman's adorning herself excites lust," 135; man should not die in a woman's arms, 135; woman's sphere, 135, 136; severity of rules enjoined by Confucius in matter of avoiding temptation, 136

SINCERITY: Flows from extensive knowledge, 29, 30; childlike simplicity, true greatness, 31; faithfulness and sincerity held as first principles, 75; friends should be shown, 128. See also MAN, THE SINCERE

SPEECH, PROPRIETY OF, 113-120: Smartness of, 113; for one word man often deemed wise or foolish, 113; should be cautious about making rash promises, 113; superior man values his word, 113, 114; need for caution in giving commands, 114; proper admonition of a friend, 114; reproof is useless, warnings useful, 114; futility of reference to the past, 114; must not be misled by fair words, 115; candour of speech and earnestness of conduct, 115; superior men of old did not speak of old affairs, 116; superior man careful to maintain secrecy, 116; candour of, 116; fine words condemned when resentment is in one's heart, 116; "specious words confound virtue," 118; excessive candour possible, 118; Confucius practises polite evasion, 119; misery to those who talk of what is not good in others, 119; straightforwardness without propriety, rudeness, 120

SPEECH AND ACTION, CAUTION IN: Act first, speak in accordance, 62; reasons for caution in speech, 62; a word spoken amiss cannot be mended, 63; listen before speaking, 63; results of undertaking too much, 95

SPIRITUAL BEINGS, AND POWER, 280-284: Honouring of, 281; broader purpose of sacrifice to ancestors, 281; mastery of the inscrutable and spiritual, 281; keeping aloof from, 282; subject on which Confucius did not talk, 282; permeate all things, 282; spirit, the subtle element of all things, 282; presence of spiritual power, 283; presence of, unfathomable, 283; similarity of ancient and modern view, 283; flow of phenomena, 283; he who knows what is done by, 283; when personal character is like that of, 284; he who is possessed of completest sincerity is like a spirit, 284


TAXATION, INNOCENT AND DESTRUCTIVE, 203-207: Imposition of import duties condemned, 203; origin of

p. 322


[paragraph continues] "ground rents," 203, 204; Mencius condemns import and excise duties, 205; system of tithing explained and commended, 206; same contrasted and favoured over land tax, 206

THOUGHT OR THINKING: Superior man must be watchful over himself when alone, 3; without learning, 20

TRUTH, LOVE OF: Superior man anxious lest he should not get truth, 15; they who know truth not equal to those who love truth, 15; "I know not how a man without truthfulness is to get on," 116


VIRTUE: Knowledge, its foundation, 24, 32; one must himself perform, 29; "perfect," five points of, 31; "comfort," its antithesis, 3, 39, 40, 51; its own chief reward, 41; Confucius finds love of beauty greater than love of, 44; if will set on, no practise of wickedness, 48, 49; "perfect," is to subdue one's self, 49; firm, enduring, simple, unpretentious, near to, 49; man of virtue will not live at expense of, 50; never saw one die by treading path of, 51; emulation enjoined of perfect, 52; not remote, but at hand, 53; what is? 53; one cannot stand adversity or prosperity without, 56; acting virtuously, what is there to repine about? 57; Confucius defines perfect, 63; superior man not always virtuous, inferior, never, 71; they will even sacrifice their lives to preserve, 75; "there is that which I prize more than life," 75; superior man never acts contrary to virtue, 76; virtuous rest in, wise desire, 76; "I have not seen a person who loved," 76; subjects of which the Master seldom spoke, 92; fine words and insinuating manner seldom associated with, 107; man of perfect virtue to confirm himself, confirms others, 122; only virtuous man who can love or hate, 124; is self-realization, 265

VILLAGES, GOOD, CAREFUL PEOPLE OF THE: Thieves of virtue, 40; not to be confounded with the virtuous, 40


WEDLOCK, 140-146: Propriety begins with careful attention to marriage relations, 140; necessity of marriage ceremony, 140; such ceremony lies at foundation of government, 140; duties between husband and wife, 141; in taking a wife, not one of the same surname, 141; rank of wife, 142; marriage ceremony, 142; Confucius considers no ceremony too great, 143; mother's admonition to daughter about to wed, 143; no girl learns to rear child in order to marry, 144; a ternion, 145; Heaven alone cannot produce a man, 145; anyone may be called son of Heaven, 145; God creator of all men, 146; "faithfulness the virtue of a wife," who will not remarry, 146

p. 323

WIDOWS, ORPHANS, PROVISION FOR, 201-203: Ideal condition described in "The Grand Course," 201; prince who knew how to cherish old, sure of favour, 201; of the three great kings not one neglected age, 202; five things by which ancient kings secured good government, 202; aged men did not carry burdens, 202; system of mutual aid described by Mencius, 202, 203; equalization of seed and of yield, 203

WILL, 48-53: If set on virtue, no practise of wickedness, 48, 49, 70; of even a common man cannot be taken from him, 40; proved by resistance, 49; costs nothing to, 51; should be set on path of duty, 52; development of, 53, what is the? 53