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Buddhist Scriptures, by E.J. Thomas, [1913], at

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Gotama, at the ago of sixteen, was married to his cousin, Yasodharā, who in the sacred texts is usually called "the mother of Rāhula." After his enlightenment Gotama returned to his native city, begging alms through the streets. His father came and was converted. His wife remained in her room till Gotama should come to her, saying, "If I am virtuous enough to merit this honour, my husband will come himself to see me, and then I will salute him respectfully." This he did, and his father told how since she had heard that her husband was wearing yellow robes, and eating one meal a day, she had done the same. His son Rāhula entered the Order.

At that time, on hearing that the mother of Rāhula had borne a son, king Suddhodana sent the message, "Announce the happy news to my son." The Bodhisatta, when he heard, said, "Rāhula [or, an impediment] is born, a fetter is born." The king asked, "What did my son say?" and on hearing the words, said, "Henceforth let the name of my grandson be prince Rāhula." But the Bodhisatta mounted a splendid chariot and entered the city with great honour and most delightful majestic glory. At that

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time a girl of the warrior caste named Kisāgotamī had gone to the top of the palace, and beheld the beauty and glory of the Bodhisatta, as he made a rightwise procession round the city; and, filled with joy and delight, she made this solemn utterance:

Happy indeed that mother is,
Happy indeed that father is,
Happy indeed that wife is,
Whose husband is such as he.

[paragraph continues] The Bodhisatta, on hearing it, thought, "Thus she spoke; on her seeing such a form a mother's heart wins Nirvana, a father's heart wins Nirvana, a wife's heart wins Nirvana. Now on what being extinguished 1 does the heart attain Nirvana?" And with aversion in his mind for the passions he thought, "When the fire of lust is extinguished Nirvana is won; when the fire of hate, the fire of delusion are extinguished, Nirvana is won; when pride, false views, and all the passions and pains are extinguished Nirvana is won. She has taught me a good lesson, for I am in search of Nirvana; even to-day ought I to reject and leave a household life, and go forth from the world to seek Nirvana. Let this be her teacher's fee." And taking from his

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neck a pearl necklace worth 100,000 pieces, he sent it to Kisāgotamī. She was filled with delight, and thought, "Prince Siddhattha has fallen in love with me, and has sent me a present." But the Bodhisatta with great majestic glory entered his palace and lay down on the royal bed.

Now beautiful women, decked with all adornments, well trained in dancing, singing, and so on, like celestial girls, took various musical instruments, and came round him, diverting him with dancing, singing, and music. The Bodhisatta, through his mind being averse to the passions, took no pleasure in the dancing and music, and fell asleep for a short time. The women thought, "He for whose sake we are dancing and singing has fallen asleep; why do we now weary ourselves?" And taking their instruments they strewed them about and lay down. Lamps of perfumed oil were burning. The Bodhisatta, on waking up, sat cross-legged upon the bed, and saw the women sleeping with their instruments thrown about, some with phlegm trickling and their bodies wet with spittle, some grinding their teeth, some snoring, some muttering, some with open mouths, some with their dress fallen apart, and repulsive parts disclosed. On seeing their disgraceful appearance he was still more averse to pleasures. The hall, though adorned and decorated like the palace of Sakka, seemed to him like a cemetery

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filled with all sorts of corpses strewn about, and the three modes of existence appeared like a house on fire. His solemn utterance broke forth, "How oppressive it is, how afflicting it is!" and his thought turned mightily to abandoning the world. Thinking, "To-day I must make the great renunciation," he rose from his bed and went towards the door. "Who is there?" he said. Channa, who had put his head on the threshold, said, "Noble sir, it is I, Channa." "To-day I wish to make the great renunciation; saddle me a horse." Channa replied, "Yes, your Highness," and taking the horse-trappings he went to the stable, and by the light of scented oil-lamps he saw Kanthaka, the king of horses, standing in a goodly stall beneath a jasmine-flowered canopy. "This is the one I must saddle to-day," he said, and he saddled Kanthaka. The horse, as he was being saddled, thought, "This is very tight harness; it is not like harness used on other days in going for pleasure in the park. My noble master must to-day be wishing to make the great renunciation." So with delighted mind he gave a great neigh. The sound would have extended through the whole city, but the gods suppressed the sound and allowed no one to hear.

When the Bodhisatta had sent Channa, he thought, "Now I will go and see my son," and rising from where he was sitting cross-legged

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he went to the room of Rāhula's mother, and opened the door. At that moment a scented oil-lamp was burning in the room. The mother of Rāhula was sleeping on a bed strewn with jasmine and other flowers, and with her hand on her son's head. The Bodhisatta put his foot on the threshold and stood looking. "If I move the queen's hand and take my son, the queen will awake. Thus there will be an obstacle to my going. When I have become a Buddha I will come and see him." And he went down from the palace.

[With Channa riding behind him he passed through the city-gates, which were opened by divine beings, and rode as far as the river Anomā. He there crossed the river, cut off his hair, and sent Channa back with the horse.]

But the horse Kanthaka, who stood listening to the voice of the Bodhisatta, as he deliberated with Channa, thought, "Now I shall never see my master again." And when he passed out of sight, he was unable to bear the grief, and his heart broke, and he died and was born again in the heaven of the Thirty-three gods as a son of the gods named Kanthaka.

At first Channa had had one grief, but when Kanthaka died, he was overcome by a second grief, and returned weeping and lamenting to the city. (Jāt. Introd. I. 60 f.)


33:1 The word is nibbuta. It is the same word that is translated "happy" in the utterance of Kisāgotamī. Gotama plays on the other meaning of the word, and makes her saying an argument for renunciation.

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