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AMOUNT OF RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE.--GODS, GENII AND MALIGNANT SPIRITS. The Spirits Lhamayin and Dudpos. The legends about Lhamo, Tsangpa, and Chakdor.--PRAYERS.

Amount of religious knowledge.

IT is evident that a religion containing so much of philosophical speculation and divided into many various systems, schools and sects, cannot be known in its full extent by the lower classes forming the bulk of the population, but only by those of a certain degree of education. Csoma, who paid great attention during his personal intercourse to the general amount of religious knowledge amongst the various classes, gives the following details in his "Notices:"[1]

"The systems Vaibhâshika, Sautrântika, Yogâchârya, and Madhyamika, are well known to many of the learned

[1. Journ. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. VII., p. 145.]

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in Tibet; but there are, on the other hand, many who are acquainted with their names only. The works explanatory of the Yogâchârya and Madhyamika theories can be understood only by the learned, because they deal with too many abstract terms and minute distinctions, while the generality of the religious persons (or the clergy) prefer reading Tantrika works, and of the Kanjur, the Dulva (or discipline), and some tracts of the Do (or Sûtra) class." He adds, that the Tibetans are tolerably familiar with the dogma of the "three vehicles" (Tib. Thegpasum, Sanskr. Triyâna).[1] This dogma, which has been taken from the Mahâyâna schools, is explained in detail in the Tibetan compendiums entitled Lamrim, or the gradual way to perfection, of which the most celebrated was written by Tsonkhapa. The argumentations of these books are taken from the consideration, that the dogmas of the Buddha are intended alike for the lowest, the mean or middle, and the highest capacities; as they contain low, or vulgar, middle, and high principles; thus, from the knowledge of each of these classes a particular degree of perfection is deducible. They then describe what a man must believe according to his capacities, in the following terms:

1. "Men of vulgar capacities must believe, that there is a God, that there is a future life, and that they shall earn the fruits of their works in this, their worldly life.

2. Those that are in a middle degree of intellectual and moral capacity, besides admitting the former

[1. Compare p. 22.]

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positions, must know, that every compound thing is perishable, that there is no reality in things; that every imperfection is pain, and that deliverance from pain, or bodily existence, is final happiness or beatitude.

3. Those of the highest capacities must know, in addition to the above enumerated dogmas, that from the body, or last object, to the supreme soul, nothing is existent by itself; neither can it be said that it will continue always or cease absolutely, but that every thing exists by a dependent, or causal connexion (or concatenation).

5. With respect to practice, those of vulgar capacity are content with the exercise of the ten virtues. Those of a middle degree, besides fulfilling the ten virtues, endeavour to excel in morality, meditation, and ingenuity, or wisdom. Those of the highest capacities, besides the former virtues, will perfectly exercise the six transcendental virtues."

Also with reference to the summum bonum of beatitude or perfection, three degrees are distinguished. Some are already content with a happy transmigration, and limit their wishes to be re-born as gods, men or Asuras. Others hope to be rewarded by a re-birth in Sukhavatî, and to be delivered from pain and bodily existence. A third class wishes not only to attain Nirvâna for themselves, but also to show others the paths leading to it in a future period as most perfect Buddhas.

Such a power, however, can only be gained by those

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who enter the priesthood, or, as the Lama say, who take the vows, Dom. There are many legends illustrating the merits to be acquired by entering the religious order and inculcating the necessity of doing so.[1] The idea at last grew into an undisputable dogma, that laymen cannot gain the Bôdhi in their present existence, but only in a future state; their actual religious occupations will secure the reward of re-birth in a happy condition, or in Amitâbha's celestial region, but, with respect to the Supreme rank of a Buddha, their attempts are nothing but preparations.

Clear and intelligible as these principles are, they have been found nevertheless, too learned for the lay followers of Buddhism; and for a more general diffusion, a code of eight specific duties was drawn up, forming a practical summary of the laws of the Buddhist faith. The contents of the popular code are given in Csoma's paper as follows:

1. To take refuge only with Buddha.

2. To form in one's mind the resolution to strive to attain the highest degree of perfection, in order to be united with the supreme intelligence.

3. To prostrate one'sself {sic} before the image of Buddha; to adore him.

4. To bring offerings before him, such as are pleasing to any of the six senses: as, lights, flowers, garlands, incenses, perfumes; all kinds of edible and drinkable things (whether raw, or prepared);

[1. See p. 27, 38.--I cite as an example Schmidt, "Dsang-lun, der Weise und der Thor," p. 108.]

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stuffs, cloths, &c. for garments and hanging ornaments.

5. To make music, sing hymns, and utter the praises of Buddha, respecting his person, doctrine, love or mercy, perfections or attributes; and his acts, or performances, for the benefit of all animal beings.

8. To confess one's sins with contrite heart; to ask forgiveness for them and to resolve sincerely not to commit the like hereafter.

7. To rejoice in the moral merits of all animal beings, and to wish that they may thereby obtain final emancipation or beatitude.

8. To pray and entreat all the Buddhas that are now in the world to turn the wheel of religion (or to teach their doctrines), and not to leave the world too soon, but to remain here for many ages, or Kalpas.

Gods, genii, and malignant spirits.

The Tibetan Buddhists believe well-being and misfortune alike to depend upon the action of gods, genii, and malignant spirits.' The gods are considered to exist in large numbers; they derive their divine nature from having received a particle of the supreme intelligence, which possesses such power and is of such

[1. Many instances of this belief, common to all the Buddhist races of Asia (Schmidt, "Forschungen," p. 137; "Ssanang Ssetsen," p. 352; Marsden, "The travels of Marco Polo," pp. 151), 163), will be found in the writers on Tibet.]

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illimitable extent as to allow of a division amongst any number of beings. All gods are, therefore, embodiments and multiplications of one and the same supreme wisdom, created for the purpose of choosing the, most suitable way for the salvation of mankind from Samsâra (the world).[1] In the face of all these gods, the Lamas emphatically maintain monotheism to be the real character of Buddhism.

In Tibetan the collective name for deity (god and genius) is Lha, an appellative similar to its Sanskrit equivalent Deva, meaning a god, a divinity. The deities have each their particular names, by which they are worshipped, as also their definite spheres, beyond which they cannot exercise any power, but within which they cannot be influenced by another god. They materially assist man in his undertakings, and remove the dangers with which they may be threatened from natural phenomena--acts in which they feel great delight and pleasure and which they perform in a state of calmness, Zhiva. There exist male as well as female deities, the latter being either the wives of male deities, deriving from the husband the same power of which he is the possessor, or they are endowed with special faculties of their own. Of this kind are the Samvaras (in Tibetan Dechog), and the Hêrukas, female genii equal in power to the Buddhas, whose images occur in numerous religious pictures.[2]

[1. Schmidt, in Mém. de l'Acad. de Petersb., Vol. I., p. 119.

2. Csoma in his Analysis, As. Res., Vol. XX., p. 489, considers these divine beings as two gods or demons, and, in an other passage, p. 491, he calls the Hêruka a deified saint of the character of Siva, and the Samvara a Dâkinî. He {footnote p. 109} also treats of both in the singular number; but Burnouf, "Introduction," p. 538, doubts whether Samvara be a proper name; and his opinion is supported by the fact that various Samvaras and Hêrukas occur in pictures; as well as by the Tibetan treatise Dechogi gyut, in which numerous Samvaras and Hêrukas are mentioned. The case appears to be similar to that of Shinje, the judge of the dead (see p. 93), whose assistants, the Dudpos, are likewise styled Shinjes.]

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The malignant spirits are designated by names expressive of their hostility towards man, as Da, "enemy," Geg, "devil;" the most dreaded are the Lhamayin and the Dudpos.

To the Lhamayin, amongst which also man may be re-born (see p. 92), the Yakshas, the Nâgas, the Râkshasas, and many other groups of ill-natured spirits are subjected; their particular adversaries are the four Maharajas (Tib. Gyalchen zhi), who dwell upon the fourth step of the mount Mêru.[1] Amongst these evil spirits those deserve a particular notice who cause the Dusmayinpar chi, or "untimely death." According to the belief of the Tibetans, that is considered an untimely death, which, in opposition to the ordinary course of nature, is accelerated by the evil spirits, such as Sringan, Dechad, Jungpo, and others. As a consequence of premature decease, the "Bardo," is prolongated. This is the middle state between the death and the new re-birth, which does not follow immediately, but there exists an interval, which is shorter for the good than for the bad. The prolongation of this intermediate state is considered as a punishment caused by evil spirits who have only power over sinful men. The soul exists during this interval without any shape whatever, and the

[1. See Burnouf, "Introduction," p. 603. Schmidt, in Mém. de l'Acad. de Petersb., Vol. II., p. 33 et seq.]

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wretched ones, who have been seized by the spirits, make earnest efforts but without success to get placed within a body. At such moments they appear to men as a raw, shapeless piece of meat, and such a vision is considered unlucky, boding illness and even death., Dhârânîs and particular offerings are supposed to keep off such dreaded visions, and the wealthy have magical sentences and treatises printed, of which the following are the most frequently met with:[1] Choichi gyalpoi shed dul, "to break the power of Choigyal," an epithet of Shinje; Tamdin gyalpoi sri nanpa, "to subdue the honourable King Tamdin"; Dragpo chinsreg, "the fierce sacrifice;"[2] Jig grol gyi pavo "the hero delivering from the danger (of Bardo)."[3]

The Dudpos, the assistants of Shinje, the judge of the dead, and often likewise called Shinjes, inhabit the region Paranirmita Vasavartin ("that exercises a power over the metamorphoses produced by others"), the highest in the world of desire. They try to hinder the depopulation of the world by supporting man in evil desire, and by keeping off the Bôdhisattvas from attaining the Bôdhi; it is they who disturb the devoutness of assembled Buddhists, and put an end to steady meditation by assuming the shape of a beautiful woman, or by suggesting

[1. Untimely death is also enumerated in a Tantra of the Kanjur amongst the objects of fear against which protection is obtained by the Dhâranîs therein mentioned. Csoma, "Analysis," As. Res., Vol. XX., p. 519. Respecting the dogma of the Bardo, see Wassiljew, "Der Buddhismus," p. 110.

2. Chinsreg is the Tibetan name for the burnt-offering, a description of which is to be found in Chapter XV., No. 2; about Tamdin compare No. 5.

3. In full title: Bardo phrang grol gyi sol debjig grol gyi pavo zhechava "a petition protecting from the chasm of Bardo, or a hero delivering from the danger (of Bardo)."]

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ludicrous ideas, by asserting that those who do not enjoy the pleasures of life shall be re-born in hell, with many other tricks of a similar nature. But they are also those spirits who, when the time of death has arrived, seize the released soul and bring it before Shinje, their King, to be tried and sentenced according to its works. The apparent contradiction of this function with their tendency to induce man to abandon himself to pleasure in existence, is to be explained from the dogma, "that birth and decay cannot be separated;" whence it results that the gods who cause existence simultaneously bring. into action the destructive power, which is the unavoidable consequence of existence.[1]

To subdue the evil spirits, is one of the most important duties of the gods and genii, and they assume a horrible aspect when fighting with the evil spirits: during these such dreadful encounters, they are supposed to become highly inflamed with rage. Though any god is at liberty to subdue any of the evil spirits, yet there exist a particular class who have especially devoted themselves to the extirpation of evil spirits, in the pursuance of which object they are further confirmed by an awful oath deposited in the hands of the Buddha Vajradhara.[2] These gods are called Dragsheds,[3] "the cruel hangmen," and their anger against the evil spirits--so

[1. Foe koue ki, Engl. transl., p. 248. Schmidt, Mém. de l'Acad. de Petersb., Vol. II., p. 24. "Ssanang Ssetsen," p. 310.

2. See about him p. 50 et seq.

3. From dragpo, "cruel, wrathful," and gshed-ma "a hangman." In Mongolia out of this variety of Dragsheds eight are particularly worshipped; they are styled, according to Pallas, "Mongol. Völker," Vol. II., p. 95, Naiman Dokshot.]

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the legends relate--arose in consequence of the innumerable tricks that had been played off upon them by the latter. There are again subdivisions amongst the Dragsheds themselves. The one called Yab yum chudpa, "the father embracing his mother," in addition to his power of successfully keeping off a legion of evil spirits, is also able to deliver man from his sins, if the latter sincerely repent and confess them prostrate before his image. These representations show them in a curious position, with a female tenderly clasped round their bodies.

As an addition to the number of the legendary tales communicated by Pallas concerning the eight Dragsheds whom the Mongolians predominantly implore, I insert here the legends about Lhamo (Sanskr. Kâladevî), Tsangpa (Sanskr. Brahma), and Chakdor or Chakna dorje (Sanskr. Vajrapâni), having become the adversaries of the evil spirits.

The legend about Lhamo (Sanskr. Kâladevî). The goddess Lhamo[1] was married to Shinje, the king of the Dudpos, who at the time of the marriage had assumed the form of the king of Ceylon. The goddess had made a vow, either to soften her husband's notoriously wild and wicked manners, and make him favourably disposed towards the religion of Buddha, or, failing in her praiseworthy endeavours, to extirpate a royal race so

[1. In a prayer addressed to this goddess, and which is printed on Plate No. III., she is also invoked by the name of Rimate.--The present legend is related in the book Paldan Lhamoi kang shag, "to perform confession before the venerated Lhamo," a treatise which is read when offerings are presented to this goddess. A copy of this book in Tibetan and Mongolian is in the library of the Petersburgh university. The Mongolian edition contains some details in Kalmnk, which are not met with in the Tibetan.]

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hostile to his creed by killing the children that might issue from the marriage. Unfortunately it was beyond her power to effect an improvement in the evil ways of the king, and, accordingly, she determined to kill their son, who was greatly beloved by his father because in him he had hoped to put a complete end to Buddhism in Ceylon. During a temporary absence of the king, the goddess put her design in execution; she flayed her son alive, drank the blood from out his skull, and even ate his flesh. She then left the palace and set out for her northern home, using her son's skin as a saddle for the king's best horse. On his return, seeing what had happened, the king at once seized a bow, and, with a terrible incantation, shot off a poisoned arrow after his dreadful wife. The arrow pierced the horse's back, in which it stuck fast; but the queen, neutralizing the efficacy of the imprecation, took out the deadly weapon and uttered the following sentence: "May the wound of my horse become an eye large enough to overlook the twenty-four regions, and may I myself extirpate the race of these malignant kings of Ceylon!" The goddess then continued her journey towards the north, traversing in great haste India, Tíbet, Mongolia, and part of China, and finally settling in the mountain Oikhan, in the district Olgon, which is supposed to be situate in Eastern Siberia. This mountain is said to be surrounded by large, uninhabited deserts, and by the ocean Muliding.[1]

[1. A portrait of Lhamo, who is identical with the goddess Okkin Tängri of the Mongolians, and with the Chammo or Lchamu of Pallas (Mongol. Völkerschaften, Vol. II., p. 98), I found added to the picture of the thirty-five Buddhas {footnote p. 114} of confession described p. 97. There is a similar representation of her in Plate VI. of Pallas's work, beneath the central figure; in Fig. 5, Plate IX., she is represented without the staff and the skull-cup.]

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The legend about Tsangpa (Brahma). Tsangpa, a follower of the Buddha, who had retired into the woods, was on the point of discovering the secrets of the Buddha doctrine by extraordinary meditation and the practice of virtues, when a Dudpo appeared before him in the shape of a beautiful woman, who offered him exquisite delicacies. Tsangpa incautiously partook of them, was soon drunk, and in his phrensy killed the ram upon which the demon had ridden. By this savage act he lost the merits of the good works which he had accumulated with so much pain and perseverance, and attained no higher degree than that of a common follower, or Upâsaka (Tib. Genyen).[1] Tsangpa was now filled with rage towards the evil spirits, and took an awful oath, in the hands of of {sic} the Buddha Vajradhara, vowing to do his utmost to extirpate the pernicious race through which he had lost his position.[2]

The legend about Chakdor (Vajrapâni).[3] Once upon a time the Buddhas all met together on the top of Mount Mêru, to deliberate upon the means of procuring the water of life, Dutsi (Sanskr. Amrita), which lies

[1. I have already stated that these are not virtually admitted to the rank of a Buddha. See pp. 28, 38, 106.

2. This legend inclines me to believe that Manjusrî, a Bôdhisattva, and the god of wisdom (see p. 65), do not, when repelling the obnoxious Choichishalba, take the dreadful form of Yamântaka by order of Sâkyamuni, as Pallas was informed (see his Mong. Völker., Vol. II., p. 96), but assumed it of his own free will, and in consequence of a similar snare laid for him.

3. This legend is given in the book Drimed shel phreng, "spotless garland of crystals." For an image of Vajrapâni see Plate II.]

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To face p. 114. Plate II.


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To face p. 114. Plate III.


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concealed at the bottom of the deep ocean. In their benevolence, they intended, as soon as they obtained possession of the water of life, to distribute it amongst the human race as a powerful antidote against the strong poison Hala hala, which the evil demons, at this period, had been using with such mischievous effect against mankind.

In order to procure the antidote they determined to churn the ocean with the mountain Mêru, and so cause the water of life to rise to the surface of the sea. This they did, and delivered the water of life to Vajrapâni, with orders to secure it safely until a future meeting, when they would impart it to living beings. But the monster Râhu[1] (Tib. Dachan), a Lhamayin, happened to hear of this precious discovery, and having carefully watched Vajrapâni's movements, seized an opportunity, in the absence of the latter, to drink :the water of life; not satisfied with this act, he even voided his Water deliberately into the vessel. He then hurried away as fast as possible, and had already proceeded a great distance, when Vajrapâni came home, and having perceived the theft, instantly set out in pursuit of the culprit. In the course of his flight Râhu had passed the sun and

[1. In his "Manual of Buddhism," p. 58, Hardy has extracted from Singhalese books the following mythical measurements of Râhu's body: "Râhu is 76,000 miles high, 19,000 miles broad across the shoulders; his head is 14,500 miles round; his forehead is 4,800 miles broad; from eye brow to eye-brow he measures 800 miles; his mouth is 3,200 miles in size, and 4,800 miles deep; the palm of his hand is 5,600 miles in size; the joint of his fingers 800 miles; the sole of his foot 12,000 miles; from his elbow to the tip of his fingers is 19,000 miles; and with one finger he can cover the sun or moon, so as to obscure their light."]

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the moon, whom he menaced with vengeance, should they venture to betray him to Vajrapâni. His searches proving fruitless, Vajrapâni betook himself to the sun, and asked him about Râhu. But the sun replied evasively, saying, that he had certainly seen somebody passing a long time ago,. but had paid no particular attention as to who it was. The moon, on the other hand, returned a candid answer, only requesting that Vajrapâni would not repeat it before Râhu. Upon this information Râhu was shortly afterwards overtaken, when he got such a terrible blow from Vajrapâni's sceptre that, besides receiving many wounds, his body was split into two parts, the lower part of the body with the legs being entirely blown off.

The Buddhas once more held a meeting, in which they deliberated upon the best means of disposing of Râhu's urine. To pour it out would have been most dangerous for living beings, as it contained a large quantity of the poison Hala hala; they therefore determined, that Vajrapâni should drink it, in just punishment for the carelessness through which the water of life had been lost. Accordingly he was forced to do so, when his fair, yellow complexion was changed by the effects of this dangerous potion into a dark one. Vajrapâni conceived, from his transfiguration, a most violent rage against all evil demons, and in particular against Râhu, who, notwithstanding his deadly wounds, was prevented from dying by the water of life. This powerful water, however, dropped from his wounds and fell all over the world, numerous medicinal herbs

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springing up on the spots where it touched the soil. A severe punishment was also inflicted upon Râhu by the Buddhas themselves; they made a horrible monster of him, replaced his legs by the tail of a dragon, formed nine different heads from his broken one, the principal wounds were made into an enormous throat, and the lesser ones changed into so many eyes.

Râhu, who had ever distinguished himself from his fellow-beings by his wickedness-in their earliest youth even the other gods had to suffer from his malignity became, after this transformation, more dreadful than he was before. His rage was turned especially towards the sun and the moon, who had betrayed him. He is constantly trying to devour them, particularly the moon, who displayed the most hostile disposition towards him. He overshadows them whilst trying to devour them, and thus causes eclipses; but owing to Vajrapâni's unceasing vigilance, he cannot succeed in destroying them.[1]


Prayers, in the usual sense of the word, as addresses to the deity imploring assistance, or in the form of

[1. This legend decidedly derives its origin from the Hindus, from whose tales it was taken almost without alteration. According to these, the water of life, Amrita, was also procured by churning the ocean, and was distributed amongst the gods. Râhu, a monster with a dragon's tail, disguised himself like one of the gods, and received a portion of it; his fraud having been discovered by the sun and moon, Vishnu severed his head; but the nectarean fluid secured his immortality. See Fr. Wilford, "On Egypt and the Nile," As. Res., Vol. III., p. 331, 419; "Essay on the Sacred Isles in the West," As. Res., Vol. XI., p. 141.]

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thanksgivings and praises for mercies received,[1] are known to genuine Buddhism only in the form of hymns for honouring and glorifying the Buddhas and Bôdhisattvas, for having pointed out to man, by word and example, the right path leading to Nirvâna. But in the Mahâyâna Buddhism man is not directed to perfection by information only, but he may hope to be actually supported by divine assistance; for the Bôdhisattvas, instead of emulating the quietness of the Buddhas, are supposed to wander about in the world and to ensure by their powerful assistance man's attainment of eternal happiness. We here meet with implorations which, in their first stage, however, do not exhibit the character of petitions or thanks, but only express the desires of the votary to attain the same high faculties as the Bôdhisattvas enjoy themselves. Whenever, in the legends, any Buddhist is about to perform a meritorious work, he utters the words: "May I become delivered from pains on account of this work, and may I lead all beings to deliverance by my good example and these works." But in the books belonging to the later Mahâyâna and the mystical schools, we see such wishes very closely allied to the dogma of an unlimited charity of the Bôdhisattvas towards man. As an example of this I quote a Tantra of the Kanjur, in which seven imaginary Buddhas had each desired, when they were practising a holy life in Order to become

[1. Schott, "Ueber den Buddhaismus in Hochasien" p. 58. Wassiljew, 1. c., pp. 156, 139, 166. Csoma, "Analysis," As. Res., Vol. XX., p. 508. See also the Address to the Buddhas of Confession in the following chapter.--Concerning the Gêyas, or works in metric form, to the glory of the Buddhas and Bôdhisattvas, see Burnouf's Introduction, p. 52.]

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Buddhas, that all animal beings (or creatures) that were suffering such and such specified kinds of misery or distress, might, at the time of their becoming Buddhas, enjoy all sorts of prosperity and happiness. In the sacred writings of these systems the mythological Buddhas residing in the various regions beyond the earth are frequently addressed with prayers in the strict sense of the word, and the reciting of prayers is recommended as a most successful expedient for annihilating sins and for removing the impediments which hinder the attainment of final emancipation.

In Tibet this is also the actual opinion respecting prayers (Tib. Monlam). The general confidence of the Tibetan Buddhists in their efficacy is more especially due to their enjoying the character and possessing the virtue of Dhârânîs; they are endowed with supernatural powers and are considered to exercise an irresistible magical influence over the deity implored. That this is the light in which they are viewed is clearly evident from the form of many prayers, which are frequently little more than mere incantations. Here, for instance, is an address to the goddess Lhamo, which runs thus: "I summon thee hither from the north-eastern region surrounded by the great ocean Muliding, by the blue letter Hum, which is traced upon my heart, spreading with its iron hook a beam of light;--thee, the mighty and powerful mistress and queen Rimate and thy attendants."[1]

[1. For the Tibetan text which Adolphe got written down by a Lama, see Plate No. III.]

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Other prayers are, according to their form, praises, or hymns, or petitions in which the name of the god addressed is mentioned, as in the prayer: Om Vajrapâni hum; or is at times omitted altogether, as in the celebrated six-syllable prayer: Om mani padme hum, O, the Jewel in the Lotus: Amen. This prayer is an invocation of Padmapâni (see p. 88), who is believed to have delivered it to the Tibetans; it is the most frequently repeated of all prayers, and has on this account excited the curiosity of the earliest visitors to Tibet. Its real meaning, however, was long involved in doubt, and it is only by the most recent researches that a positive determination has been finally arrived at.[1] The Lotus (Nymphæa Nelumbo, Linn.), is known to be the symbol of highest perfection, and is here employed in allusion to Padmapâni's genesis from this flower. To each syllable of the prayer is attributed a special magical faculty,[2] and this theory has perhaps more favoured its general application than its supposed divine origin.

In the plates this prayer occurs in No. IV., which is a print from an original wood-block. In a prayer cylinder[3] which I had the opportunity of opening, I found the

[1. See Klaproth, "Fragments Bouddhiques," p. 27; Schmidt, Mém. de l'Acad. de Pétersb., Vol. I., p. 112; Foe koue ki, Engl. Translation, p. 116; Hodgson's "Illustrations," p. 171; Schott, "Ueber den Buddhaismus," p. 9; Hofmann, in "Beschreibung von Nippon," Vol. V., p. 175.

2. Schmidt, "Forschungen," p. 200; Pallas, "Mongol. Völkerschaften," Vol. II., p. 90. The power of any sentence or book is increased by being written in red, silver or gold. Red ink e. g. is considered to have exactly 108 times more power than black ink. Schilling de Canstadt, in Bull. hist. phil. de Pet., Vol. IV., pp. 331,. 333.

3. Further information about these curious instruments will be given in a subsequent chapter.]

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sentence printed in six lines and repeated innumerable times upon a leaf 49 feet long and 4 inches broad. When Baron Schilling de Canstadt paid a visit to the temple Subulin in Siberia, the Lamas were just occupied with preparing 100 millions of copies of this prayer to be put into a prayer cylinder. His offer to have the necessary number executed at St. Petersburg was most readily accepted, and he was presented, in return for the 150 millions of copies he forwarded to them, with an edition of the Kanjur, the sheets of which amount to about 40,000.--When adorning the head of religious books, or when engraved upon the slabs resting on the prayer walls,[1] the letters of the above-mentioned sentence are often so combined as to form an anagram. The longitudinal lines occurring in the letters "mani padme hum" are traced close to each other, and to the outer longitudinal line at the left are appended the curved lines. The letter "om" is replaced by a symbolical sign above the anagram, showing a half-moon surmounted by a disk indicating the sun, from which issues a flame. Such a combination of the letters is called in Tibetan Nam chu vangdan, "the ten entirely powerful (viz. characters, six of which are consonants, and four vowels);" and the power of this sacred sentence is supposed to be increased by its being written in this form. This kind of anagrams are always bordered by a pointed frame indicating the leaf of a fig-tree.

[1. See about them. Chapter XIII.]

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Next: Chapter XI. Translation of an Address to the Buddhas of Confession