Sacred-Texts Buddhism SBE 11 Index Previous Next
RULES WHICH REQUIRE, AS WELL IN THEIR EARLIER AS IN THEIR LATER STAGES, FORMAL MEETINGS OF THE ORDER1.
Here, venerable Sirs, the thirteen matters, which, as well in their earlier as in their later stages, require formal meetings of the Order, come into recitation.
1. The emission of semen by design, except by a person sleeping, is a Samghâdisesa.
2. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, being degraded2, shall, with perverted3 mind, come into bodily contact with a woman, by taking hold of her hand, or by taking hold ofher hair, or by touching any part of her body--that is a Samghâdisesa.
3. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, being degraded, shall, with perverted mind, address a woman with wicked words, exciting to passion as those of a young man to a maid--that is a Samghâdisesa4.
4. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, being degraded, shall, with perverted mind, magnify, in the hearing of a woman, ministration to himself1 (by saying), 'This, Sister would be the noblest of ministrations, that to so righteous and exalted a religious person as myself you should ministrate by that act,' (meaning) sexual intercourse--that is a Samghâdisesa.
5. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall act as a go-between for a woman to a man, or for a man to a woman, or for a wife, or for a paramour, or even for a harlot--that is a Samghâdisesa.
6. A Bhikkhu who, begging (the materials) together, is having a hut put up for his own use, to belong to no one (else), must have it made of due measurement. And herein this is the measurement--in length twelve spans according to the accepted span2, in breadth seven spans (measured) inside. p. 9 The Bhikkhus must be brought to the place to approve the site; and those Bhikkhus shall approve a site free from danger1, and with an open space around it2. If a Bhikku shall, at his own request, have a hut put up on a dangerous site, without the open space around it, or shall not bring the Bhikkus to approve the site, or shall exceed the (due) measure--that is a Samghâdisesa.
7. A Bhikkhu who is having a large3 residence made for his own use, and to belong (also) to others, shall bring the Bhikkhus to the place to approve the site; and those Bhikkhus shall approve a site free from danger, and with an open space around it. If a Bhikkhu shall have a large residence made on a dangerous site, without the open space around it, or shall not bring the Bhikkhus to the place to approve the site--that is a Samghâdisesa.
8. Whatsoever Bhikkhu4, in harshness, malice, or anger, shall harass (another) Bhikkhu by a groundless (charge of having committed) a Pârâgika offence, thinking to himself, 'Perchance I may (thus) get him to fall from this religious life5:--and then at some later time, either when he is pressed, or without his being pressed, the case turns out to be groundless, p. 10 and the Bhikkhu confesses his malice1--that is a Samghâdisesa.
9. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, in harshness, malice, or anger, shall harass another Bhikkhu by a groundless charge of having committed a Pârâgika offence, supporting himself by some point or other of no importance in a case that really rests on something of a different kind; thinking to himself, 'Perchance I may thus get him to fall from this religious life'--and then at .some later time, either when he is pressed, or without his being pressed, the case turns out to rest on something of a different kind, and that Bhikkhu confesses his malice-that is a Samghâdisesa2.
10. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall go about to cause division in a community3 that is at union, or shall persist in calling attention to some matter calculated to cause division, that Bhikkhu should thus be addressed by the Bhikkhus: 'Sir, go not about to cause division in a community that is at union,' or, 'Persist not in calling attention to a matter calculated to cause division;' 'Be, Sir, at one with the community, for the community, being at unity, in harmony, without dispute, dwells pleasantly under p. 11 one authority1.'If that Bhikkhu, when he has thus been spoken to by the Bhikkhus, should persist as before, then let that Bhikkhu be (formally) admonished about it by the Bhikkhus as a body2, even to the third time, to the intent that he abandon that course. If, while being so admonished up to the third time, he abandon that course, it is well: if he abandon it not--that is a Samghâdisesa.
11. Now if other Bhikkhus, one, or two, or three, become adherents of that Bhikkhu, and raise their voices on his side; if they should say thus: 'Say not, Sirs, anything against. that Bhikkhu! That Bhikkhu both speaks according to the Dhamma, and he speaks according to the Vinaya; it is our wish, too, and desire, that he adopts, and gives expression to; and he speaks, knowing that what he says appears to us also to be right:'--then let those Bhikkhus be addressed by the Bhikkhus thus: 'Say not so, Sirs! That Bhikkhu speaks not according to the Dhamma, neither does he speak according to the Vinaya. Let not, Sirs, the causing of division in the community be pleasing to you! Be, Sirs, at one with the community! for the community, being at unity, in harmony, without dispute, dwells pleasantly under one discipline.' If those Bhikkhus, when they have thus been spoken to by the Bhikkhus, should persist as before, those Bhikkhus should be p. 12 (formally) adjured by the Bhikkhus, as a body, even to the third time, to the end that they abandon that course. If, while being so adjured, up to the third time, they abandon that course, it is well: if they abandon it not--that is a Samghâdisesa.
12. Should a Bhikkhu refuse to listen to what is said to him1; and when spoken to by the Bhikkhus, in accordance with the Dhamma2, touching the precepts handed clown in the body of recited law3, will allow nothing to be said to him (objecting), 'Say nothing to me, Sirs, either good or bad: and I will say nothing, either good or bad, to you. Be good enough, Sirs, to refrain from speaking to me!'--then let that Bhikkhu be addressed by the Bhikkhus thus: 'Do not, Sir, make yourself a person who cannot be spoken to: make yourself rather, Sir, a person to whom we can speak. Speak to the Bhikkhus, Sir, in accordance with the Dhamma; and the Bhlkkhus, Sir, will speak in accordance with the Dhamma to you. For thus has the church4 of the Blessed One grown large; that is to say, by mutual converse, and by mutual help5.' If that Bhikkhu, when he has thus been spoken to by the Bhikkhus, should persist as before, then let that Bhikkhu be p. 13 (formally) adjured by the Bhikkhus as a body, even to the third time, to the end that he abandon that course. If, while being so adjured, up to the third time, he abandon that course, it is well: if he abandon it not--that is a Samghâdisesa.
13. Should a Bhikkhu dwell near a certain village or town, leading a life hurtful to the laity, and devoted to evil, (so that) his evil deeds are seen and heard, and the families led astray by him are seen and heard, let that Bhikkhu be spoken to by the Bhikkhus thus: 'Your life, Sir, is hurtful to the laity, and evil; your evil deeds, Sir, are seen and heard; and families are seen and heard to be led astray by you. Be so good, Sir, as to depart from this residence; you have dwelt here, Sir, long enough.' If, when that Bhikkhu is thus addressed by the Bhikkhus he should answer the Bhikkhus thus: 'The Bhikkhus are walking in longing, the Bhikkhus are walking in malice, the Bhikkhus are walking in delusion, the Bhikkhus are walking in fear; and, for a fault of a like nature, they send some away, and some they send not away1:'--then that Bhikkhu should be spoken to by the Bhikkhus thus: 'Say not so, Sir! The Bhikkhus walk not in longing, the Bhikkhus walk not in malice, the Bhikkhus walk not in delusion, the Bhikkhus walk not in fear; and they send not some away, for a fault of a like nature, while they send others not away. Your life, Sir, is hurtful to the laity, and evil; your evil deeds, Sir, are seen and heard, and families are seen and heard, Sir, to be led astray by you. Be so good, Sir, as to depart from this residence; you have dwelt p. 14 here, Sir, long enough.' If that Bhikkhu, when thus spoken to by the Bhikkhus should persist as before, that Bhikkhu should be (formally) adjured by the Bhikkhus as a body, even to the third time, to the end that he abandon that course. If, while beîng so adjured, up to the third time, he abandon that course, it is well: if he abandon it not--that is a Samghâdisesa.
Venerable Sirs, the thirteen matters which require, as well in their earlier as in their later stages, formal meetings of the Order, have been recited; nine which become offences at once, and four which are not completed until the third admonition.
If a Bhikkhu have committed either one or other of these1, for as many days as he knowingly conceals his sin, for so many days must that Bhikkhu, even against his will, remain in probation2. When the probation is over, that Bhikkhu must, for six further days, undergo the Mânatta discipline3 (Penance). When the Penance has been removed, that Bhikkhu must be reinstated in some place where the community of the Bhikkhus forms a body of twenty. If a community of Bhikkhus forming a body of less than twenty, even by one, should reinstate that Bhikkhu, he is not reinstated, and that community is blameworthy. This is the proper course in that case.
In respect of them I ask the venerable ones, 'Are you pure in this matter?'
A second time I ask the venerable ones, 'Are you pure in this matter?'
A third time I ask the venerable ones, 'Are you pure in this matter?'
The venerable ones are pure herein. Therefore do they keep silence. Thus I understand.
Here endeth the recitation of the Samghâdisesas.
Next: Pâtimokkha - Aniyatâ Dhammâ
1 The expression is curious, but the authorites given (sub voce) are decisive as to its meaning. Whereas the Pârâgika offences were dealt with in one meeting of the Order, these thirteen offences gave rise to the various Samghakammas (formai resolutions or proceedings at meetings of the Order), which are explained in detail in the third Khandhaka of the Kullavagga.
The text of, and the ancient commentary on this portion of the Pâtimokkha will be round in the Vibhanga in the Book on the Samghâdisesas.
2 Otinno, literally, 'having gone down,' which the old commentator in the Vibhanga explains as 'lustfully, or with a mind bound by desire.' Our word 'degraded' has often a very similar connotation.
3 Viparinatena, literally, 'changed;' here 'changed for the worse.' Compare Mahâ-sudassana Sut ta II, 39, and the Old Com- ment at Minayeff, p. 64.
4 Compare the second Aniyata.
1 Attakâmapârikariyâ, perhaps 'to his lusts;' but we follow the old commentator.
2 Sugata-vidatthiyâ. Dickson translates 'of the span of Buddha,' Sugata being one of the many epithets applied to the Buddha in poetry, or poetical prose. Mr. James D'Alwis in the Ceylon Asiatic Society's Journal for 1874 has a long article to show that this cannot be the correct meaning of the word 'Sugata' in this connection; and we think he is right, though his discussion as to what it does mean (evidently more than a simple span) seems to lead to no certain conclusion. The older Ceylon commentators take the expression as being equal to one and a half carpenter's cubits, a 'carpenter's cubit' (Simhalese Wadu-riyana) being two ordinary cubits, so that 'the Buddha's span' (as they translate it) would be four feet and a half! But the Bhikkhus of the present day in Ceylon take it to be equal to the length of the supposed foot-print of the Buddha on Adam's Peak; that is, four ordinary cubits, or six feet. See Dickson's note; and compare Nissaggiya 15, and Pâkittiya 87-92.
There is no comment on the phrase in the Old Commentary, which is especially curious if the word Sugata meant 'the Buddha's,' that is to say, the Buddha's span, when that work was composed.
1 That is, either to living creatures (birds, ants, and so on) by clearing the site; or to the future resident after it is built. See the old commentator's note on Sârambha at Minayeff, p. 71.
2 'Sufficient for a cart drawn by a yoke of oxen to pass round it,' according to the old commentator.
3 Mahallaka. Compare Kullavagga VI, 11, 1.
4 In the text read, of course, Bhikkhu, not Bhikkhû.
5 I. e. to throw off the robes, to leave the Order.
1 Dosam was probably meant here to refer to the doso at the beginning of the rule.
2 For instance, the Bhikkhu has seen that A, who is a Khattiya, has committed some offence. He says either that he has seen a Khattiya commit that offence, and thus harasses an innocent person; or he says that A has committed a Pârâgika offence, whereas the offence is of a lesser nature.
For kaveyyan in the text read kâveyyan.
3 Samgha; that is, the company of the Brethren dwelling in one place, or in one district.
1 Ekuddeso; that is, the authority of the rules recited in the Pâtimokkha.
2 Samanubhâsitabbo. We think 'admonish' is not too strong a rendering of this term; and not inconsistent with the equality of the fraternity, as the admonition comes from the united body. The preposition sam need not imply a Samghakamma, which appears to have been necessary only after the Samghâdisesa offence had been completed. We occasionally render the word by 'adjure.'
1 Dubbako is not 'unruly,' as Dickson has, following Childers, who gives 'abusive, unruly, violent.' It means rather 'difficult to reason with, averse to instruction.' Compare Gâtaka I, 151, 152.
2 Sahadhammikam, which is here adverbial; and where the Dhamma refers to the Rules, as is pointed out in the Introduction.
3 Uddesa-pariyâpannesu; uddesa being here practically the same as Pâtimokkha.
4 Parisâ, 'the retinue, the followers, the adherents,' referring here to the Samgha only.
5 In the text read vutthâpanena.
1 On the use of Pabbâgeti in this sense comp. the 2nd Pâr.
1 Literally, 'of which.' In the text there should be no full stop after yâvatatiyakâ.
2 On the regulations respecting Parivâsa (Probation), see Kullavagga II, 1-3.
3 On the regulations respecting Mânatta (Penance), see Kullavagga II, 6-8.