1. Now at that time the venerable Sudhamma was residing at Makkhikâsanda in dependence upon Kitta the householder, superintending 2 the new buildings he erected 3, and being constantly supplied by him with food. And whenever Kitta the householder wished to give an invitation to the Samgha, or to four or five Bhikkhus 4, or to a single one, he used not to invite them without making special mention of the venerable Sudhamma.
Now at that time a number of the Thera Bhikkhus, including the venerable Sâriputta, and the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna, and the venerable Mahâ Kakkâna, and the venerable Mahâ Kotthita, and the venerable Mahâ Kappina, and the venerable Mahâ Kunda, and
the venerable Anuruddha, and the venerable Revata, and the venerable Upâli, and the venerable Ânanda, and the venerable Râhula, as they were journeying through the country of Kâsi, arrived at Makkhikâsanda. And Kitta the householder heard the news that the Thera Bhikkhus had arrived at Makkhikâsanda.
Then Kitta the householder went up to the place where the Thera Bhikkhus were, and on arriving there, he saluted the Thera Bhikkhus, and took his seat on one side. And when he was so seated the venerable Sâriputta taught Kitta the householder, and incited him, and roused him, and gladdened him with religious discourse. And Kitta the householder, having been thus taught, and incited, and roused, and gladdened with religious discourse, said to the Thera Bhikkhus, 'May the venerable Theras consent to take their to-morrow's meal, as incoming Bhikkhus, at my house.' And the Thera Bhikkhus signified, by silence, their consent.
2. Then perceiving that the Thera Bhikkhus had given their consent, Kitta the householder rose from his seat, and bowed down before the Thera Bhikkhus, and keeping them on his right hand as he passed them, went on to the place where the venerable Sudhamma was. And on arriving there, he saluted the venerable Sudhamma, and stood by on one side. And so standing, Kitta the householder said to the venerable Sudhamma: 'May the venerable Sudhamma consent to take his to-morrow's meal at my house with the Theras.'
But the venerable Sudhamma, thinking, 'Formerly indeed this Kitta the householder, whenever he wished to give an invitation to the Samgha, or to
four or five Bhikkhus, or to a single one, used not to invite them without making special mention of me; but now he has invited the Thera Bhikkhus without regarding me. This Kitta the householder is now incensed against me, unfavourable to me, takes pleasure in me no longer.' And so thinking he refused, saying, 'It is enough, O householder.'
And a second time Kitta the householder said to the venerable Sudhamma (&c., as before, with the same result). And a third time (&c., as before, with the same result).
Then Kitta the householder, thinking, 'What can the venerable Sudhamma do against me, whether he consents, or whether he does not consent,' saluted the venerable Sudhamma, and keeping him on his right hand as he passed him, departed thence.
3. And at the end of the night Kitta the householder made ready sweet food, both hard and soft, for the Thera Bhikkhus. And the venerable Sudhamma, thinking, 'I may as well go and see what Kitta the householder has made ready for the Thera Bhikkhus,' robed himself early in the morning, and went, duly bowled and robed, to the place where Kitta the householder dwelt; and, on arriving there, he took his seat on a mat spread out for him.
Then Kitta the householder went up to the place where the venerable Sudhamma was; and after he had come there, he saluted the venerable Sudhamma, and took his seat on one side. And when he was so seated the venerable Sudhamma addressed Kitta the householder, and said: 'Though this great store of sweet food, both hard and soft, has been made ready by you, O householder, there is one thing yet wanting, that is to say, tila seed cake.
Though then, Sir, there is so much treasure in the ward of the Buddhas, yet there is but one thing of which the venerable Sudhamma makes mention, and that is tila seed cake. Long ago, Sir, certain merchants of Dakkhinâpatha went, for the sake of their traffic, to the country of the East, and thence they brought back a hen. Now, Sir, that hen made acquaintance with a crow, and gave birth to a chicken. And, Sir, whenever that chicken tried to utter the cry of a cock it gave vent to a "caw," and whenever it tried to utter the cry of a crow, it gave vent to a "cock-a-doodle-do 1." Just even so, Sir, though there is much treasure in the ward of the Buddhas, when-ever the venerable Sudhamma speaks, the sound is "tila seed cake."'
4. 'You are abusing me, householder. You are finding fault with me, householder. This place, householder, is yours. I must go away from it,' said the venerable Sudhamma.
'I do not intend, Sir, to abuse the venerable Sudhamma, nor to find fault with him. Let, Sir, the venerable Sudhamma still dwell at Makkhikâsanda. Pleasant is this grove of plum trees, and I shall take good care to, provide the venerable Sudhamma with those things a recluse requires--to wit, with robes and food and lodging and medicine when he is sick.'
And a second time the venerable Sudhamma said: You are abusing me (&c., as before, with the same reply). And a third time the venerable Sudhamma said: 'You are abusing me (&c., as before, down to) I must go away from it.'
'Whither then, Sir, will the venerable Sudhamma go?'
'I shall go to Sâvatthi, O householder, to visit the Blessed One.'
'Then, Sir, let the Blessed One know all, both what you yourself have said, and what I have said. And I should not, Sir, be surprised if the venerable Sudhamma were to return again even to Makkhikâsanda.'
5. So the venerable Sudhamma gathered together his sleeping mat, and set out, with his bowl and his robe, for Sâvatthi. And he journeyed straight on to Sâvatthi, to the Getavana, Anâthapindika's Grove, to the place where the Blessed One was; and on arriving there he bowed down before the Blessed One, and took his seat on one side. And when he was thus seated the venerable Sudhamma informed the Blessed One of all, both that he himself had said, and that Kitta the householder had said.
The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, 'This was improper, O foolish one, not according to rule, unsuitable, unworthy of a Samana, and ought not to have been. done. How is it that you, O foolish one, could put down 1 and could lower by your censure 2 Kitta the householder, he being a man of faith, a believing disciple, and a donor, a provider, and a supporter of the Samgha?' This will not conduce, O foolish one, either to the conversion of the unconverted, or to the increase of the converted; but rather to the unconverted not being converted, and to the turning back of those who have been
converted.' And after he had rebuked him, and had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'Let therefore the Samgha, O Bhikkhus, carry out the Patisâraniya-kamma (Act of Reconciliation) 1 against the Bhikkhu Sudhamma, saying, "You are to ask and obtain pardon of Kitta the householder."'
6. 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried out. In the first place the Bhikkhu Sudhamma ought to be warned: when he has been warned, he ought to be reminded (of the Rule in the Pâtimokkha against which he has offended); when he has been reminded, he ought to be charged with the offence; when he has been charged with the offence, some discreet and able Bhikkhu ought to lay the matter before the Samgha, saying,
'"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. This Bhikkhu Sudhamma has put down, and has lowered by censure Kitta the householder, a man of faith, a believing disciple, a donor, provider and supporter of the Samgha. If the time is fit for the Samgha to do so, let the Samgha carry out the Patisâraniya-kamma against the Bhikkhu Sudhamma.
'"This is the motion (ñatti).
'"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. This Bhikkhu (&c., as before, down to) supporter of the Samgha. The Samgha hereby carries out the Patisâraniya-kamma against the Bhikkhu Sudhamma with the words, 'You are to ask and obtain pardon of Kitta the householder.' Whosoever of the venerable ones approves of the carrying out of the Patisâraniya-kamma against Sudhamma the Bhikkhu, let him remain silent. Whosoever approves not thereof, let him speak.
'"A second time I say the same thing. Let the venerable. Samgha (&c., as before). A third time I say the same thing. Let the venerable Samgha (&c:, as before).
'"The Patisâraniya-kamma has been carried out against the Bhikkhu Sudhamma with the words, 'You are to ask and obtain pardon of Kitta the householder.' The Samgha approves the motion. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand."'
359:1 The whole of this story of Kitta and Sudhamma recurs in the Dhammapada commentary, pp. 262-264. There is no Rule in the Pâtimokkha by which giving offence to a layman, the cause of the proceeding described in the following chapters, is considered worthy of censure.
359:2 Navakammiko, not 'newly appointed to an office,' as Dr. Rudolf Hoernle translates in the Indian Antiquary, XI, 29, in dealing with one of the Bharhut Inscriptions. See Gâtaka I, 92, and below, V, 13, 3, VI, 5, 2, VI, 17, 1, X, 24, This duty of superintending a new building was even filled by Bhikkhunîs; see the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pârâgika I, where the details of the duty are incidentally mentioned.
359:3 Compare below, Kullavagga VI, 5, 2, and Gâtaka I, 92, 22.
359:4 This clause, both here and below, is omitted in the Sinhalese MS.
362:1 Compare Gâtaka I, 432; II, 307.
363:1 Compare Dhammapada, p. 263, and Gâtaka I, 191.
363:2 Compare Gâtaka I, 191, 356, 359, and Sutta Nipâta, verse 905.
364:1 Childers proposes doubtingly to derive the word Patisâraniya from the root smar; but that that is impossible is probably sufficiently evident from the meaning of the word, which is quite clear from the context of this, and from the following chapters. Now at p. 530 of the Lalita Vistara the common Pâli phrase sammodanîyam katham sârânîyam vîtisâretvâ is represented by the Sanskrit sammodanîh samrañg.anîh kathâh kritvâ. It is by no means impossible that this parallel may offer the true solution of the etymology of the Pâli words in question; (compare Sârâga as equal to samrâga, sâratta to samrakta, &c. &c.) Patisâraniya would then be equal to pratisamrañganîya. See Senart, Mahâvagga, p. 599.